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This little work was undertaken to supply a want which the Author had 
frequently experienced. In compiling it he has endeavoured to produce a 
handy book, combining facility of reference with a concise and familiar 
account of all the known minerals. 

In carrying this object into execution, the various names used by 
different authors have been introduced, as well as certain terms, which, 
though now obsolete, are, nevertheless, of common occurrence in the works 
of older mineralogists. 

To assist those persons who may wish to know something more about 
minerals than can be learned from books, and who may be desirous of 
studying our national collections by comparing the printed descriptions with 
the specimens themselves, references have (when practicable) been made to 
the Cases in which they will be found both in the British Museum and in 
the Museum of Practical Geology. 

The copious list of synonyms used by German and French mineralogists, 
will, it is to be hoped, prove of great assistance to the student in reading 
the works of foreign authors, as well as in studying mineral collections in 
continental museums, or in private cabinets at home, according to whatever 
system they may happen to be arranged. 

The names of the authors printed in Italics are those of the persons by 
whom the minerals to which they are appended were originally examined 
and named, or they are those of the authors in whose works the mineral 
will be found described under the name which they follow in the Glossary. 

The greater part of the work has been written in the country, in moments 
snatched from the out-door duties of a field-geologist — and is the result 
either of wet days when field-work was impracticable, of long winter 

A 3 

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evenings after a hard day's work in the open air, or of early hours stolen 
from the morning before the regular labours of the day began. 

It only now remains for the author to express his grateful thanks to his 
friends, Mr. Robert Hunt (Keeper of Mining Records), and, especially, 
to Mr. Warington Smyth, for their valuable aid in revising the proofs in 
passing through the press, and for enabling him to avoid many errors, 
which, but for their advice, would otherwise unavoidably have occurred. 

The figures of crystals have all been carefully drawn on the wood by Mr. 
J. B. Jordan of the Mining Record Office, and the whole of the wood-cuts 
have been executed by ]\Ir. S. J. Mackie. For the tail-piece the author is 
indebted to Miss Kennedy, by whom it was drawn on the wood ; and for the 
following jeu d'esprit to his colleague, Mr. J. W. Salter, of the Geological 

1st September, 1861. HENRY W. BRISTOW. 


The following is a list of the principal books which have been referred 
to in compiling this work. 

System of Mineralogy, by Robert Jameson, 3 vols., 1805. 

Manual of the Mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland, by R. P. Greg and W. G. 

Lettsom, 1858. 
Sj'stem of Mineralogy, by James D. Dana, 4th edition, 2 vols., 1854. 
W. Phillips's Elementary Introduction to Mineralogy, by R. Allan, 4th edition, 1837. 
Hand-book of Chemistry, by Leopold Gmelin, translated by Henry Watts for the 

Cavendish Society. 
Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy for the use of Beginners, by D. Varley, 1849. 
"W. Phillips's Elementary Introduction to Mineralogy, by H. J. Brooke and W. H. 

Miller, 1852. 
Manual of Mineralogy, by James Nicol, 1849. 
Traite de Mineralogie, par A. Dufrenoy, 5 vols. Paris, 1856-9. 
Mineralogy and Crystallography, by J. Tennant and W. Mitchell, 1856. ■ 
Descriptive Guide to the Museum of Practical Geology, by Robert Hunt, F.R.S. ; 2nd 

edition, 1859. 
Descriptive Catalogue of the Rock Specimens in the Museum of Practical Geologj', by 

A. C. Ramsay, H. W. Bristow, H. Bauerman, and A. Geikie ; 2nd edition, 1859. 
Elements of Mineralogy, by Richard Kirwan ; 2nd edition, 2 vols., 1794. 
A Treatise on Diamonds and Pearls, by David Jeffries, 1751. 
Traite elementaire de Mineralogie, par F. S. Beudant ; 2nd edition, 2 vols., 1852. 
Traite complet des Pierres precieuses, par Charles Barbot. Paris, 1858. 
Pliny translated into English, by Philemon Holland, Doctor of Phisicke, 1601. 
Theophrastus's History of Stones, with an English version by Sir John Hill, 2nd 

edition, 1774. 
The American Journal of Science and Arts. New Haven, U.S. 
Annales des Mines. Paris. 
Edinburgh Philosophical Journal. 
Philosophical Magazine, or Annals of Chemistry. 
Annales de Chimie et de Physique. Paris. 
Outlines of Mineralogy, by Dr. Th. Thomson, 2 vols., 1836. 
Reports on the Geology of Canada, by Sir William Logan. Montreal. 
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 

A 4 




Preface . . . . 


Table of Hardness . 


List of Works on Mineralogy . 


Toughness, Specific Gravity . 




Taste .... 


General Characters of Minerals . 


Odour, Adhesion to the tongue. 

Physical Characters of Minerals . 




External Form and Structure 


Electricity, Magnetism 


Systems of Crystallography 


Chemical Composition . 


Twins or Macles . 


Action of the Blowpipe 


Pseudomorphous Crystals . 


Action of Acids 


Characters depending on Light . 


Chemical Formulae explained . 


Colour, Transparency, Lustre . 


Classification of Minerals 


Optical Properties . 


List of Minerals . 


Eefraction, Double Refraction . 


Plan of Principal Floor, Mus. of 

Polarization, Dichroism, Pleo- 

Practical Geology 


chroism . . 


Contents of Horse-shoe Case . 


Physical Properties . 


List of Symbols and Signs 

xliv . 

Phosphorescence, Fluorescence . 
Streak, Stain 


Technical terms used by Jewellers 
and Lapidaries 


FrangibUity or Tenacity 


Errata and Addenda 


Fracture, Cleavage 




This book is not intended, in the strict sense of the term, to be a Manual of 
Mineralogy, but, believing that a concise description of the modes in use for 
distinguishing between different minerals will assist the student in recog- 
nising them, the plan of a mere Glossary has been departed from, and brief 
hints on the nature of minerals have been introduced. 

It must be remembered, however, that there is no short cut to a know- 
ledge of minerals. Mineralogy, like the other sciences, demands industry 
and attention ; and to become an accomplished mineralogist much and care- 
ful study must be devoted to the subject ; an acquaintance with various 
other branches of science must be llrought to bear on it^ while, above all, 
the eye should be rendered familiar by constant inspection with the forms 
and appearances of minerals, and with their physical properties. This eye- 
knowledge (as it may be termed) can only be acquired by long and diligent 
practice, — by actual examination — and by handling the specimens them- 
selves, no opportunities of doing which should be neglected. 

To become well versed in mineralogy involves also a knowledge of Physics 
and Chemistry. By means of the first we make ourselves acquainted with 
the physical properties of minerals ; while the second teaches us the nature 
of their chemical composition. It appears necessary, therefore, to refer to 
the bearings of these sciences on mineralogy; but in the limited space to 
which these remarks must be confined, it is only possible to do so in a very 
brief manner. 

External Form and Structure. 
Characters depending on light. 




Optical Properties. 
Double Refraction. 

Physical Properties. 
Specific Gravity. 

other characters. 





Adhesion to the tongue. 


Characters dependent on cohesion. 

Frangibility, or Tenacity. 




Chemical charactbrs. 

Action of the Blowpipe. 
Action of Acids. 


1. Of the Physical Characters or Minerals. 

External Form and Structure. 

Crystallography, or a knowledge of the crystalline forms of minerals, is of 
the highest importance. It is true minerals frequently occur in an amor- 
phous state ; in which case, the particles of which they are composed are 
arranged according to no definite law ; but they very often are crystallized, 
I. e. assume certain regular and determinate forms called crystals. 

To one ignorant of the subject the shapes of these seem to be innumer- 
able ; but on closer examination such does not prove to be the case. On 
the contrary, it is found that all these numerous and sometimes complex 
varieties of crystals may be reduced to some five or six simple types, of 
which the others are only modifications or variations — and even that the 
complicated forms of crystals may be sometimes actually converted into the 
typical form by the mechanical process of cleavage. 

This simple or elementary form to which each particular crystal is capable 
of being ultimately reduced, has been called, therefore, its primary form. 

Various systems of crystallography have been proposed by different 
authors. The classification adopted here is nearly the same as that employed 
by Brooke and Miller in their admirable edition of Phillips's Manual, and is 
a modification of the svstems of various other crystallographers. These 
systems, six in number, are called respectively, the Cubical, Pyramidal, 
lihombic, Oblique^ Anorthic, and Hexagonal or Rhombohedral.* 

1. The Cubical System — has three equal axes, intersecting one another at 
at right angles. 

Thus, in the cube, the regular octahedron and the rhombic dodecahedron, 
which belong to this system, the height, and the length, and the breadth of 
the axes are all equal, and are at right angles to each other. In the cube 
the axes are drawn from the centres of opposite faces ; in the regular octa- 
hedron they connect the opposite solid angles ; and similarly in the rhombic 

2. Pyramidal System. — In the pyramidal system there are, also, three 
axes intersecting each other at right angles ; but one of these, called the 
vertical axis, differs in length from the other two, or lateral axes, which are 

The right square prism, and the octahedron with a square base, belong to 
this system. 

In the first the axes connect the centres of opposite faces, and are at right 
angles to one another. 

In the octahedron with a square base, which bears the same relation to 
the right square prism as the regular octahedron does to the cube, the axes 
connect the opposite solid angles. 

3. Rhombic System. — In this system there are three unequal axes Inter- 
secting one another at right angles. It includes the right rectangular prism, 
the right rhombic prism, and the octahedron with a rhombic base. 

* These corrpspond respectively with the following systems employed in Dana's Manual of 
Mineralogy, 4th edition :—l. Monometric, or Tesserai, 2. Dimetric. 3. Trimetric. 4. Mono- 
clinic. 5. Triclinic. 6. Hexagonal. 


In the first the axes connect the centres of opposite faces. 

In the second the vertical axis connects the centres of the basal faces, and 
the lateral axes connect the centres of the opposite lateral edges. 

In the octahedron with a rhombic base the axes, as before, connect the 
opposite solid angles. 

4. Oblique System. — This has three unequal axes. The vertical axis is 
inclined to one of the lateral axes, and at right angles to the other — the two 
lateral axes being also at right angles to each other. 

It comprises the right rhomboidal and the oblique rhomboidal prisms. 
In the first the axes connect the centres of opposite faces. 
In the second the vertical axis connects the centres of the bases, and the 
lateral axes the centres of the opposite lateral edges. 

5. Anorthic System. — In the Anorthic System there are three unequal 
axes, all intersecting each other obliquely. 

It comprises the oblique rhomboidal prism. 

6. Hexagonal., or Rhombohedral. — In this system there are three equal 
lateral axes, intersecting at an angle of 60°, and one vertical axis at right 
angles to them. 

It comprises the hexagonal prism and the rhombohedron. 
In the former the vertical axis connects the centres of the bases, and the 
lateral axes the centres of the opposite lateral edges, or of the lateral faces. 

In the latter the vertical axis connects two of the solid angles diagonally 
opposite, and the lateral axes opposite lateral edges. 

The student will derive great assistance in investigating the primary forms 
of crystals and their modifications if he make a series of models for himself. 
Drawings of these, which can be cut out in one piece, and after being stuck 
on cardboard admit of being fastened together with a very slight degree of 
trouble, answer the purpose extremely well, and are sold in Germany at a 
very cheap rate. 

Besides occurring singly, crystals are sometimes found in twins or in macles. 
In that case they are divided into two groups. 1st. Those in which the 
crystals are united in such a way that the axes of the two separate crystals, 
so united, are parallel to each other ; and 2nd, those in which the axes are 
oblique or inclined to one another. 

In other instances minerals, instead of crystallizing in the forms which are 
properly their own, assume pseudomorphous forms ; that is to say, forms be- 
longing to some other kind of mineral. This may have happened in several 
ways. Either the original mineral may have been entirely removed and the 
newer one deposited in the cast (or the mould) of that which has disappeared, 
or the original mineral may have been gradually removed atom by atom, 
and for every particle so carried away portions of another mineral sub- 

" Pseudomorphous crystals are distinguished, generally, by their rounded 
angles, dull surfaces, and often granular composition. They either have no 
cleavage, or the cleavage is wholly different in direction from that of the 
mineral imitated. Their surfaces are frequently drusy, or covered with 
minute crystals. Occasionally the resemblance to real crystals is so perfect, 
that they are distinguished with difficulty."* 

* Dana's Mineralogy, vol. i. p. 136. 


There are other physical characters which furnish extremely useful aids in 
the identification of minerals. The most important of them will, therefore, 
now be briefly noticed, nearly in the order in which they are alluded to in 
the pages of the Glossary, that is as follows : — 


The colour of a mineral is not, in general, so much to be relied on as 
some of the other characters. Certain peculiarities in the arrangement of 
the colours are of importance, thus : — 

Flay of Colours is said to take place when a mineral, on being turned, 
presents the appearance of several prismatic colours in rapid succession. 
Examples of this property. are afibrded by the Diamond, and in a less degree 
by the Precious Opal. 

A Change of Colours is of a somewhat similar nature to the play of 
colours, only the succession of colours is less rapid, and each particular one 
is spread over a larger surface. Labradorite furnishes a very good example 
of this. 

Iridescence is when the prismatic colours appear to be reflected from the 
interior of a crystal. 

Opalescence is when a milky or pearly reflection is displayed from the in- 
terior of a mineral, as is the case in some kinds of Opal and Cat's-Eye. 

Tarnish signifies that the colour of the mineral is different from that ex- 
hibited by a newly fractured surface. It is, consequently, merely superficial. 
When the surface of a mineral (as, for example, Columbite) displays the 
superficial blue colour of tempered steel, it is said to possess the sieel-tarnish ; 
when, as in the Specular Iron Ore of Elba, it exhibits fixed prismatic 
colours, it is said to be irised. 

Diaphaneity, or Transparency. 

The following terms are made use of to express the different degrees in 
which minerals possess the capacity of transmitting light. 

1. Transparent: when the object seen through it appears perfectly dis- 
tinct, as in Quartz and Gypsum. 

2. Subtransparent, or semitransparent : when the outlines of objects seen 
through it do not appear distinct. 

3. Translucent : when only light is transmitted, and objects are not seen, 
as in Oriental Alabaster. 

4. SuUranslucent : when light is only transmitted at the edges. 

5. Opaque : when no light is transmittted. 


The kinds of Lustre depending upon the nature of the reflecting surface 
are six in number, viz. : — 

1. Metallic^ or the lustre of metals ; Sub-metallic, denoting that the 
mineral only possesses the lustre imperfectly. 

In the determination of minerals it is very important to distinguish the 
metallic from the non-metallic lustre. 


2. Vitreous, or the lustre of broken glass, of which the lustre of Kock 
Crystal is a good example ; Calc Spar, on the other hand, presenting a sub- 
vitreous or imperfectly vitreous lustre. 

3. Resinous, or the lustre of common rosin ; of which Opal, and some 
kinds of Blende are examples. 

4. Pearly, or like the lustre of a pearl ; as in Talc, Steatite, Brucite, &c. 
The term metallic-pearly is used to denote when the pearly and sub- 
metallic lustre are displayed in the same mineral, as in Hypersthene. 

5. Silky, or like silk. It is generally the result of a fibrous structure, as 
is apparent in fibrous Gypsum and Satin Spar. 

6. Adamantine, or like Diamond. When combined in the same mineral 
with sub-metallic it is called metallic-adamantine, of which Cerusite and 
Pyrargyrite are examples. 

The difierent degrees of intensity of lustre produced by a variation in the 
quantity of light reflected from the surface are four in number :— 

(1.) Splendent: when the surface of the mineral reflects with sufficient 
brilliancy to give well-defined images, as is the case with Oxide of Tin and 
Specular Iron. 

(2.) Shining : when the image produced by reflection from the surface is 
not well defined, as in Celestine. 

(3.) Glistening : when the surface reflects the light, but without pro- 
ducing an image, as in Talc, Copper Pyrites, &c. 

(4.) Glimmering : when the reflection of the light is imperfect, and appa- 
rently proceeding from points on the surface, as in Flint, Chalcedony, &c. 

Optical and Physical Properties. 

The former of these belong, properly, to the science of Optics, and can be 
only alluded to here. 

The principal properties dependent on light, besides those already noticed, 
employed in the determination of minerals are Refraction, Polarization, and 

1. Refraction. — It is frequently of importance to know the index of re- 
fraction, or the ratio between the sine of the angle of incidence, and that of 
the angle of refraction ; for although there is often some variation in the 
ratio in the same species (frequently corresponding to a change of colour}, 
yet, as a general rule, each mineral refracting the light in an equal degree 
has its own index of refraction. Those minerals which refract light most 
powerfully, or in which the rays passing through them deviate the most from 
their straight path, afibrd the most brilliant gems. It is to its high refract- 
ing power (2'439 to 2*755) that the Diamond owes its brilliancy. 

Double Refraction. — Calc Spar and some other minerals present a double 
image of a point or line seen through them, in every position but one. This 
is called double-refraction, and a knowledge of whether a mineral possesses 
this property will enable the observer to refer it at once to its proper crys- 
tallographic system. All forms exhibit double refraction, except those be- 
longing to the Cubical System, which have three axes equal to one another. 
In the Pyramidal and Hexagonal (or Rhombohedral) Systems, in which the 



horizontal axes are equal, there is one axis of double refraction, or one direc- 
tion in which double refraction is not observable ; but in the Rhombic and 
Anorthic Systems, in which the horizontal axes are unequal, there are ^i^;a 
axes of double refraction. 

2. Polarization has the same relation to crystalline form as double refrac- 
tion, and is displayed by many minerals, of which Tourmaline is a well-known 

3. Dichroism is when crystals present different colours when viewed by 
transmitted light in two different directions, of which examples are afforded 
by lolite.and Mica. Pleochroism is when the above property is exhibited in 
more than two directions. 


When minerals appear more or less luminous they are said to be phos- 
phorescent. That property may be produced either, 1st, ly friction^ as in 
Quartz ; 2nd, by heat, as in Fluor Spar ; 3rd, by electricity, as in Diamond, 
Calc Spar, Apatite, and some other kinds of Fluor Spar ; and 4th, as in the 
case of some Diamonds, by exposure to the light of the sun. 


This name has been given to the peculiar phenomenon exhibited by 
Fluor Spar, of transmitting one colour and reflecting another (according to 
Sir J. Herschel) from a stratum of small but finite thickness, adjacent to 
the surface by which the light enters. 

After passing through this stratum, the incident light, though not sensibly 
enfeebled or coloured, has lost the power of producing the same effect, and 
therefore may be considered as in some way or other qualitatively different 
from the original light. 

This dispersion of the rays, which takes place near the surface, has been 
called, by Professor Stokes, Fluorescence. It is exhibited by Green and 
Yellow Uranite and by Chalcolite ; as well as by certain specimens of 
Apatite, Aragonite, Chrysoberyl, Kyanite and, but in these latter 
cases (as in Fluor Spar) the phenomenon is due to the presence of some 
substance accidentally present in small quantity.* 

This is a test of considerable importance, as the colour of the powder of a 
mineral is more constant and to be depended on than the colour of the 
mineral itself, which is liable to be altered by the accidental admixture of 
foreign substances. The streak is produced either by scratching the mineral 
or by drawing it across a piece of white unglazed porcelain ; and observing 
the colour of the powder or of the trace it leaves behind. 

This character consists in leaving a mark on paper or linen, and is con- 
fined to a few soft minerals. Graphite may be distinguished from sulphide 
of Molybdenum, which it much resembles in other respects, by the mark 
which it leaves behind when drawn across paper. 

» Phil, Trans. 1852 ; part ii. 1853 ■ part i. 


Frangibility^ or Tenacity, 

The following terms are employed to denote the relative degrees of tena- 
city in minerals. 

1. Brittle: when the parts of a mineral separate in grains or powder on 
attempting to cut it with a knife, as in Cale Spar. 

2. Sectile. This character is intermediate between brittle and malleable, 
and is used to denote when pieces may be cut off with a knife without falling 
to powder, although the mineral, nevertheless, admits of being pulverized 
under the hammer. 

3. Malleable : when slices may be cut off and then flattened out under the 
blows of a hammer, as is the case with native Gold and Native Silver. 

4. Flexible : when the mineral admits of being bent without breaking, and 
retains the position given to it, as in Talc. 

5. Elastic ; when, after being bent, the mineral flies back to its original 
position on the removal of the force, as in Mica. 


Minerals are said to possess three kinds of fracture, viz. : — 

1. Conchoidal, or Shelly: when the fractured surface displays curved 
concavities bearing more or less resemblance to those in the inside of a 
bivalve shell. Flint and glass are good examples of this kind of fracture. 

2. Even : when the fractured surface is not rendered rough by the pre- 
sence of any minute elevations or depressions. 

3. Hackly : when the elevations are sharp or jagged, as in broken iron. 
The Cleavage of a mineral is altogether distinct from the Fracture^ with 

which it must, in no manner, be confounded. Cleavage denotes that a 
mineral can be cleaved or divided mechanically in certain directions, yield- 
ing smooth surfaces of fracture (called the cleavage-planes)^ parallel with the 
faces or planes of the primary crystal. 

This may be effected by placing a knife or other sharp edge in a direction 
parallel with the natural joints, and then giving it a smart blow with a hammer. 
The minerals which yield to cleavage in one direction only, are said to have 
a lamellar structure. 


The manner of testing the hardness of a mineral is by scratching It with 
one of those named in the following list ; or (which is preferable) by trying 
each with a file, passing it three or four times, with a rather heavy pressure, 
over the mineral. 

The following scale of hardness, by Mohs, is that generally adopted : — 

1. Talc : the common laminated green variety. 

2. Gypsum : a crystallized variety. 

3. Calc Spar : a transparent variety. 

4. Fluor Spar ; a crystalline variety. 

5. Apatite : a transparent variety. 

6. Felsvar ( Orthoclase) : white cleavable variety. 


7. Quartz : a transparent variety. 

8. Topaz : a transparent variety. 

9. Sapphire : cleavable variety, 
10. Diamond. 


This quality (which expresses the resistance which a body offers to being 
broken or torn) must not be considered identical with Hardness. Some soft 
minerals may be tough, such as sulphate of lime ; others, as Flint, though 
hard, may be easily broken ; while others, of which Jade is an instance, are 
at the same time both hard and tough. 

Spexific Gravity. 

The specific gravity of a mineral is a test of very great importance in the 
identification of minerals, and in some cases (as in those of polished gems 
for instance) it is almost the only one which can be had recourse to without 
occasioning injury to the specimen. In such cases the test of hardness does 
not admit of being applied, and, for the same reason, chemical analysis is out 
of the question. When, therefore, the test of colour cannot be relied upon, 
the determination of the specific gravity will almost always solve the diffi- 
culty. The mistakes that have been, and are constantly being, made by 
not determining the specific gravity of polished stones (even by those whose 
business it is to buy and sell such articles) are remarkable. It will be seen 
in the body of the work that colourless Jargoons are often sold in the 
East, and even in Europe, for inferior Diamonds, and similar substitu- 
tions are frequently made by dealers and jewellers in this country, not from 
any wilful intention to deceive, but in consequence of their relying solely on 
colour, lustre, and general appearance in the identification of gems. 

These mistakes might generally be avoided by ascertaining the specific 
gravity. The process is very simple, all that is required being an accurately 
adjusted balance, and care in the use of it. 

The determination of the specific gravity is effected by first weighing the 
mineral in the usual manner, and then, in water, suspended by a fine thread 
or horsehair. As the mineral will be buoyed up by the water in a' degree 
proportionate to the surface it presents, its weight in water will be less than 
in air, and the difference between the weight in water and the weight in air, 
or the loss in weight it has sustained by immersion, will represent the weight 
of a quantity of water equal in bulk to the substance operated on. Now, 
as the specific gravity of a body is the proportion which its weight bears to 
that of an equal bulk of water, the weight in air divided by the loss of 
weight (or the difference of the weight obtained in and out of water) which 
it has sustained in water, will give the desired relation and be the required 
specific gravity. 


This test is, of course, only applicable in the case of minerals which are 
soluble in water. It is of seven kinds, viz. : — 

1. Astringent: as in Sulphate of Iron. 

2. Sweetish astringent : as in Alum, 


3. Saline : as jn Common Salt. 

4. Alkaline : as in Soda. 

5. Cooling : as in Saltpetre. 

6. Bitter : as in Epsom Salts. 

7. /So?<r ; as in Sulphuric Acid. 


The odours of minerals may be tested by breathing strongly upon them 
or by friction. They are of six kinds, as follows, viz. : — 

1. Alliaceous, like garlic. Arsenical Iron emits this odour by friction. 
It may be obtained by heat from all the arsenical ores or salts, and is a sure 
indication of the presence of arsenic in the substance from which it is 

2. Horse-radish odour. The odour of decaying horse-radish is very per- 
ceptible on heating the ores of Selenium. 

3. Sulphureous. Sulphureous odours are given off by Pyrites when it is 
rubbed, and by many sulphides when heated. 

4. Bituminous, or the odour of Bitumen. 

5. Fetid. The odour of sulphuretted hydrogen or rotten eggs is elicited 
by friction from Quartz and some kinds of Limestone, Anthraconite, &c. 

6. Argillaceous. The smell of moistened clay may be detected in Ser- 
pentine, Clayslate, and some other minerals, by breathing strongly upon 
them ; and from some, as Pyrargillite, it may be elicited by heat. 

Adhesion to the tongue 

Is in some cases a useful character, dependent on the capacity of the mine- 
ral to imbibe moisture. Lithomarge adheres strongly to the tongue, and is 
a good example of this character, which is also generally sufficient for dis- 
tinguishing argillaceous from pure limestones. 


The cold feel caused by some minerals when taken into the naked hand. 
Thus various kinds of Rock Crystal and gems may be distinguished from 
glass, which may be made to imitate them closely, by their relative coolness. 


This property may be produced in certain minerals by friction or by 
heat, the latter being called Pyro-electricity. Tourmaline, Calamine, and 
Boracite are examples of pyro-electric minerals, as are also Topaz, Axinite, 
Scolecite, Prehnite, Electric Calamine, Sphene, Rhodizite, Rock Crystal, and 


The property of attracting the magnetic needle is most strongly exhibited 
by Iron and some of its compounds ; but j^ickel, Cobalt, Platinum, Tita- 
nium and Palladium, have also been proved, by the experiments of 
Faraday, to be magnetic in the sense of iron. 


The following Is a list of metals arranged im the order of their magnetic 
powers, as approximatively determined by Faraday: — Iron, Nickel, Cobalt, 
Manganese, Chromium, Cerium, Titanium, Palladium, Platinum, Osmium — 
to which may be added Aluminium. 

Chemical Composition. 

Mineralogy is daily becoming a science more and more based on Chemistry; 
as it is only by means of the chemical analysis of minerals that we can arrive 
at a true knowledge of their composition ; — that is to say, of the simple 
substances of which they are composed, and of the manner in which those 
substances are combined. 

It is quite beyond the scope of a work of this kind to do mor:e than allude 
to the subject, except so far as to point out that the blowpipe offers a simple 
and ready means of testing minerals, and of determining the species to which 
they belong. 

For the way of using this useful little instrument, the student may consult, 
with advantage, several treatises, A brief, but extremely clear and well- 
written notice of the mode of using the blowpipe, by Mr. Warington 
Smyth, Professor of Mineralogy and Mining in the Government School of 
Mines, is contained at p. 259 of the Manual of Scientific Inquiry, published 
by the Lords of the Admiralty. This notice is drawn up in so comprehensive 
and masterly a manner that it has been introduced here (by the kind 
permission of Mr. Smyth, who has allowed it to be made use of). 

" The ordinary blowpipe is so well known as scarcely to need description. 
Various forms have been recommended by their inventors, but for common 

purposes it is only important that the orifice be not too large, and that the 
tube be provided with a reservoir for the reception of the moisture which is 
carried into it with the breath. The flame of a neatly-trimmed lamp is, 
undoubtedly, the most convenient, but that of a common candle is quite 
applicable to the qualitative tests with which we shall have occasion to deal. 
"In looking at the flame of a candle, we may observe two principal 
divisions which it is necessary by the assistance of the blowpipe to use 
separately, since their action on the same substances is so different, as, on 
the one hand, greatly to facilitate certain processes of analysis, and, on the 
other, to cause much perplexity unless clearly understood. 


" The outer and larger part of the flame e, ^, c, which is the source of its 
light, is caused by the full combustion of the gases derived from the oil, 
wax, or tallow which rises into the wick, and is called the reducing flame^ 
because, when concentrated upon the substance to be tested, it tends to 
abstract oxygen from it and thus to reduce it. In the lower part of the 
flame a narrow stripe of deep blue may be observed, J, c, which when acted 
on by the current of air from the blowpipe forms a cone, &, c, (B). This 
is technically called the oxidizing flame^ from its property of imparting 
oxygen to the substance upon which it is directed. To produce the latter, 
the point or jet of the blowpipe should be inserted into about a third of the 
flame, and the assay is then to be held at the extremity of the cone of blue 
flame. For reduction the point of the tube should scarcely penetrate the 
flame, and the assay should be so placed as to be completely enveloped in it, 
and thus prevented from receiving oxygen. 

" A little practice is sufficient to overcome the slight difficulty which at 
first is felt in keeping up a continual and even stream of air. The tyro 
may begin by accustoming himself to breathe through the nostrils whilst his 
cheeks are inflated, and will soon find it easy to maintain an uninterrupted 
supply for several minutes. 

" Of the instruments used in experimenting by the blowpipe the following 
are the most necessary: — 1st. A pair of fine-pointed forceps, tipped with 
platinum. 2nd. A small spoon of platinum. 3rd. An agate pestle and 
mortar. 4th. Thin platinum wire and holder. 5th. A magnet. 6th. A few 
small tubes of thin glass. 7th. Some small porcelain capsules or saucers. 

" Charcoal is required as a support in many cases, particularly in the 
reduction of ores; and the following re-agents are also indispensable, the 
three first being fluxes applicable under different circumstances : — 

" 1st. Soda, or carbonate of soda. 

" 2nd. Borax, or borate of soda. 

*' 3rd. Microcosraic salt, or phosphate of soda and ammonia. 

" 4th. Saltpetre, to increase the degree of oxidation of certain metallic 

" 5th. Borax-glass, for the determination of phosphoric acid and of small 
quantities of lead in copper. 

" 6th. Nitrate of cobalt, in solution, to distinguish alumina, magnesia, and 
oxide of zinc. 

" 7th. Oxide of copper for determining small quantities of chlorine in 

" 8th. Fluor-spar for the recognition- of lithia, boracic acid, and gypsum. 

" 9th. Lead in a pure metallic state. 

" 10th Bone-ashes (9th and 10th are used for separating the silver from 
certain argentiferous ores). 

" 11th, 12th, and 13th. Hydrochloric, sulphuric, and nitric acids. 

" 14th. Litmus-paper, blue and red, for detecting the presence of acids 
and alkalies. 

" The experiments on an unknown mineral must be made systematically, 
and referred for comparison to some list or table of minerals in which their 
behaviour before the blowpipe is described, as Von Kobell's tables.* 

* Von Kobel, " Tafeln zur Bestimmung der Mineralien, Miinchen ;" and the same translated 
iato English by R. Campbell. 



"The first point to exatnine is, whether it be fusible 5 and, if so, in what 
degree. The various grades of fusibility may be conveniently divided into 
six ; as representatives of which it is convenient to take the following 
minerals, species wliich are everywhere easy to obtain, and which may 
therefore be often practised upon : — 

" 1. Antimony- Glance, or sulphide of antimony, which melts at the 

" 2. I^atrolite or Mesotype, fine splinters of which may be rounded by the 

" 3. Almandine or Precious Garnet, which fuses in large pieces before the 

"4. _ Actinolite (Hornblende), fusible only in smaller portions. 

" 5. Orthoclase (Felspar) offers some difficulty ; and 

" 6. Bronzite can only be rounded by the flame iri the finest splinters. 

" According to this scale, the mineral in question may be referred to 
either of the above numbers, or placed half-way between any two of them; 
as, for instance, Apophyllite, being more easily fused than Natrollte, and 
yet more refractory than Antimony-Glance, will have its comparative 
fusibility represented by 1*5. 

" The fragment to be experimented upon is generally held in the 
platinum fi^rceps, but it is necessary to guard against the melting of the 
test upon the points, since the platinum, though infusible, is by that means 
rendered brittle. 

" In other cases the mineral may be supported upon charcoal ; but what- 
ever be the means of holding it, the phenomena exhibited by the action of 
the flame must be noted, as — 

"1st. The manner in which it fuses, whether quietly, or with decrepita- 
tion, exfoliation, intumescence, or phosphorescence; whether it loses or 
retains colour and transparency. 

" 2nd. The appearance of the product, whether a glass, an enamel^ or a 
slag; or, as in the case of ores reduced upon charcoal, a metallic bead or 

"3rd. The separation of volatile substances, and the colour of the 
deposit on the charcoal, by which we may recognise — 

" a. Lead, giving a greenish yellow deposit. 

" h. Zinc, having a white crust, which, when heated, becomes yellowish 
and difficult to volatilize. 

" c. Antimony, a white deposit, easy to volatilize. 

"</. Bismuth, a crust partly white, partly orange-yellow, without 
colouring the flame. 

"e. Sulphur, with the well-known odour of sulphuric acid. 

"/. Selenium, in an open glass tube, gives a red deposit of selenium. 

"^. Tellurium, in a similar glass tube, gives a greyish- white crust of 

" h. Arsenic, gives off a greyish-white vapour, which smells like garlic. 

" i. Quicksilver, in a glass tube, will be precipitated in minute metallic 

" k. AVater, from hydrous minerals, deposited by condensation in the 
same manner. 


" 4th. The colour of the flame when the tip of the blue part is neatly 
directed upon the mineral ; whence may be distinguished — 

" a. Red tint, given by several minerals containing strontia and (?) 

" h. Green, produced by some phosphates and borates, sulphate of baryta, 
some copper ores and tellurium ores. 

"c. Blue, given by chloride of copper, chloride of lead, ko,. 

"5th. The development of magnetic properties after treatment in the 
reducing-flame, as in ores of iron, nickel, and cobalt. 

" So far the assay has been considered by itself, but it is frequently 
necessary to mix it with fluxes, either to render it fusible or to produce a 
glassy compound of a characteristic colour. 

" Thus if borax or microcosmic salt be fused into a glass at the end of 
a platinum wire bent into an eye, and a little powder of the unknown 
mineral be added to it, we shall obtain by the use of the oxidizing flame the 
following results : — 

" Manganese, in all its compounds, gives a beautiful violet or amethyst 
^ " Cobalt causes a sapphire-blue colour ; chromium an emerald-green. 

" Oxide of iron produces a yellowish-red glass, which becomes paler aa it 
cools, and at length grows yellow or disappears. 

" Oxide of cerium gives a red or dark-yellow colour, which also grows 
paler as it cools. 

" Oxide of nickel renders the glass a brown or violet tint, which after 
cooling becomes reddish-brown. 

" Oxide of copper in very small quantity gives a green tint, which grows 
blue on cooling. 

" Oxide of uranium renders the glass bright yellow, which in cooling 
takes a greenish tint. 

" Oxide of antimony gives a pale yellow colour, which soon disappears. 

" When soda is used as a flux it is generally upon charcoal, and by this 
aid the metals may be obtained from most of their combinations in a pure 
state. For this purpose the powdered ore is either mixed with the 
moistened soda into a paste, or is enveloped in a piece of thin paper which 
has been dipped in a solution of soda. After fusion, that portion of the 
charcoal which has absorbed any of the fluid substance is to be cut off and 
ground down with it in the mortar, when the metal, if malleable, will at once 
be recognised. If several metals are combined, of which one is more easily 
oxidized than another, as, for instance, lead when combined with silver and 
copper, the latter may be separated by adding metallic lead or boracic acid, 
according to circumstances, and maintaining a continued oxidizing flame, 
till the whole of the lead has passed into the state of litharge. By means 
of more complete apparatus and extended operations, the most exact 
assays may be undertaken with the blowpipe ; and those who desire a 
further insight into the subject may consult Plattner's 'Art of Assaying 
by the Blowpipe ; ' Berzelius ' On the Blowpipe ; ' and the before- 
mentioned work by Von Kobell of Miinich, — all of which are translated 
into English." 



It is almost impossible, merely by means of books, to teach the student 
how to recognise minerals. Still, something may be effected in that way ; 
and the following brief hints (chiefly compiled from Dana's Mineralogy) 
may be of use, by enabling him, in the first instance, to ascertain to what 
particular class a specimen may belong ; when a few essays with the blowpipe 
will aid him in finding out the particular species. 

Thus — Carbonates may be distinguished as a class by means of Acids. 
Muriatic acid, generally diluted with an equal quantity of water, is the acid 
most frequently made use of for this purpose ; but sulphuric or nitric acids, 
diluted in a similar manner, afford the same results. Such a solution, dropped 
on a carbonate (as, for instance, carbonate of lime) produces an effervescence 
or disengagement of bubbles of carbonic acid, which gives place to the 
stronger acid, for which the lime has greater afiinity. 

Sulphates, on the contrary, afford no effervescence with acids. When in 
solution, they may be tested with a solution of a salt of baryta, when they 
throw down a white precipitate of sulphate of baryta, which is insoluble 
in water. None of the sulphates possess a metallic lustre, and they are often 

Nitrates, when treated with strong sulphuric acid, give off white corrosive 
vapours of nitric acid. 

Phosphates may generally be dissolved, without change, in muriatic and 
nitric acids, and are decomposed by sulphuric acid. The phosphates which 
are soluble produce a characteristic yellow precipitate on the addition of 
nitrate of silver, as also do the neutral nitric solutions of the insoluble 

All the phosphates have an unmetallic lustre. None of them are soluble 
in water, or have any taste, except one single phosphate of ammonia. The 
pure phosphates also give off no odour before the blowpipe. 

Silicates, in many cases, gelatinize with acids, the silica forming a jelly 
or separating in a gelatinous state. Sometimes this may be effected with 
cold acid, but, gererally, the mineral, previously reduced to a finely- 
powdered state, is placed in strong acid, and then gently heated. After a 
short time, as the solution cools, the jelly appears, or, in some cases, partial 
evaporation is required before the jelly makes its appearance. 

Borates, when reduced to powder, and heated with sulphuric acid, impart 
a green colour to the flame, on the addition of alcohol. 

Sulphides have a metallic lustre, or an unmetallic lustre with a coloured 
streak; the only exceptions being Blende and Yoltzite, which have an 
unmetallic lustre and an uncoloured streak. 

Chlorides all afford a white curdy precipitate with nitrate of silver, which 
becomes dark or violet-coloured on exposure to the atmosphere. 

Fluorides, when pulverised and heated with strong sulphuric acid in a 
platinum crucible, give off fumes of hydro-fluoric acid, which will corrode a 
plate of glass placed over the crucible. 

Salts ^ Lime, in solution (even in a diluted state), on the addition of 
oxalic acid or oxalate of ammonia, afford a white precipitate of oxalate of 
lime, which is insoluble in water, but is very soluble in any of the stronger 


Iron. — The protoxide salts afford a greenish-white precipitate with potash 
or soda, which becomes green in the first instance, and then yellow on 
exposure. The peroxide salts, with the same tests, afford a brown precipitate 
of hydrated peroxide of iron. 

Compounds of Copper are, for the most part, soluble in nitric acid. 
Metallic iron, dipped in such a solution, becomes coated with a precipitate 
of metallic copper. Compounds of copper in solution, on the addition of 
potash or soda, yield a precipitate, which is blue at first, but turns black on 
being boiled ; with ammonia they give a green precipitate, which is re- 
dissolved in excess of ammonia, and becomes of a fine blue colour. 

Compounds of Lead^ when dissolved in nitric acid, give a black precipitate 
with sulphuretted hydrogen (which is insoluble in excess), and a yellow 
precipitate with iodide of potassium or chromate of potash. Neutral solu- 
tions of lead precipitate metallic lead on metallic zinc. 

Compounds of Zinc. — The sulphates afford no precipitate with sulphuretted 
hydrogen, but give a white precipitate with potash soluble in excess of that 
reagent. Acetate of Zinc affords an abundant precipitate with sulphuretted 

Compounds of Manganese. — The salts, when heated with potash or nitrate 
of potash, afford manganate of potash, which gives a green solution in water, 
and with dilute acids a rose tint, which is destroyed by sulphurous acid or 
organic matters. The oxides give off' chlorine when heated with muriatic 

' Compounds of Tin form chlorides when dissolved in muriatic acid, which 
afford a purple colour with chloride of Gold," or if strong, a brown precipitate. 

Compounds of Silver. — When dissolved in nitric acid, the addition of a 
chloride or muriatic acid throws down a dense white curdy precipitate of 
chloride of silver, which turns black on exposure, and is soluble in ammonia. 
A slip of copper dipped in a solution of silver becomes coated with a deposit 
of metallic silver. 

Gold is not soluble in any of the acids singly, but is dissolved by a mix- 
ture of nitric and muriatic acid (or aqua regia). The solution gives a purple 
precipitate on the addition of protochloride of tin, and metallic gold with 
protosulphate of Iron. 

Platinum is not dissolved either by nitric or muriatic acid, but is dissolved 
in a mixture of the two. Muriate of ammonia throws down a yellow pre- 
cipitate from such a solution, and the precipitate, heated in a platinum 
crucible, yields metallic platinum in -the state of powder. 

Compounds of Mercury afford a white precipitate with muriatic acid. 
Solutions of the protosalts give a black precipitate with potash, which is 
insoluble in excess of that reagent; and a black insoluble precipitate with 
sulphuretted hydrogen. A precipitate of metallic mercury is deposited on a 
slip of copper when immersed in the above solutions, and is dissipated by 

The various members of the Quartz family, though one of the most abun- 
dant in nature, and presenting a great diversity of colours, yet possess certain 
characters in common which render them easily recognisable after a little 
practice. The most important of these characters is the total absence of 
cleavage, and the degree of hardness which is No. 7 in the table given at 


p. xvii. It cannot be scratched with a file, but itself is hard enough to 
scratch glass easily. It is infusible before the blowpipe ; is not acted on 
by acids, whether cold or hot ; and, with the addition of carbonate of soda, 
is easily dissolved to a glass before the blowpipe. None of the members of 
the Quartz family have a specific gravity exceeding 2*84. 

Calc Spar or Calcite, the next mineral to Quartz as regards its abundance, 
also assumes a variety of aspects. They may all be scratched with the point 
of a knife ; they all eflfervesce on the addition of a drop of dilute muriatic 
acid, and are infusible before the blowpipe, but shine with an intense light, 
and are rendered alkaline by being converted into quick lime, when the 
carbonic acid is expelled by heat. When not compact massive, the cleavage 
is very perfect rhombohedral, and the specific gravity does not exceed 2'8. 

The Felspars rarely assume granular forms, and never occur fibrous or 
columnar, but either in tabular crystals or in cleavable masses. They are 
commonly colourless^ or varying in tint from white to flesh-red, sometimes 
bluish-green and brown, and have a vitreous lustre, which, in some instances, 
inclines to pearly. The cleavage of Felspar is highly characteristic : one 
face of cleavage is perfectly smooth, and another, nearly at right angles to 
it, is somewhat less perfect. Orthoclase may be recognised from the other 
varieties of Felspar, by having the two cleavage-planes at right angles to 
each other. 

The Zeolites are most frequently associated together in cavities or cracks 
in amygdaloidal rocks, though they are sometimes found in granite and other 
rocks. The various members of the Stilbite group are distinguishable 
by the pearly lustre of their cleavage. They are likewise remarkable for 
often assuming laminato-radiated forms, and are frequently acicular or in 
radiated masses consisting of slender fibres. 

Hornblende and Pyroxene are often not easily distinguishable when not in 
crystals, except by chemical analysis. When crystallized, Hornblende often 
occurs in six-sided prisms, while Pyroxene has commonly four-sided prisms. 
They both vary in colour, from white to black through grass-green and 
olive-green shades. Both are distinctly cleavable, with the exception of 
Epidote, which has no very distinct cleavage. The crystals and the columnar 
forms of the latter variety have also a more solid appearance, and present a 
smoother surface ; and, when broken longitudinally, the prisms do not 
show the cleavage-plane and that splintery look which are observable in 
Pyroxene and Hornblende under similar circumstances. 

Micaceous Minerals consist of every thin and easily separable laminge. Of 
these, Muscovite, Phlogopite, Biotite, and Lepidolite are closely related, and 
possess in common the characters of having their laminse elastic ; of yielding 
no water (or very little) in a tube ; of fusing only at the edges before the 
blowpipe ; of not being acted on by acids ; and of afibrding, with a cobalt 
solution, sometimes a clear blue, but generally a dull blue tint. The specific 
gravity of this group varies from 275 to 3'3, and the hardness from 1'5 to 2. 

Pyrophyllite, Margarite, Evphyllite. — With the exception of the former 
mineral, the laminae are rather brittle, and the colours are white, or of a pale 
tint. They all afford water in a tube ; are fusible before the blowpipe at 
their edges (Pyrophyllite swells out) ; afibrd little or no action with acids, 
and give a blue colour with a cobalt solution. The specific gravity varies 


from 2*7 to 3' I. The hardness ranges between 3*5 and 4*5, except in 
Pyrophyllite, in which it is only 1*5. 

Chlorite^ Ripidolite, Clinochlore, and Pyrosderite. — In these minerals the 
laminae are flexible, but not elastic, and they often have a slightly greasy 

They afford no water in a tube ; fuse at the edges more easily, before the 
blowpipe, than the preceding group, but give no blue colour to cobalt solu- 
tions. They are slightly acted on by acids, giving mostly dark green solutions, 
except in the case of Pyrosclerite, which is often reddish. 

Talc resembles the preceding group in most characters, but the laminaa 
are much softer and more greasy, but are not so thin, and the colour is 
generally pale green. It is infusible before the blowpipe, and insoluble in 
acids. With cobalt solution it gives a reddish colour, with some difficulty. 

Brucite bears some resemblance to Talc in its whitish and greenish colour, 
and in being infusible before the blowpipe. When heated in a tube, it gives 
off water, and is entirely dissolved in acids without effervescence. 

Diallage, Bi^onzite^ Hypersthene^ Clintonite^ Chloritoid, though sometimes 
approaching to micaceous in structure, are, more correctly speaking, foliated. 
The laminae are brittle, and not easily separated. Marmolite differs from 
the above in having a greasy feel, and in bearing some resemblance to Talc. 

Gypsum, or sulphate of lime, is very soft, and may be scratched with the 
nail. It differs from the carbonate (or Calc Spar) in not effervescing with 
acids. It turns white before the blowpipe and crumbles, but is fused only 
with difficulty. When crystallized it is generally colourless, often trans- 
parent, and separable into thin laminae, which can scarcely be bent without 

Uranite, Red Zinc Ore^ and Copper Mica. — The first is of a bright green 
or yellow colour, and crystallizes in square tabular crystals ; the second (an 
oxide of zinc) is bright or deep red ; and the third, a deep green, crystal- 
lizing in hexagonal crystals, which give the reaction of copper. 

In the following work, under the head of Comp. {Composition^^ is repre- 
sented, by means of a formula, the chemical composition of each mineral, 
supposing it to be perfectly pure or free from foreign admixtures. The 
meaning of the symbols employed to denote the simple substances forming 
the components is explained further on, at p. xliv. The chemical formula 
is (in most cases) followed by the per-centage amount of each ingredient 
present, on the above-mentioned supposition of their being altogether free 
from extraneous matter. 

Perhaps, however, it should be stated here that each equivalent of oxygen 
is represented by a dot placed over the symbol of the substance with which 

it is combined : thus Fe represents the metal Iron ; Fe, the protoxide of that 
metal (or the combination of one atom of the metal with one atom of 

oxygen) ; and JPe, the sesquioxide, or peroxide of the same metal, in which 
three atoms of oxygen are present. , 


The bar drawn through some of the symbols, as in the above, :^e, ±1, 

Mn, it, &c., indicate that the substances they represent are in the state of a 
sesquioxide ; or, in other words, that two atoms of the base (represented by 
the letters) are combined with three atoms of oxygen (represented by the 
dots). By using the above form of expression, the symbols are rendered 
much simpler than would be the case if figures and letters were employed 
to represent the oxygen. 

The letters E, and it: are used to denote one or all of those simple sub- 
stances which can be substituted for each other in a mineral without effecting 
any essential change in the outward form of the crystal, and which are, 
therefore, said to be isomorphous with each other (i. e. to possess similar 
forms). These substances are Iron, Manganese, Lime, and Magnesia. 

Sulphur has, in a few instances, been represented by a dash placed above 
the symbol ; thus Iron Pyrites, or Bisulphide of Iron, may be represented 

either by FeS^, or by Fe. 

The small figures in the formulae imply that they only refer to the symbol 

which they immediately follow : thus, in siirlSi'^, the small figure ^ placed 

after Si means that it applies only to the Silica ; while the figure 3 placed 
hefore the formula denotes that it has reference to all the succeeding sym- 
bols, which, written in full, would then become 3M + 3Si^ or 3±1 + 6 Si. 
When symbols are joined, it means that they are in a state of chemical 

combination : thus 'k\-k\ denotes that the silica and alumina are combined 
in the form of silicate of alumina. 



When the first difficulties of the science have been overcome, and the 
student has acquired a sufficient knowledge of minerals to be able to recog- 
nise them by their characters and properties — the next step is that of 
classification — or their arrangement into classes, families, and species. 

To accomplish this in a satisfactory manner is* a task of considerable diffi- 
culty. Each author, in consequence, seems to consider himself at liberty to 
recommend a system of his own — the result of which is that numerous modes 
have been proposed by different writers, of various degree of merit : some 
natural, others artificial, and some, again, partaking of a sort of compromise 
between these two extremes. 

This has led to much confusion, and a highly unsatisfactory state of 
things. It is partly in consequence of the want of agreement between the 
various authors who have treated on this branch of the subject, and the 
practical inconvenience of a purely chemical arrangement (combined with 
some other motives relating more especially to facility of reference), that 
the author has been led to the adoption of an alphabetical form for the 
present work. 

But although it has now become a recognised principle, that chemical 
composition must constitute the basis of any really perfect system of classifi- 
cation, an arrangement founded solely on chemistry is practically attended 
with much inconvenience. In some instances, the adoption of an artificial 
system, or some modification of one, may be found useful. For example, in 
a collection of minerals intended to illustrate some special purpose, as the 
application and use of minerals in the arts and in jewelry, what are com- 
monly known by the name of gems and precious stones might with propriety 
be allowed to occupy a prominent position, and be formed into a group by 
themselves, as was proposed by Allan. On a similar principle, collections 
illustrative of the mineral resources of our own and Foreign Countries (such 
as those which will form a part of the proposed International Exhibition of 
1862) will convey more information to the mind, and be of much more use 
as objects of comparison, if each metal be made to form a separate group ; 
the ores of iron, of copper, and of lead, for instance, being all placed by 

On the same principle, other modifications of previous systems may be 
devised to suit particular cases, or as necessity may require. 

The system of classification proposed originally by Berzelius, and adopted 
at the British Museum, Is founded upon the Electro-Chemical theory. This, 
in many cases, leads to a great amount of inconvenience in practice. The 
minerals of the various metals, for Instance, are by this means, dispersed and 
widely separated from each other — occasioning much confusion to the stu- 


dent, and involving considerable loss of time in tracking the ores of each par- 
ticular metal through the various Cases amongst which they are distributed. 

A far more generally useful mode of arrangement, and one recommended 
by its greater comparative simplicity for working purposes, is that according 
to which the following List of Minerals has been drawn up. It is based on 
chemical composition, with the introduction of such modifications only as have 
been considered likely to increase its practical utility. At the outset it com- 
mences by making a broad distinction between the metallic and non-metallic 
minerals; thus dividing minerals into two sufficiently well marked groups. 
The former, again, are subdivided into four subordinate classes, and the 
latter into five ; the different members composing each of which are allied to 
one another by mutual affinities. Thus it will be perceived that each metal, 
with its Ores and Salts, constitutes a group by itself; the latter being 
formed with reference to the component bases of the Minerals, and not to 
the Acids. 

The general principle of the classification here laid down is that followed 
by Mr. Warington Smyth in his Lectures on Mineralogy at the School of 


Carbon and Boron. 

Carbon and its natural 



Common Coal. 
Cannel Coal.") 
Torbanite. j 
Brown Coal or Lignite. \ 
Jet. j 


Mineral Oils and Resins. 




Piauzite. ■' 



Highgate Resin. 












Bog Butter. 

Inflammable Salts. 




Boracic Acid, or Sassolin. 
Borate of Ammonia, or Lar- 

Borate of Soda, or Borax. 
Borate of Lime, or Hayes- 

Borate of Magnesia, or Bo- 




CLASS 11. 
Sulpliur and Se- 

Native Sulphur. 
Selen- Sulphur. 




Selenkobaltblei, or Tilkerodite 
Selen kupferblei. 

CLASS in. 
Haloids and Salts. 

Ammonia Alum, or 


Bicarbonate of Ammonia. 


Sulphate of Ammonia, or 

Muriate of Ammonia, or Sal 


Nitrate of Potash, or Nitre. 
Sulphate of Potash, or Gla- 

Muriate of Potash, or Syl- 


Carhonate of Soda, or 


Glauber Salt. 




Nitrate of Soda, or Nitra- 

Common or Rock Salt. 




Bolognese Stone. 







Calc Spar, or Calcite. 

Stalagmite. \ 

Oriental Alabaster, j 
Eye Stone. 
Calcareous Tufa. 

Lumachello, or Fire Marble. 
Gotham, Ruin, or Land- 
scape Marble. 
Stinkstone, or Swinestone. 
Agaric Mineral. 

Fontainebleau Sandstone. 
Natro- calcite, 


Flos Ferri. 
Satin Spar. 





Pearl Spar. 

Bitter Spar, or Rhomb Spar 



Brown Spar. 





Asparagus Stone. 






Talc- Apatite.- 


Tripe Stone. 



Satin Spar. 





Fluor Spar. 

Blue Jo! 





Magnesia Alum. 











Potash Alum. 






Phosphate of Yttria, or Xc" 









Vitreous Quartz. 

Rock Crystal. 

Rock Crystal with inclu- 
ded capillary crystals of 
Scales of Mica. 

Enhydros, or Crystals con- 
taining Water and other 
liquids; also Brewster- 
line, Amethj'stotine, 
Cryptotine, &c. 


False Topaz, or Citrine. 

Smoky Quartz, or Cairngorm. 


Rose Quartz. 
Side rite. 
Greasy Quartz, 
Foetid Quartz. 
Milk Quartz. 
Ferruginous Quartz. 
Hacked Quartz. 
Potato Stone, or Geode. 

Chalcedonic Quartz. 

Cat's Eye. 

Moss Agate. 

Ribbon Agate. 

Circle Agate. 

Eye Agate. 

Fortification Agate. 

Zoned or Banded Agate. 

"Variegated Agate. 

Brecciated Agate. 
Aoate Jasper. 

Silicified Wood. 


Jaspery Quartz. 

Red Jasper. 

Yellow Jasper. 

Egyptian Pebble. 

Ribbon or Banded Jasper. 
Bloodstone, or Heliotrope. 
Porcellanite, or Porcelain 

Touchstone, Lydian Stone, 

or Basanite. 
Cellular Quartz, or Floats 

Siliceous Sinter. 
Pearl Sinter, or Fiorite. 

Flexible Sandstone. 

Hydrous Silica, 
Noble or Precious Opal. 

Harlequin Opal. 
Golden Opal. 

Fire Opal. 
Common Opal. 

Wax Opal. 

Hyalite, or Muller's Glass. 
Wood Opal. 
Opal Jasper. 


Oriental Ruby. 
Asteria, or Star Stone. 

Star Sapphire. 

Star Ruby. 
Rotten Stone. 

Gibbsite. \ 

Hydrargillite j 

Aluminate of Magnesia. 











Spinel Ruby. 
Balas Ruby. 

Aluminate ofZiric andiron. 

Aluminate of Glucijta. 


Aluminate of Lime. 

Aluminate of Lime, Mag- 
nesia, and Iron. 


Native Magnesia, or Pe- 

Hydrate of Magnesia, or 




Silicates and Alumi- 

Hydrous Silicates and Bo- 
rate of Lime. 

Silicates of Lime. 
Wollastonite, or Tabular 


Okenite. "^~- 




Hydrous Silicates of Lime 
and Soda. 


Soda Table-Spar. 



Anhydrous Silicates of Iron 
and Soda. 


Hydrous Silicates of Lime 
and Potash, 


Anhydrous Silicate of Lime, 
Soda, and Potash. 


Anhydrous Silicates of Lime 
and Iron. 


Iron-lime Garnet. 

Black Garnet, or Melanite. 




Silicates of 3Iagnesia. 

Chrysolite, or Peridot. 

Hydrated Olivine, or Vil- 

Noble Serpentine. 
Common Serpentine : — 

Verde di Prato. 
Verde di Susa. 

Fibrous Serpentine :— 


Foliated Serpentine i— 


Schiller Spar. 


Asbestos of Koruk. 

Steatite, or Sop,pstone. 



Anhydrous Silicate of Mag- 
nesia and Fluoride of 


Anhydrous Silicates of 
Magnesia and Lime. 


Jade, Nephrite, or Axe 




Hedenbergite. ^ 


Green Coccolite, 


White Coccolite. 





Aluminous Augite, or DiaU 



Schiller Spar (G. Eose). 



Pargasite, or Noble Horn- 
Common Hornblende, 






Glassy Actynolite. 

Asbestiform Actynolite. 


Rock Wood. 
Mountain Paper. 
Mountain Leather. 
Mountain Cork. 
Green Diallage. 



Ferruginous and Alumi- 
nous Hornblende, or 

Hydrous Silicates of Mag- 
nesia and Iron. 
Cummingtonite (variety of 


Silicate of Magnesia, Lime, 

and Iron 

Hydrous Silicate of Soda, 

Magnesia, and Iron. 

Hydrous Silicate of Cerous 


Anhydrous Silicate of 

Anhydrous Silicate of 

Anhydrous Silicate of Glu- 
cina and Lime. 

Silicates of Alumina. 






Talcite, or Nacrite. 


Scarbroite. ^ x. -^ 

Opal AUophane, or Schrot- 

Bole of Sinope. 
Porcelain Clays. 



Kock Marrow, or Litho- 










Salt Clay. 

Figure Stone, or Agalmato- 









Lemnian Earth. 


Kock Soap. 

Pullers' Earth. 

Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina and Fluorine 


Yellow Topaz. 

Blue Topaz, or Brazilian Sap- 
White Topaz. 
Minas Novas. _ , ^ 
Pingos d'agua, or Water Drops. 

Compounds of Silicate of 
Alumina with Silicates of 
Potash, Soda, Lithia,Ba- 
ryta, Strontia, Magnesia, 
Protoxide of Cerium, Yt- 


tria, Glucina, Manganese, 
and Protoxide of Iron. 

Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina, Potash, and Soda. 

Lapis Lazuli. 
^ epheline. 




Potash Felspar, or Ortho- 

Amazon Stone. 
Glassy Felspar. 







Ice Spar. 



Soda Felspar, or Albite. 

Oligoclase- Albite. 

Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina, Lime, Soda, S^c. 









Maui lite. 


Obsidian, or Volcanic Glass. 

Pearl stone. 



Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina, Lime, ^c. 


Common Garnet. 
Almandine, or Precious 

Lime-Garnet, or Grossular. 

Cinnamon Stone, or Essonite. 

Grossular, or Wiluite. 




Iron -Lime Garnet. 
Black Garnet, or Melanite 




ManganeseGarnet, or Spes- 

Lime-Chrome Garnet, or 

Pyrope, or Fire-Garnet. 








Paran thine. 




Porcelain Spar. 
Unionite, or White Lime- 


Hydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina, Potash, Soda, 8fc. 





Natrolite or Soda Meso- 

; Iron Natrolite. 

Alumina, Lime, Sfc. 


Scolezite, Lime Mesotype, 
or Needlestone. 
















Stilbite, or Radiated Zeo- 

Heulandite, or Foliated 


Laumontite, or Efflorescing 



Phillipsite, or Lime Har- 

Gismondine, or Zeagonite. 

Soda Table-Spar. 



Apophyllite, or Pyramidal 



Gmelinite, or Soda Chaba- 


Alumina, Bart/ta, 8fc. 
Harmotome,or Cross-stone. 



Alumina, Lime, and Mag- 
End of Zeolite Section. 


Alumina, Lime, 8fc. 

Silicates of Alumina, Iron, 

and Lime. 






Hydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina and Magnesia. 
Soapstone, or Saponite. 







Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina and Iron. 
Almandine, or Precious 

Common Garnet. 

Silicates of Alumina, Lime, 
Iron, Cerium, ^c. 
Cerium Epidote. 




Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina, Lime, and Chrome. 

Pyrope, or Fire-Garnet. 

Silicates of Alumina, Lime, 
Magnesia, and Alkalies. 


Silicates of Alumina, Mag- 
nesia, and Iron. 








Hard Fahlunite. 
















Green Earth. 
Schiller Spar. 


Silicates of Alumina, Lime, 
Magnesia, and Iron. 









Hydro us. 




Silicates of Alumina, Lime, 
Magnesia, Iron, and Al- 







Biaxial or Potash Mica. 
Muscovite, or Muscovy 

f Damourite. 

Uniaxial Mica, or Biotite. 



Phlogopite, or Rhombic 




Palagonite, or Hydrous 

Green Earth. 


Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina, Lime, and Yttria. 

Pistacite, or Lime andlron- 
Bucklandite. ;: 



Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina, Potash, Lithia, 8fc. 
Lithia-Mica, or Lepidolite. 



Anhydrous Silicate of Alu- 
mina and 3Ianganese. 

Manganese Garnet, orSpes- 

Hydrotis Silicate of Alu- 
mina, Manganese, and 


Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- ^ 
mina, Sj'c. with Boracic' 



Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina, Lime, and Boracic 



Anhydrous Silicate of Alu- 
mina, Titanic Acid, Yt- 
tria, Lime, 8^c. 


Hydrous Silicate of Alu- 
mina, Chromium, 8fc. 

Chrome Ochre. 

Anhydrous Silicate of Alu- 
mina, Magnesia, and Al- 


Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina and Lithia. 



Anhydrous Silicate of Alu- 
mina, Lithia, and Soda. 

Anhydrous Silicates of Alu- 
mina and Glucina. 



Anhydrous Silicate of Glu- 
cina and Lime. 

Silicates of Zirconia, 8fc. 


Jacynth, or Hyacinth. 



Erdmannite. , 






Hydrous Silicate ofThoria. 

Hydrous Silicate of Cerium, 
Lanthanium, Didymium, 





zariobium and Pe*- 




Yellow Uranite, or Autunite, 




































vv arwicioie. 


Manganese Spar, or Ehodo 










Oxide of Chrome,or Chrome 




Stratopeite. , 






Chrome Garnet, or Uwaro- 






Chromic Iron. 




Manganese Blende. 

Oerstedtite. ', 



Uran ochre, or Zippeite. 




Manganesian Alum. 












Uran kalk-carbonat. 


















Native Arsenic. 



Arsenical Pyrites, or Leu- 




Native Antimony. 




Antimonial Ochre, 




Eed Antimony, or Kermes- 





Arsenical Antimony. 



Native Tellurium. 
Tellurite, or Telluric Ochre. 


Graphic Tellurium, or Syl- 

Yellow Tellurium, or Miil- 



Black Tellurium, or Na- 



Native Bismuth. 

Bismuth Ochre. 


'Bismuth Blende, or Euly- 



Cupreous Bismuth, or Wit- 


Needle Ore, or Aikenite. 

Telluric Bismuth, or Tetra- 




Eed Oxide of Zinc, or 

Zinc Spar, or Calamine. 

Zinc Bloom. 





Zinc-Iron Spar. 

Zinc Glance, or Smith- 


Troostite iShepard). 






Sulphate of Zinc, or Gos- 



Cadmiferous Blende from 
Przibram, or Przibra- 
mite (^Huot). 


Oxide of Tin, or Cassiterite. 

Sparable Tin. 
Stream Tin. 
Wood Tin. > 

Toads-eye Tin. j 
Rosin Tin. 


Tin Pyrites. 


Native Lead. 

Plumbic Ochre. 
Native Minium. 

White Lead Ore, or Ce- 

Blue Lead. 




Horn Lead, or Cromfordite. 










Yellov/ Lead Ore, or Wul- 









Feather Ore, or Heteromor- 














Native Iron. 
Meteoric Iron. • 


Iron Earth. 









Brown Iron Ore, or Limon- 

Brown Hematite. 


Bohn-erz, or Bean Ore. 

Pea Iron Ore. 


Wood Hematite. 

Brown Ochre, or Ochry Brown 

Iron Ore. 
Yellow Ochre. 
Terra di Sienna. 


Specular Iron, 

Micaceous Iron. 

Eed Hematite, or Fibrous 
Eed Iron Ore. 
Red Ochre. 

Reddle. i 

Red Chalk. V 

Scaly Red Iron Ore, or Red- \ 
Iron Froth, ^ 

Turgite J 

Sparry Iron, or Chalybite. 

Oligon Spar. 
Clay Iron Stone 
Black Band, 

Blue Iron Earth. 
Delvauxene ) 
Berauiiite / 



Heteposite. ' 


Magnetic Pyrites, or Pyr- 

White Iron Pyrites, or Mar- 


Radiated Pyrites. 

Spear Pyrites. 

Cellular Pyrites. 

Cockscomb Pyrites. 

Hepatic Pyrites. 












Iron Apatite. 


Leucopyrite. \ 
Satersbergite. j" 


Cube Ore, or Pharmaco- 

Pitchy Iron Ore, or Pitti- 



Earthy Cobah, or Asbolan. 



Cobalt Pyrites, or Linnseite. 


Bright White Cobalt, Co- 
balt Glance, or Cobaltine. 

Tin- White Cobalt, or Smal- 

Cobalt Bloom, orErythrine. 


Cobalt Coating. 

Cobalt Crust. 


Cobalt Vitriol or Bieberite., 


Emerald Nickel. 



Capillary Pyrites, or Mil- 
ler! te. 

Antimonial Nickel, or 


Arsenical Nickel, or Chlo- 

White Nickel Pyrites, or 

Nickel Glance, or Gers- 
■ dorfEte. 


Copper Nickel. 
Nickel Ochre. 

Nickel -Bismuth Glance, or 

Meteoric Iron, or Meteo- 
Meteoric Minerals, viz. : 









Schreibersite, or She- 

Iron-nickel Pyrites, or Ei- 



Nickel Vitriol, or Pyrome- 


Native Copper. 
Ked Copper. 

Tile-Ore, or Ziegelerz. 

Black Copper, or Melaco- 






Copper Glance. 

Nail-headed Copper Ore.' 


Purple Copper, Erubescite, 

or Bornite. 
Copper Pyrites, Towanite, 

or Chalcopyrite. 

Peacock Copper. 

Blistered Copper Ore. 
Grey Copper, Fahlerz, or 


Spaniolite, > 
Schwarzerz. j 








Emerald Copper, or Diop- 



Wood Arseniate. 






Native Quicksilver. 

Native Amalgam. 


Horn Quicksilver, or Calo- 




Native Silver. 


Horn Silver, or Kerargyr- 
Butter-milk Silver. 

Silver Glance. 

Silver Black. 

Flexible Sulphide of Silver. 

Antimonial Silver, or Dis- 

Brittle sulphide of Silver, 

or Stephanite. 
Psaturose. ■ 

Eed Silver Ore : 
a. Dark Red Silver Ore, 

or Pyrargyrite. 
h. Light *Red Silver Ore, 
or Proustite. 

Argentiferous Copper 
Glance, or Stromyerite. 

Bismuthic Silver. 

Selenide of Silver, or Nau- 





Oro Pudre, or Porpezi 



Telluric Silver, or Hessite. 


Rhodium Gold. 


Bromide of Silver, or Bro- 




Native Iridium. 

Columhic and Titanic Acid, 
and Lanthanium. 




Iodic Silver, or lodyrite. 






Native Gold. 






TJralorthite. > 
Xanthorthite. J 

Gold Amalgam. 




Auriferous Pyrites. 




Lanihanium, Cerium, 





Native Platinum. 


Lanthanium, Cerium, 



dymium, and Titanic Acid. 


Native Palladium. 


Note.-^A few of the names in the preceding list have been purposely inserted twice. By that 
means, the varities of Garnet can eiiher be kept together as a distinct group ; or they can be in- 
serted in the places they would more properly occupy, if arranged strictly according to the chemical 
composition of each individual member. 

The names printed in smaller type are those of varieties of the mineral which they immediately 



Ground Plan of Principal Floor of the Museum of Practical 
Geology, London. 



The plan of the Museum of Practical Geology, on the opposite page, is 
borrowed, with some alterations, from that published in Mr. Hunt's Descrip- 
tive Guide. It will be of use by indicating the position and numbers of 
the Cases referred to in the Glossary. The Wall-cases which contain the 
collections of British and Foreign ores and metallic minerals, are those 
situated at the outer margin of the Plan, and the Horse-shoe Case is that 
surrounding the central area, which forms the glass roof of the Lecture 

The following is a general list of the contents of the various compart- 
ments into which the Horse-shoe Case is divided, commencing at the south- 
east end. 

Caebon (and its natural compounds) : — Diamond, Graphite. 

„ Coal, Coke, Bitumen, Lignite, Mellite, Amber, Ozocerite, Hatchettine, 8fc. 

Sulphur, and its compounds. 

Haloids and Salts . — Common or Book Salt, Boraoic acid, Alum, Cryolite, Nitrate 
of potash. 

„ Barytes, Strontia, Witherite. 

„ Gypsum, Selenite, Apatite, Vivianite, 8fc. 

„ Fluor. 

„ Calc Spar. 

„ Calc Spar, Marble, Stalagmite, or Oriental Alabaster, Ara- 

gonite, Dolomite, Fii'c Marble, §"c. 

j. Eakths : — Boch Crystal (and its varieties) : — Amethyst, Cairngorm, False Topaz, 
Citrine, Morion, Bose Quartz, Ferruginous Quartz, Aventurine, Cafs- 
Eye, Chrysoprase, 8fc. 

k. „ Amorphous Silica — Quartz, Chalcedony, Carnelian, Mocha-stone, 

Agate, Sard, Sardonyx, Onyx, Jasper, Helioti'ope or Bloodstone. 

I. „ Amorphous Silica — Flint, Sandstone, Silicified Wood, 8^c. 

Hydrous Silica — Opal, Hyalite, 8fc. 

m. Alumina, "^ Buby, Sapphire, Schorl, Tourmaline, Emerald, Chrysoberyl, Cymo- 

Aluminates, r phane. Zircon (^Jacinth, Hyacinth), ^c. 

and r Garnets (Abnandine, Cinnamon stone, Bomanzowite, Uwarowite^ 

Silicates. J Grossular, Dimnnthoid), S^c. 

Idocrase, Topaz, Pycnite, Chrysolite or Peridot, Chondrodite, Spinel. 

n. Aluminates") Felspar {Adularia, Orthoclase, Labradorite), Lapis Lazuli, Mica, 

and >■ Lepidolite, Gilbertite, Haiiyne, Jade, Leucite, Bhodonite, Antho- 

Silicates. J phyllite, Augite, Epidote, Hornblende, Chlorite, Tremolite, 8fc. 

0. Hydrous \ Serpentine, Steatite, Diallage, Websterite, Cimolite, Bole, Turquois, 

Silicates. J Asbestos, Amianthus, Prehnite, Chabazite, ^c. 

p. Hydrous "i Harmotome, Poonahlite, Heulandite, ApophyUite, Phacolite, Thom- 

SiLiCATES > sonite, Cluthalite, Analcime, Pectolite, Stilbite, Talc, Meers- 

(continued). J chaum, §-c. 

The British Ores are contained in the Wall-cases numbered 1 to 14, 24. to 36, and 43 
to 56 ; the Colonial Minerals in Wall-cases 37 to 42, and the Foreign Ores in Wall- cases 
15 to 23. 

The remaining numbers in the square compartments indicate the positions of Table- 
Cases, Models, and other objects. 




Al . . 

. Aluminium 


Cr . . 

. Chromic acid 

M '. . 

. Alumina 

Cn (^Cuprum) . 

. Copper 

Ag (^Argentu 

ni) . Silver 

Cu . . . 

• i Oxide of Copper 


. Ammonia 

-eu . . . 


As . 

. Arsenic 

D . . . 

. Didymium 

As . 

. Arsenious acid 

F . . . 

Fe {Ferrwm) . 

. Fluorine 
. Iron 

As . 

Au (Aurum) 

. Arsenic acid 
. Gold 

Fe . . . 

. Protoxioe of Iron 

B . . 

. Boron 

Pe . . 

. Peroxide of Iron 

B . 

. Boracic acid 

H . . . 

. Hydrogen 

Ba . . 

. Barium 

H . . . 

. Water 

Ba . 

. Baryta 

HCl . . 

. Hydrochloric or mu- 

Be (Berylliu 

m) . Glucinum 

HF . . . 

riatic acid 1 
. Hydro-fluoric acid 

Be or Be. 

. Glucina 

Hg {Hydrargyrum) 

. Quicksilver or Mer- 

Bi . . 

. Bismuth. 


Bi . . 

. Oxide of Bismuth 

I . 

Ir . 

. Iodine ' 
. Iridium 

Br . . 
C . 

. Bromine 
. Carbon 

K (Kalium) . 

. Potassium 

C . . 

. Carbonic add 

K . . . 

La . . . 

. Potash 

. Lanthanium 

Ca . 

. Calcium 

Ca . . 
Cb . . 

. Lime 

. Columbium (Tanta- 

La . . . 

. Protoxide of Lan- 

lum) or Niobium 

ta . . . 

. Peroxide of Lantha- 

Cb . . 

. Columbic acid 

Li . . . 

. Lithium 

Cd . 

. Cadmium 

Ce . . 

. Cerium 

Li . . . 

. Lithia 

Ce . 

. Protoxide of Cerium 

M . . . 

, Melliticacid 

•e-e . 

. Peroxide of Cerium 

Mg^ . . . 

. Magnesium 

CI . . 

. Chlorine 

Mg . 

. Magnesia 

Co . 

. Cobalt 

Mn . . . 

. Manganese 


Co . 

. Oxide of Cobalt 

Mn . . . 

. Protoxide of Manga- 

Cr . 

. Chromium 

Mn . . . 

. Peroxide of Manga- 

er . . 

. Oxide of Chrome 



Mo . . 

. Molybdenum 

Sr . . 

. Strontium 

Mo . . 

. Molybdic acid 

Sr . . . 

. Strontia 

N . . 

. Nitrogen 

Ta . . . 

. Tantalum 

N . 

. . Nitric acid 

Ta . . . 

. Tantalic acid 

Fa (Natrium) 

. Sodium 

Te . . . 
Th . . . 

. Tellurium 
. Thorinum 

m . . 

. Soda 

NH40 . 

. Ammonia 

th . . . 

. Thoria 

. . 

. Oxygen 

Ti . . . 

. Titanium 

Os . . 

. Osmium 

Ti . 

. Titanic acid 


. Phosphorus 


% . . . 

. Oxide of Titanium 

P . 

. Phosphoric acid 

V . . . 


Pb . 

. Lead 

U . . . 

. Uranium 

Pb . . 

. Oxide of Lead 

u . . . 

. Protoxide of Ura- 

Pd . 

. Palladium 


Pt . . . 

. Platinum 

Rh . . 

. Rhodium 

^ . 

. Peroxide of Uranium 

Ru . 

S . . 

. Ruthenium 
. Sulphur 

W (TFolframium) 

. Tungsten 

S . 

. Sulphuric acid 

W . . . 
Y . . . 

. Tungstic acid 
. Yttrium 

Sb (Stibium) 

. Antimony 

Se . . . 

. Selenium 

t . . . 

. Yttria 

Si . . . 

. Silicium 

Zn . . . 

, Zinc 

Si . 

. Silica 

Zn . . . 

. Oxide of Zinc 

Sn (^Stannum) . 

. Tin 

Zr . . . 

. Zirconium 

Su . . . 

. Oxide of Tin 

^r . . , 

. Zirconia 

Signs and A 


= . . . 

. Sign of equality, or 
equal to 


("Chemical Composi- 
' ( tion 

+ . . . 

. plus, or sign of ad- 

BB . . . 

. Before the blowpipe 


Brit. Mus. 

. British Museum 

H. . . 

. Hardness 

M.P.G. . . 

. Museum of Practical 

S.G. . . . 

. Specific Gravity 





Bezils. — The upper sides and corners {dd) 
of the Brilliant, lying between the 
edge of the Table and the Girdle. 

Cabochon. — The smooth convex elliptical 
form used for cutting Precious 
Garnet, Turquois, Opal, &c. Fig. e, 
side view . Fig. f, plan. 

Collet. — The small horizontal plane, or face 
(h) at the bottom of the Brilliant. 

Crown. — The upper work of the Rose, 
which all centres in the work at the 
top, and is bounded by the hori- 
zontal ribs. 

Facets. — Small triangular faces or planes, 
both in Brilliants and Roses. 

In Brilliants there are two sorts, 
Skew- and Skill- facets, and Star- 
facets. Skill- facets are divided into 
upper and under. Upper Skill-facets 
(c c") are wrought on the lower part 
of the Bezil, and terminate in the 
Girdle; Under Skill -facets (//) are 
■wrought on the Pavilions, and ter- 
minate in the Girdle. Star-facets 
(h b) are wrought on the upper part 

of the Bezil, and terminate in the 

Girdle. — The line (ee) which encompasses 
the stone, parallel to the horizon ; or 
which determines the greatest hori- 
zontal expansion of the stone. 

Goutte de suif is similar to Cabochon, only 
the relief is not so great, and, conse- 
quently, the form of the stone is 

Lozenges are common to Brilliants and 
Roses. In Brilliants they are formed 
by the meeting of the Skill-, and 
Star-facets on the Bezil : in Roses, 
by the meeting of the Facets in the 
horizontal Eibs of the Crown. 

Pavilions are the undersides and corners 
{gg) of the Brilliants, and lie 
between the Girdle and the Collet. 

Ribs. — The lines or ridges which dis- 
tinguish the several parts of the 
work, both of Brilliants and Roses. 

Table. — The large horizontal planes or 
faces (a) at the top of the Bril- 

Fig. a. Plan of the upper side of a Brilliant 

Fig. b. Plan of the under side of a Brilliant. 

Fig. c. Plan of the uiiper side of a Rose. 

Fig. d. Side view of a Rose. 

Fig. e. Side view of a stone cut en cabochon. 

Fig. /. Plan of a stone cut en cabochon, or en goutte de suif. 


Note The hnrizontnl line beneath the figures a b, is the distance between the Table and the 

Collet, or the depth which should be given to a stone of such a size as that in the figure, to insure 
the greatest amount of lustre. 



Page 1, column 1, line 10 from bottom : for "See 
Grey Oxide of Manganese " read 
" Grey Oxide of Manganese. See 
9, column '2, line 10 from bottom; for 
" Bromley " read "Brownley." 
10, column '2, bottom line: /or" rhomboid" 


line 13 : /or 99' 10 read 9ylO. 

12, column 1, line 26 from top : dele "now." 

line 29 : for " with coal and 

lignite" reac?" with Brown 

Coal and Lignite." 

14, column 2, line 25 from bottom: for 

" potash " read " alumina." 
21, column 1, line 10 from top : for " Sb " 

read " Sb." 
26, column 2, line 7 from bottom : /or "Elae- 

otite" read " Elffiolite." 
41, column l,line 26 from bottom :/or "Se- 

lenite" read " Selenide." 
54, column 1, line 15 from top : for " Ca" 

read " Ca." 
58, column I : transfer the Analysis of Bys- 

solite, and the two following lines, 

to article on " Buratite." 
64, column 1 : transfer the paragraphs 

headed "Analysis" ''■Locality,''^ and 

"■'Name" from article "Carnallite' 


78, column 1, line 24 from bottom: /or "Alu- 

minum" read "Aluminium." 

79, column 2, , line 32 from top : for " H " 

read "H ." 
82, column 1, line 4 from top : after " Si^ " 

add " +6H." 
89, column 2, last line : for " Copper " read 

" Cobalt." 
134, column 2, line 25 from bottom: for 
" 'i'i " read " Ti." 

Pa. 152, column 1, line 9 from bottom: after 
'■'■ Nicol" add "A native hydrate of 
176, column 2, line 15 from top : for " Sta- 
toust" read " Slatoust." 

192, column 2, line 20 from bottom : for 

"Ti" read" Ti.'^" 

193, column 2, line 22 from bottom : for 

"t 1*2 "read " Ti ^'i." 
195, column 1, line 24 from bottom : /or "S" 

read " S." 
197, column 2, line 7 from bottom: after 
" Diifrenoy " add "A kind of Sparry 
217, column 1, line 5 from top: for "C" 

read " Ca." 
220, column 2, line 17 from bottom : for 
"Alumina" read " Arsenious acid." 
line 19 from bottom : for 
"±s" read " As." 
241, column 2, line 5 from bottom -.for "alu- 
mina " read " ootash." 
248, column 2, line 7 from top : for " 100 " 

read "1-00." 
252, column 2, line 22 from top : for " Bru- 

ciTE " read " Periclase." 
341, column 1, last line: /or "nate" read 

348, column 2, line 2 from top : for " Tanta- 

lit " read " Tantalite." 
389, column 1, line 1 from top: after A, add 
" (ferruginous silicate of manganese 

line 3 from top : for " oxide 
of manganese" read " car- 
bonate of protoxide of man- 
ganese : (See Dana, vol. ii. 
p, 189, Analysis 7, from 
line 18 trom top : after "Lo- 
cality " add, " Stirling, ". 



Abichite, Haidinger. See Clinoclase. 
Abrazitb, Breislak, Brocchi. See Gis- 


AcADiALiTE or AcADiOLiTE. A Variety 
of Chabazite, probably containing an ad- 
mixture of Quartz. The colour (wine-yellow 
or flesh-red passing into white) is arranged 
in a tesselated manner in some crystals, the 
angles being almost colourless. 
Analysis by Hayes : 

Silica 52-02 

Alumina .... 17-88 

Lime 4-24 

Soda 4-07 

Potash 3-03 

Water 18-30 

The word Acadialite is derived from a former 
name of Nova Scotia, where the mineral is 

Acanthoi'de, Dufrenoy (ft-om «x«v9oi, a 
spine). A mineral apparently related to 
Breislakite occurring in dark brown fibres 
passing into reddish-brown, disseminated 
in lava; and in vei'v slender and silky, 
■whitish needles in a Vesuvian lava erupted 
in 1821. 

AoANTicoNiTB, Dandrada. See Aren- 
DALiTE. This name is derived from ocxKvQi;, 
a goldfinch, and xovig, powder, because the 
yellow colour of the powdered mineral re- 
sembles that of the plume of a goldfinch. 

Acerdese, Beudant. See Grey Oxide of 
Manganese. From a^js^Sji?, unprofitable, 
because it is of but little use in the arts, 
compared with Pyrolusite, which it greatly 

Achates or 'Axairyis '• the name by which 
the Agate was known to the ancient Greeks. 
According to Theophrastus (lviii.) it was 
so called after the river Achates in Sicily, 
where probably it was first discovered. 


AcHiRiTE, the name given by Werner to 
Dioptase after Achir Mamed, a Bucharian 
merchant, who first brought the stone from 
Siberia, and endeavoured to sell it for Eme- 

AcHMATiT, Hermann. A variety of lime- 
and-iron-Epidote, from Achmatowsk. See 


ACHMITE, Berzelius, Beudant, Dana, 
Nicol, Phillips. 

Oblique - primary form an oblique rhom- 
bic prism. Isomorphous with Augite. Co- 
lour brownish, or reddish-brown. Opaque ; 
translucent in thin fragments, which ex- 
hibit a yellowish-brown tint by transmitted 
light. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resin- 
ous. Streak pale yellowish-grey. Brittle. 
Fracture imperfect conchoidal. H. 6 to 6-5. 
S. G. 3-5 to 3-6. 


Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Comp. Na Si + F^e Si2=: Silica 55-07, 
oxide of iron, 32-4, Soda, 12-6 = 100. 

Analysis by Lehunt : 

Silica 56-02 

Peroxide of iron . . . 28-08 

Protoxide of manganese . 3-49 

Soda 13-33 

Lime 0-89 

Magnesia .... 0-50 
Alumina , . . .0-69 



9k. r 


3B fuses readily to a black magnetic 

Locality. This somewhat rare mineral 
occurs imbedded in Felspar and Quartz at 
Eundemyr. near Kongsberg in Norway, in 
crystals nearly a foot long. They are often 
macled and bent, and quite fragile. 

Name. From ccxi^yi, a point; in allusion to 
the pointed form of the crystals. 

G. Rose suggests that Achmite is an 
altered form of Pyroxene (the ^girine of 

JBrit. Mus., Case 34. 

AcHRENSTEiN. See Barytes. 

AcHKOiTE (from «, pHv. and %«««. colour) 
the name proposed by Eammelsberg for 
colourless varieties of Tourmaline. They are 
found at St. Gotthard, in Elba, and Siberia. 

AcicuLAR Akseniate OF CoppER, Allan. 
See Olivenite. 

AcicuLAR Bismuth; or Acicular Bis- 
muth-glance, Xeedle-ore. See Aikenite. 

AcicuLAR-ORE, Jameson. See Aikenite. 

Acicular Stone, Jameson. See Scole- 


AcicuLiTE, Nicol. See Aikenite. 
Acide arsenieux, Beudant. See Ar- 


AcMiTE. See Achmite. 

ACORITE, Dufrenoy. See Azorite. 

AcTiNOLiTE, Dana, Nicol; Actinote ; 
Actynolite, Phillips, Jameson, compre- 
hends the glassy and fibrous varieties of 
Hornblende, and" has been subdivided into 
glassy, asbestiform, and granular. Glassy 
Actinolite includes the bright-gveen bladed 
crystals or columnar forms, with a vitreous 
or'pearly lustre. The crystals are long slen- 
der pi-isms, which are easily "broken. The 
fibrous crystallizations of a green or greenish- 
grey colour, disposed in wedge-shaped masses 
or in radii, sometimes promiscuously aggre- 
gated, are often termed asbestiform Actinolite. 
Granular Actinolite includes such grass- 
green varieties as have a granular composi- 
tion. The green colour is owing to a small 
quantity of iron and chromium. 

Comp. Mg3 Si2 + (Oa, Fe, Mn,) Si. 

Analysis by Bonsdorff, from Taberg : 

Silica 59-75 

Lime i4-25 

Magnesia . . • * ^^'■'■9 
Protoxide of iron . • 5-95 

Protoxide of manganese . 0-31 
Fluoric acid = • . 0^6 

102-12 I 

Localities.— English. Cornwall; the Li- | 

zard ; the Cheesewring ; Cadgwith Point ; I 


Cape Cornwall ; Huel Unity, Botallack, Huel 
Owls, and several other mines. Near the 
Bowder-stone, in Borrowdale, Cumber- 
land. — Welsh. Caer Caradoc, Caernarvon- 
shire; in amygdaloid. Anglesea. — Scotch. 
Glen Tilt in Perthshire. Eilan Eeach, 
Glenelg, Inverness-shire. The Hebrides. 
Hillswickness Point and elsewhere in the 
Shetlands. — Foreiqn. Saltzburg and Greiner 
in the Zillerthal, Tyrol. St. Gotthard. 
Sweden. Norway. Finland. Greenland. 

Name. From axTmroi, radiated. 

Brit. Mus., Case 33. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, 1048 to 1051. 

Adamant, Kirwan : Adamantine Spar, 
Phillips : from a. priv : and Iu-i^olo, to subdue. 
Names given to Corundum from its hardness 
or from the peculiar lustre which it occasion- 
ally displays, resembling that of the Ada- 
mant or Diamond. The term Adamantine- 
spar is sometimes applied to Sapphire of a 
hair-brown colour. 

Adelpholite, Nordenskiold. A niobate 
or tantalate of iron and manganese, with 9-7 
per cent of water. Colour brownish-yellow 
to brown and black. Subtranslucent. Lustre 
greasv. Streak white or yellowish-white. 
H. 3-5 to 4-5. S.G. 3-8. 

Locality. Rajamaki in Tamela, Finland. 

Adiaphane Spar, Mohs. See Gehle- 
NiTE and Nephrite. 

Adinole, Beudant. See Petrosilex. 

Adulaire, La Metherie ; Adular, Wer- 
ner, Haidinger; Adularia, Jameson. A 
transparent or translucent variety of potash- 
Felspar (Orthoclase), found in granitic rocks. 
It occurs both massive and crystallized in 
forms which are sometimes extremely com- 
plicated. Colour commonly greenish-white, 
greyish, or milk-white. Frequently irides- 
cent. Lustre vitreous inclining to pearl}' 
on the faces of perfect cleavage. Brittle. 
Fracture uneven to conchoidal. H. 6. S.G. 

Analysis by Abich, from St. Gotthard : 
Silica .... 65-69 

Alumina .... 17-97 
Peroxide of iron . . . trace 
Potash .... 13-99 

Lime 1-34 

Soda 1-01 

Localities. ^English. Tintagel, Cornwall ; 
in slate.— Welsh. Sr.owdou ; Avith Quartz. 
—Scotch. Island of Arran, Buteshire. — 
Irish. Slieve Corra, Moiirne Mountains, 
CO. Dovrn.— Foreign. St. Gotthard in Swit- 
zerland, and particularly on one of the 


highest peaks named Adula, whence has 
been derived the name Adularia. 

"Adulariais distinguished fi;om common 
Felspar by its greenish-white colour, par- 
ticular colour reflection, complete conchoidal 
cross-fracture, lamellar distinct concretions, 
its higher degree of transparency, and by 
the want of those rents which cross the 
cleavage obliquely in common Felspar." — 
Jameson, vol. i. p. 289. 

For varieties of Adularia, see Moonstone, 


Brit. Mus., Case 30. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 955 to 
959, 1039. 

^DELFORSiTE, Dana, V. Kobell. Occurs 
massive, and fibrous or feathery. Colour 
white or grej'ish. Transparent or trans- 
lucent at the edges. Lustre shining. H. 6. 
S.G. 2-58. 

Comp. Neutral silicate of lime, or Ca ISi 
= lime 37-8, silica 62-2 = 100. BB fuses 
to a white translucent glass. Forms a jelly 
with acids. 

Localities, ^delfors in Smaoland, Swe- 
den; Cjelleback in Norway; Cziklowa, in 
the Bannat. 

Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

.^DELFORSITE, Retzius, Nicol t ^DILITE, 

Kirwan : or Ked Zeolite of JUdelfors ; see 

u^Edilite: a variety of Prehnite from 
^delfors, in Sweden. 

JilGiRiNE ; or May rine. A black or green- 
ish-black to leek-green variety of Pyroxene, 
allied to Arfvedsonite. Resembles Horn- 
blende in outward appearance. H. 6"5 to 
5-75. S.G. 3-432 to 3 504. 

Coinp. 5(k, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe) Si^. 

Anali/sis by Plantamour, from Esmark : 

Silica 46-57 

Alumina . . . .3 41 
Protoxide of manganese . 2'07 
Protoxide of iron . . 24-38 

Titanic acid. . . . 2-02 

Soda 7-79 

Potash . . . . 2-96 

Lime . . . , . 5-91 
Magnesia .... 5-8i 
Fluorine . . . . trace 

BB fuses to a black globule ; -with a large 
quantity of borax forms a green transparent 
globule', with a still larger quantity a black 

Locality. Brevig in Norway. 

Brit. Mus., Case 33. 

.^ROSiTE. See Pyraegyeite. 


.JlsCHYNlTE, Berzelius, Phillips. Rhombic : 
primary form an oblique rhombic prism. Oc- 
curs in oblique rhombic prisms, terminated 
b}'- four-sided pyramids, which are generally 
striated and imperfect. Colour nearly black, 
inclining to brownish -yellow when translu- 
cent. Opaque or translucent only at thin 
edges. Lustre resinous. Fracture imper- 
fect small conchoidal. H. 5 to 6. S.G. 5*14 
to 1-5. 

Fig. 3. 

Comp. Titanate of zirconia, and cerium. 

Analysis by Hartwall : 

Titanic acid . . . 25"9 

Zirconia .... 20-0 
Peroxide of cerium . . 15-0 

Lime 3-8 

Peroxide of iron . . .2-6 
Oxide of tin. . . .0-5 


When heated evolves water and traces of 
hydrofluoric acid. 

BB swells up and fuses, at the edges only, 
to a black slag. With borax fuses readily 
to a dark yellow glass, which is colourless 
when cool. With salt of phosphorus forms 
a transparent colourless globule. 

Locality. The Ilmen range, near Miask, in 
Siberia; imbedded in Felspar, and associ- 
ated with Mica and Zircon. 

Name. The name (derived from ce.I(r;)^vvyi, 
disgrace) given to this mineral by Berzelius, 
is in allusion to the inability of chemists, 
at the time of its discovery, to separate the 
two substances titanic acid and zirconia, 
which enter into its composition. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

iETiTES, Pliny. Stones composed com- 
monly of several crusts one within another, 
and having in them cavities containing loose 
and moveable matter ; either, first, solid and 
stony, called a Callimus, or secondly, loose, as 
sand, ochre, chalk, earth, &c., Geode; or 
thirdly, liquid, Enhydros. (J. Woodward.) 

Aftonite. See Aphthonite. 

Agalmatoltte, Phillips, is a clay or clay- 
slate altered by heat, and by the action and 
addition of alkalies contained in infiltrating 
waters holding in solution alkaline silicates, 
or carbonates derived from the decomposi- 

4 AGATE. - 

tion of Felspar on a large scale. H. 2 to 3. 
S.G. 2'8 to 2"9. Occurs massive of various 
shades of greenish-grey, passing into yellow- 
ish-grey and yellowish-brown. Translucent. 
Feels rather greasy. Yields to the nail. 
Sectile. Fracture splintery. 

Comp. 4 Ai m + K 8i2 + 3 H. 

Analysis by Klaproth, from China : 

Silica 64-.o0 

Alumina .... 34-00 
Potash .... 6-25 

Water .... 400 

Oxide of iron . . . 0"75 


Localities. — English. Eestormel Eoyaliron 
mines, Cornwall ; of a pale flesh-colour. — 
Welsh. Glyder Bach, Caernarvonshire. — 
Irish. Lugganure lead-mines, co. Wicklow, 
v^pale green). — Foreign. Norway. Nagyag 
in Transylvania. 

Name. From aya^A'S an image, and y^'ido;, 

Agalmatolite is brought from China, 
carved into grotesque figures and chimue}^- 
ornaments. It is distinguished by its che- 
mical composition from Steatite, which al- 
wavs contains magnesia, but no potash: 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos, 1102, 
1109, 1112. 

Agaphite. See Turquois. 

Agate. A variegated variety of chalce- 
donic Quartz, the colours of which are 
arranged in clouds, spots, or bands. The 
latter consist of parallel or concentric layers, 
either straight (ribbon agate), circular, or 
in zigzag foi'ms, the latter receiving the 
name of fortification agate from the fancied 
resemblance of the bands to the angular 
outline of a fortification. 

Agates are found in Scotland, Saxony, 
Arabia, India, Surinam, &c. in amygdaloid, 
mostly in the form of hollow balls or geodes, 
coated inside with Quartz or Amethyst. 

Immense quantities of Agate are cut and 
polished at Oberstein in Rhenish Bavaria, 
and at Galgernberg in the north of Germany, 
■whence they are exported to all parts of the 
■world.* There is also a manufactory at 
Katherinenberg in Siberia. 

* " The agate trade at Oberstein and Tdal has 
lately undergone a singular change in conseriuence 
of a falling off in the supply of the agate nodules. 
The agates now worked in that district, and sold 
as native productions, are chiefly obtained from 
the Brazils, where, on the Paraguay, brought 
down from the interior by the Rio de la Plata, 
they are in such abundance as to be shipped for 
ballast. Notwithstanding the source of supply is 


Agates are used for burnishers, and are 
made into mortars for chemical purposes. 
They are algo much employed in a polished 
state for ornamental articles, as brooches, 
bracelets, beads, the handles of seals, paper- 
knives, daggers, &c. The brooch-stones 
sold by the name of Scotch pebbles are true 
Agates, found in the amygdaloid of Dunbar, 
and of the Hill of Kinnoul, near Perth ; but 
the stones found in the Isle of Wight and 
sold in a polished state under the name of 
Agates, are merely flints from the Upper 
Chalk, much of the beauty of which is de- 
rived from the silicified remains of sponges ' 
and other marine bodies. 

The colours of Agate, when indistinct, 
may be increased by boiling Srst in oil, 
and afterwards in sulphuric acid ; the latter 
process carbonising the oil which has been 
absorbed between the layers, heightens the 
contrast between their different tints. 

The imperial treasury of France possesses 
some beautiful works in Agate, consisting of 
a service valued at 500,000 francs (20,000/.) 
Several very beautiful articles -were ex- 
hibited at the Exhibition of 1851, from 
Oberstein, and obtained prize medals. 

The name is derived from that of the river 
Achates, whence, according to Theophrastus, 
agates were first brought. 

Brit. Mus., Case 23. 

M. P. G. A 11 in Hall; inlaid slab of 
Agates, Jaspers, &c., from Aber}'^stwith in 
North Wales. Principal floor. Case 51, — a 
suite of 87 specimens, illustrative of the for- 
mation and mode of occurrence of Agates. 
Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 571, 572, 583, 585, 

Agaric Mineral, Kirwan, Phillips, is 
nearly pure carbonate of lime, deposited at 
the bottom of and around lakes, the waters 
of whihh are impregnated ■with lime ; also 
in fissures of calcareous rocks, and in lime- 
stone caverns. It is loose and friable, of a 
white or greyish- white colour, dull and 
meagre to the touch, soils the fingers, and is 
so light as to float for a time on water. 

so ren-.ote, agate articles are sold in Germany at 
prices astonishingly low. One other fact, in con- 
nection with the agate frauds may be worth re- 
cording. Upper Egypt is known to yield agates, 
though different from those of South America, 
and much less abundant. Travellers from Eu- 
rope in passing through that country enquire for 
these; and, to meet the demand, Brazilian agates 
are now sent to Egypt, and there sold for Egyp- 
tian agates. At Cairo, especially, numbers are 
thus disposed of to English and other travellers, 
who purchase them as souvenirs of the country." 
— Handbook to the Geology of Weymouth and 
Portlrind, by R. Damon i Stanford, 1h60. 


Localities. — English. Banner Down, near 
Bath. Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire. Near 
Sunderland. — Welsh. Llyn Savaddan, on the 
river Llynvi, in Brecknockshire. Trevor, 
near Llangollen, Merionethshire. — Scotch. 
Near Edinburgh, — Irish. Aghanloo and 
Curlj'- Burn, in New Bed Sandstone. Slieve 
Gallion, coating flint balls. — Foreign. Near 
Katisbon. Switzerland, where it is used for 
whitewashing houses. The United States, 
covering the sides of a cave at Watertown. 

Name. From its resemblance to agaric 
(a fungus^ in colour and texture. 

Agate- JASPER. A variety of Jasper found 
in agate- veins. 

Brit. Mus., Case 23. 

Agate mousseuse. Moss Agate. 

Agate perigone. Fortitication Agate. 

Agate terreuse. See Cacholong, 
Floatstone, &c. 

Agate versicolore. Variegated Agate. 

Agate zoNAiRE. Agate, the layers of 
which are arranged in concentric curvili- 
near bands. 

Agathe cornaltne, La Metherie. See 

Agnesite: an earthy steatitic mineral 
from Huel Coates, near St. Agnes, in Corn- 
wall. It is, probably, an impure Bismuth - 
ochre, according to Greg & Lettsom. 

AiGUE MARINE. See Aqua-martoe. 

L'Isle. See Beryl. 

AiKENiTE, Chapman, Dana. Rhombic: 
occurs in imbedded acicular four or six- 
sided prisms, indistinctly terminated, and 
striated longitudinally; also massive. 

Colour, When fresh broken dark steel- 
gre}'', but soon acquiring a yellowish or pale 
copper-red tarnish. Opaque. Lustre me- 
tallic. Streak blackish-grey. Structure la- 
mellar. Fracture small-grained, uneven ; 
sometimes approaching to conchoidal. H. 2 
to 2-5. S.G. 6-1 to 6.8. 

Comp. Sulphide of Bismuth, Copper and 
Lead, or(Cu, Pb)S + 3BiS3. 

Analysis by Hermann, from Beresowsk : 


. 34-87 

Lead . 

. 36-3L 


. 10-97 


. 16-50 


. 36 

Gold . 

. 0-09 

BB gives off fumes of sulphur, fuses and 
emits numerous burning globules, and 
finally yields a globule of lead containing 
copper, which colours glass of borax green- 
ish-blue. Dissolves in nitric acid with 


separation of lead -sulphate and a small 
quantity of sulphur. 

Localities. Beresowsk near Ekatherinen- 
berg, in Siberia, imbedded in white Quartz, 
and accompanying Gold, Malachite, and 

Names. Named by Chapman after Aiken 
the chemist. 

Brit. Mus., Case 9. 

M.P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases 9, No. 
465 ; 20 (Russia). 

AiMANT, Beudant. See Magnetite. 

AiMANT DE Ceylon. See Tourmaline. 

Akanthite, Dufrenoy : (from cixavda, a 
spine,) a variety of Epidote from Achma- 

Akanticone. See Epidote. 

Akmit, Haidinger. See Achmite. 

Alabandicus, a stone " Called after the 
name of the countrey that yieldeth it, it 
is black : Howbeit, there is of it to be found 
growing in Miletus, but not altogether so 
blacke, for it enclineth or declineth rather 
to a purple colour. This stone of Miletus 
will resolve in the fire, and commonly they 
use to melt it for drinking cups, in manner 
of glasses." — Pliny, book xxxviii. ch. 7. 

Alabandine, Beudant, Brooke §• Miller. 
See Manganblende. 

Alabandine, Fliny : those carbuncles 
which were cut and polished at Alabanda, 
and were called in consequence Alabandine 
or Alamandine. "iEthiopian Rubies and 
the Alexandrian, which are found, indeed, 
among the cliffs of the hill Orthosia, but 
trimmed and brought to their perfection by 
the Alabandians. . . . Many authors have 
written . . that the Alabandines be more 
darke and blackish than others, and withal 
rough in hand," — Pliny, book xxxviii. 
ch. 7. 

Alabaster: is the name by which the 
fine massive varieties of Gypsum are called. 
It is a sulphate of lime, composed of sul- 
rihuric acid, 46-5] ; lime, 32 56 ; water, 
20-93. At Volterra and Castellina, in Tus- 
can}^, it occurs extremely pure and compact, 
and is conveyed thence in large blocks to 
Florence, where it is manufactured into 
figures, vases, and other works of art, which 
are exported to all parts of Europe. Twenty 
years ago there was a great taste for such 
objects in France, and the material was then 
obtained from quarries at Lagny, near 
Paris. In England it occurs in New Red 
Marl, principally at Ashton-on-Trent, and 
Chellaston Hill, near Ashbourne, in Derby- 
shire, at both of which places it is exten- 
sively worked for ornamental purposes 
" The principal demand for this material 


usually slightly streaked with red, is by the 
potters in Staffordshire, who form their 
moulds of plaster of Paris from it. It is 
therefore called ' Potter's stone,' and sells at 
about 9s. per ton of 2,400 lbs. (the long ton). 
In working the Potter's stone, the tine blocks 
are selected, and sold to the turners of ala- 
baster ornaments." — {Robert Hunt.) It is 
also found in large quantities at Penarth, 
Cardiff, Leckwith, and Lavenock, in Gla- 
morganshire ; at Xewark, in Nottingham- 
shire ; at Fauld Hill, in Staffordshire ; at 
Old Chine, in Somerset; between Penrith 
and Carlisle, in Cumberland ; and in Mona- 
ghan CO., Ireland. Alabaster is soluble in 
400 to 600 parts of water. When heated it 
parts with its water of composition, and be- 
comes Plaster of Paris, for which see Gyp- 
sum. This stone is the Alabastrum of the 
ancients, by whom it was carved into 
statues and other objects. The name is 
derived from Alabastron, a village of Eg}T)t. 
(See Oriental Alabaster). 

Brit. Mus., Case 57. 

31. P. G. Sides of vestibule, Derbyshire. 
Large tazza and pedestal, on the eastern side 
of the hall, from Fauld Hill, Staffordshire. 
Column against east wall. Column sup- 
porting serpentine vase, west side of the 
hall. Horse -shoe Case, Nos. 303 and 304. 

Alabastra agatato. a yellow variety 
of Alabaster found at Sienna. 

ALABASTRITES, Pliny. See Oriental 
Alabaster. "This Onyx stone, or Ony- 
chites aforesaid, some name Alabastrites ; 
whereof they use for to make hollow boxes 
and pots to receive sweet pn-fumes and oint- 
ments, because it is thought that they will 
keepe and preserve them excellently well, 
without corruption. The same being burnt 
and calcined, is very good for diverse pias- 
tres." — Pliny, book xxxvi. ch. 8. 

Alalite- a variety of Diopside from Ala, 
in Piedmont. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1032, 

Alaunstein, Wernei: See Alumstone. 

Albert Coal, or Albertitk. A bitu- 
minous kind of Coal found in Nova Scotia, 
and at Hillsborough, in New Brunswick. 

Analysis by Slessor : 

Volatile matters . . . 54*39 
Fixed carbon . . . 45-44 
Ash 0-17 


Oxygen and Sulphm- . 
Ash . 


Hydrogen . 
Mtrogen . 



It yields, on distillation, 100 gallons of 
crude oil per ton. See Melanasphalt. 

Albin, Werner. A white, opaque variety 
of Apophyllite. found, associated with Na- 
trolite, at Aussig, in Bohemia. 

Brit Mus., Case 27. 

Albite, Beudant, Brooke §• 3Iiller, Dana, 
Phillips, Greg Sf Lettsom. Anorthic. Pri- 
mary form a doubly-oblique prism. Occurs 
generally in flat twin crystals. 

Colour. Usually white; sometimes grey, 
green, or brownl Translucent to opaque. 
Lustre viti-eous, pearly on cleavage planes. 
Streak white. Brittle. Fracture uneven. 
H. 6. S.G. 2-59 to 2-65. 

Fig. 5. 

Camp. Na Si + Al Si^ = silica 68-7, alu- 
mina 19.5, soda 11-8 = 100. 

Analysis by Abich, from Miask : 

Silica 68-45 

Alumina .... 18-71 
Peroxide of iron . . 0-27 

Soda 11-24 

Potash .... 0-65 

Lime 0*50 

Magnesia . . . .0-18 
Protoxide of manganese . trace 

BE behaves like Felspar, but imparts a 
more distinct yellow colour to the flame. 
Not acted on by hot acids. 

Localities. — English. Cornwall; at Huel 
Friendship on Quartz, and in white translu- 
cent crystals at Tintagel, near Camelford, 
Fig. 5; Beverley, Yorkshire; in green- 
stone. — Welsh : Tremadoc, Caernarvon- 
shire — Scotch. Near Edinburgh, in green- 
stone. — Ireland. In very perfect, white 
translucent twin-crystals at Ross, and in 
the granite of Slieve Corra, one of the 
Mourne IMountains, The forms fovmd in 
tlie United Kingdom are represented in 
Fig. 5.— Foreign: The Tyrol, in large 
transparent, colourless crystals, Avith 
Pearl- spar ; St. Gotthard, in white translu- 
cent twins; Arendal, in Norway, with 


Epidote and Garnet ; Greenland,with Eudy- 
alite and Hornblende; Massachusetts, U. 
S., with Tourmaline; Siberia; Norway; 
{Sweden; Bohemia; Oisans, in Dauphiny; 
and elsewhere. 

Name. From albus (white), in allusion to 
its colour. 
Brit. Mus., Case 30. 
M. P.G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 953. 
Albite is a soda Felspar, a small portion of 
the soda being sometimes replaced by pot- 
ash and lime. It is frequently a constituent 
of granite, and, more frequently than com- 
mon Felspar, of syenite and greenstone (as 
in the rocks round Edinburgh) ; but it often 
occurs associated with the latter in the same 
granite, when it may be distinguished by 
its greater whiteness and translucency. 
Thus, in the granite of Pompey's Pillar, 
and the block on which the statue of Peter 
the Great in St. Petersburg is placed, the 
Albite presents a greenish-white colour, 
while the Felspar is flesh-red. 

Alexandrite. A variety of Chryso- 
beryl found in mica-slate with Beryl and 
Phenacite, 85 wersts from Ekatherinenberg 
in the Ural. It is of an emerald- green 
colour by reflected light and columbine-red 
by transmitted light. The colour is sup- 
posed to be produced by the presence of 
oxide of chrome. Named after Alexander 
I., Emperor of Russia. 
Brit. Mus., Case 19. - 
Algerite. An altered form of Scapolite. 
Occurs in slender square prisms imbedded 
in Calc-spar. Colour yellowish to grey. 
Usually dull. Brittle. H. 3 to 3-5 : of more 
altered crystals 2-5. S.G. 2*7 to 2'78. 
Ariolysis bv T. S. Hunt : 

Silica '. . . . 49-82 
Alumina . . . 24"91 

Magnesia . . . 1-15 

Potash .... 10'21 
Carbonate of lime . . 3.94 

Water .... 7-57 


Locality. Franklin, Sussex co., New Jer- 

Name. After Alger, the American minera- 

Algodonite. a new mineral found in 
small Avhite lumps and veins, (at first sup- 
posed to be native silver,) in the silver- 
mine of Alogodes (whence the name Algodo- 
nite) near Coquimbo in Chili. 

Comp. A compound of arsenic and copper 
in which the proportion of copper is twice 
that in Domevkite, or Cui2 AS, or copper 
83-66, arsenic 16 -34 =100. 


Analysis by F. Field : 
Silver . ; . . 

. 83-30 
. 16-23 
. 0.31 

Colour brilliant silver-white ; also white, 
but quickly tarnishes on exposure to the air. 
Fracture strong granular. Soluble in di- 
lute nitric acid. 

Alisonite, F. Field. Massive. Colour 
deep indigo-blue, quickly tarnishing on ex- 
posure. Fracture slightly conchoidal. H. 
2-5 to 3. S.G. 6-1. 

Comp. Double sulphide of copper and lead 
or 3Cu2S + Pb S = copper 53-33, lead 28-80, 
sulphur 17*77 = 100. 

Analysis by Frederick Field : 
Copper .... 53-63 
Lead .... 28-25 
Sulphur .... 17-00 


Violently acted on by nitric acid with the 
formation of sulphate of lead and liberation 
of free sulphur. 

Locality. Mina Grande, near Coquimbo, 
Chili, associated with carbonate of lead and 
carbonate of copper. 

Name. After R. E. Alison, 

Alizite, Glocker. See Pimelite. 

Alkali minerale, Brochant. See Na- 

Allagite. a compact variety of Rhodo- 
nite, altered through the tendency of prot- 
oxide of manganese to pass to a higher state 
of oxidation, accompanied with the absorp- 
tion of water. It is of a greenish-grey 
colour, verging upon black, and is some- 
what fibrous, resembling altered Basta- 

Analysis by Du Menil : 
Peroxide of manganese . 75-0 
Silica .... 16-0 
Lime .... 7-5 


Locality. The vicinity of Rubeland in the 

Name. From aXXayic, change ; in allusion 
to its change on exposure. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Allanite. Phillips, Thomson, Nicol, 
Dana. Oblique. Isomorphous with Epi- 
dote. Occurs in long and slender, or flat 
tabular crystals, or in masses and grains. 
Colour black, passing into reddish- or green- 
ish-browm. Opaque ; feebly translucent and 
of a yellowish-brown colour in thin splin- 
ters. Lustre submetallic, inclining to vi- 
treous or resinous. Streak greenish-grey. 


Brittle. Fracture uneven, passing into small 

conchoidal. H. 6. S.G. 2-86 to 2'9. 


Fig. 6. 

Comp. 3R3 Si + 2ft Si + 10 H. 

Analysis bv D. Forbes, from i^aes Mine : 
Silica " . . . .31-03 
Alumina .... 9'29 
Glucina . . . .3 71 
Protoxide of iron . . .20-68 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-07 
Protoxide of cerium . . 6-74 
Oxide of lanthanium . . 4-35 
Yttria .... 1-02 

Lime 6-68 

Magnesia .... 2-06 
Potash .... 0-90 

Soda 0-56 

Oxide of copper . . . trace 
Water 12-24 

BB on charcoal swells up, becomes brown- 
ish-yellow and fuses to a black (someAvhat 
magnetic) glass. 

Localities. — Scotch. 1 mile west of 'New 
Abbey, near Criflfel, E. Kirkcudbrightshire ; 
in syenite.— i^orej^fn. Norway; at Naes 
Mine about 10 miles east of Arendal ; Jotun 
Fjeld, in porphyry : Snarum, with Albite. 
Greenland, in granite. Plauensche Grund, 
near Dresden, in Saxony. Near Suhl in the 
Thuringerwald, in granite. Moriah, Essex 
CO., New York, Avith Lanthanite, at the junc- 
tion of the Sanford magnetic iron with the 
granite walls. 

Name. After Thomas Allan, of Edinburgh, 
by whom it was first noticed as a distinct 

Brit. Mus., Case 38. 

Allemontite. a name given to arsenical 
antimony, found at Allemont in Dauphiny. 

Analysis by. Rammelsberg : 

Arsenic 62*15 

Antimony .... 37-85 

Alley Stone. See Websterite. 
Allochroite, a fine-grained, massive va- 
riety of iron-Garnet of a greyish, dingy 
yelloAV, or reddish colour. Opaque, Frac- 
ture uneven. H. not so hard as Quartz, but 
strikes fire Avith steel. S.G. 3-7 to 4-21. 
BB behaves like Melanite. 


Locality. Norway ; principally in an iron- 
mine near Drammen. 

Name. From ccXXos other, and %?»/«, colour ; 
in allusion to its variety of colours. 

Brit. Mus., Case 36. 

Allogonite, Breithaupt. See Hekde- 

Allomorphite, Breitfiaupt. (From aXXe?, 
other, and [M,^(pr,, form), A A^ariety of Barytes 
found in scaly masses in Unterwirbach near 
Rudolstadt in Schwarzburg. According to 
Gerngross it contains 1-9 per cent, of sul- 
phate of lim^as impurity. 

Allophane. Occurs reniform, massive, 
encrusting ; occasionally almost pulverulent. 
Colour pale blue, sometimes green, brown, 
yellow or colourless. Translucent. Lustre, 
Adtreous or resinous ; internally splendent 
and waxy. Streak white. Very brittle. 
Fracture flat conchoidal and shining. Ad- 
heres to the tongue. H. 3. S.G. 1-76 to 1-89. 

Comp. Hydrated silicate of alumina, or 

Ai3 Si2+15H.- silica 24-22, alumina 40-39, 
water 35-39 = 100. 

Analysis by A. B. Northcote, from Wool- 
wich : 

Silica . . . . 


Alumina . 


Protoxide of iron 

. 0-31 

Lime .... 

. 1-92 

Carbonic acid 

. 2-73 


. 42-91 

BB soon loses colour, and becomes pulver- 
ulent, causing some intumescence and ting- 
ing the flame green. Alone infusible ; Avith 
borax fuses readily to a transparent colour- 
less glass. Dissolves perfectly in dilute 
acids ; when digested in concentrated acids, 
leaves a silicious jelly. 

Localities. Allophane has been lately ob- 
served at the chalk-pits at Ncav Charlton, 
near WoohA^ch, Kent, by the students of the 
Government School of Mines, and determined 
by them in the laboratory of Dr. Percy. It 
occurs abundantly, of a honey-yellow colour, 
in the chalk of Beauvais in France ; also lin- 
ing irregular caAaties in a kind of marl at 
Saalfield in Thuringia, Schneeberg in Sax- 
ony, Vise in Belgium and elscAvhere. At 
Richmond, Massachusetts, U.S., it occurs 
with Gibbsite, forming a hyaline crust, scaly 
or compact in structure, and brittle ; also, at 
the Bristol copper mine, Connecticut, U.S. 

Name. From aXXo?, otht^r, and (paUa, to ap- 
pear ; in allusion to its change of appearance 
under the bloAvpipe. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 



Allophane usually occurs lining small ca- 
vities, and in veins in marl or chalk ; some- 
times in little reniform masses with a resi- 
nous or waxy lustre. 

Allophane Opal. See Schrottekite. 

Alloy of Iridium and Osmium, Wol- 
laston, Phillips. See Iridosmine. 

Alluaudite, Damour, Nicol. Occurs 
massive, with a triple cleavage at right an- 
gles to each other. Colour clove-brown. 
Subtranslucent or opaque. Lustre dull. 
Streak vellowish. Fracture scaly, shining. 
H. above 4. S.G. 3-468. 

Comp. (Mn N"a)P + #eP+H. 
■., Analysis (mean of several) by Damour : 
Phosphoric acid . . 41-25 

Peroxide of iron . . 25 62 

Protoxide of manganese .. 23-08 
Peroxide of manganese . 1-06 

Soda 5-47 

Silica 0-60 

Water .... 2-65 

BB on platina wire fuses to a black mag- 
netic globule. Forms a solution in muria- 
tic acid which is black when cold, and yel- 
lowish-brown when heated. 

Locality. Chanteloupe, near Limoges in 
France, associated with Viviauite and Du- 

Name. After Mons. Alluaud of Limoges. 

Almagrerite, Breithaupt. An anhy- 
drous sulphate of zinc occurring in crystals 
isomorphous with Anglesite and Heavy 
Spar, at the Barranca Jaroso Mine, in the 
Sierra Almagrera, Spain. S.G. 4-S3. 

Almandine, or Almandine Garnet, is 
the name given to red transparent varieties 
of Garnet. It is an alumina-iron Garnet, the 
composition of which is represented by the 

formula Fe^ Si + Al Si = silica 36-3, alumina 
20-5, protoxide of iron 43-2 = 100. Cubical : 
occurs in rhombic dodecahedrons,#nd, in the 
same with all the edges replaced by six- 
sided planes. Lustre vitreous, shining. Streak 
white. Fracture subconchoidal, uneven. H. 
6-5 to 7-5. S.G. 3-7 to 421. 

Analysis by Hisinger, from Fahlun : 

Silica 39-66 

Alumina .... 1966 

Protoxide of iron . . . 39 68 

Protoxide of manganese . 1*80 


BB fuses rather readily to a black magnetic 

globule -. with borax more slowly to a dark 

glass, affording an iron reaction. Insoluble 

in acid. 


Localities. This stone is found in sand, 
alluvial soil, and gneiss, in Ceylon, Pegu, 
Hindostan, Brazil, Greenland; also at Elie 
in Fifeshire, at Ala in Piedmont, and in 
various parts of Bohemia. 

When of good size, finely coloured, trans- 
parent, and free from flaws it is used as a 
gem. It should be cut quite thin on account 
of its depth of colour, with a pavilion on the 
under side and a broad table above, bordered 
Avith small facets. An octagonal Garnet, mea- 
suring 8^ lines by &h, has sold for near 700 dol- 
lars. Almandine may be distinguished from 
Corundum or Spinel by its duller colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 36. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos, 889 to 
893, 897, 898. 

Almandine Ruby. The name given to 
violet-coloured varieties of Spinel. 

Almandine Spar, 3Iolis. See Eudia- 


Alstonite, Breithaupt, Nicol, Greg §• 
Lettsom. Rhombic. Primary form a right 
rhombic prism. Colour snow-white or grey- 
ish-yellow. Translucent. Lustre vitreous, on 
surfaces of fracture resinous. Fracture con- 
choidal, uneven. H. 4 to 4-5. S.G. 3-65 to 3-7. 

Fig. 7. 

Comp. Identical with Barytocalcite. lia 

C + Ca C, or carbonate of baryta 66-1, carbo- 
nate of lime 33-9=100. 

Analysis by Thomson, from Fallowfield : 
Carbonate of barvta . .60-63 
Carbonate of lime . . 3009 

Carbonate of manganese . 9-18 

BB decrepitates and phosphoresces. Dis- 
solves in acids with effervescence. 

Localities. Fallowfield, near Hexham, 
Northumberland ; in small six-sided pyra- 
midal crystals, of a pinkish tinge, Bromlej'' 
Hill, near Alston (whence the name Alsto- 
nite) Cumberland ; of a white or grey colour, 
in veins Avith Galena. 

Altaite, Dana, Haidinger, Nicol. Cu- 
bical. Usually occurs massive in granu- 
lar aggregates; rarely in cubes. Colour 
tin-white, with a yellow tarnish. Lustre 
metallic. Sectile. Fracture uneven. H. 3 
to 3-5. S.G. 8-10. 


Fig. 8. 




Comp. Telluride of lead or Pb Te = lead 
61-7, tellurium 38-3 = 100. 
Analysis by G. Rose, 

Lead . . . . 60-35 
Tellurium . . .• .88-37 
Silver 1-28 

BB colours the flame blue: in the inner 
flame volatilizes, except a minute globule 
of silver. Soluble in nitric acid. 

Locality. The Savodinsky mine, near 
Barnaoul, in the Altai ; mixed with telluric 

Alvite, David Forbes 8f F. Dahll. Cvys- 
tallizes like Zircon. Colour reddish-brown, 
becoming greyish-brown on alteration. 
Opaque; translucent at the edges. Lustre 
greasv. Fracture conchoidal. H. 5-5. S.G. 
3-40 to 3-6. 

BB in the platina forceps infusible : be- 
comes paler by heat. With borax yields a 
yellow glass, which becomes colourless on 

Comp. An approximative analysis shows 
it to consist chiefly of silica, yttria, thorina( ?), 
alumina, and glucina, peroxide of iron and 

Localities. Helle and Naresto in Norway. 

Alum. Under this nj^me are comprised 
several compounds which have the general 

formula R S + Al fe5 + 24H, (R represent- 
ing different bases, as potash, soda, mag- 
nesia, protoxide of manganese, &c.) which 
are described under their respective names. 
All these compounds crystallize in . octa- 
hedrons, but they usually occur in nature in 
fibrous masses, or as a mealy efflorescence, 
with a sweetish astringent taste, more or 
less resembling that of common alum. It 
is soluble in from 16 to 20 times its weight 
of cold water, and in little more than its 
own weight of boiling water. On exposure 
to heat, it melts easily in its own water of 
crystallization, and froths up in a remark- 
able way, and by continuance of heat it is 
converted into a white spongy mass. Alum 
is used largely in the manufacture of leather 
and paper, as a mordant in dyeing, in me- 
dicine, for preserving animal substances from 
putrefaction, and for various other purposes. 
The alum of commerce is made either from 
clay or from alum-slate or shale. Much of 


the Dorsetshire pipe-clay, Avhich is not of 
sufficiently good quality for use in the 
potteries, is converted into alum by being 
treated with sulphuric acid. The sulphate 
of alumina which is thus formed, being lixi- 
viated with water, potash salts are added, 
and crystals of alum are ultimately obtained 
by evaporation. At Whitby, in Yorkshire, 
the -alum-shale is mixed with fuel and set 
on fire ; the residue is lixiviated with water, 
and purified by subsequent evaporation; 
potash salts are added, and crystallized alum 
is finally formed. The best alum is made from 
the Alum-stone of Tolfa, near Civita Vecchia. 

Alum, Nicol, Phillips. Native alum. See 

AluminbFluateeAlcaline, Haily. See 

Alumine Fluatee Siliceusb, Hauy. See 

Alumine Hydratee Silicifere, Levy. 
Siliciferous h3'drate of alumina. 

Alumine - hydro - phosphatee, Haily. 
See Wavellitb. 

Alumine Magnesiee, Haily. See Spinel. 

Alumine sous-sulfatee. See Web- 

Alumine Sous-sulfatee Alcaline, 
Haily. See Alumstonb. 

Alumine Sulfates, jSTawy. ) See 

Alumine Sulfates Alga- > Aluno- 
LINB, Haily. J gene. 

Aluminilite, La Metherie. See Alum- 

Aluminite, Jameson. See Websterite. 

Alumocalcite, Phillips, Breiihaupt. An 
impure Opal of a milk-white colour inclin- 
ing to blue, and containing six per cent, of 
lime. Streak white. Fracture conchoidal. 
Adheres strongly to the moistened lip. May- 
be crushed between the fingers. S.G. 2-174. 

Analysis by Kersten : 

Silica 86-60 

Alumina .... 2'25 

Lime 6-25 

Water 4-00 


BB in the platina forceps becomes opaque 
and grey-coloured. With borax forms a 
colourless glass. Forms a transparent jelly 
in concentrated muriatic acid. 

Locality. Eibenstock, in Saxony ; in clefts 
in veins of ironstone. 

Alumocalcite was formerly considered to 
be a decomposed Opal. 

Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

Alumstonb, Phillips, occurs massive and 
crystallized in modifications of an obtuse 
rhomboid. The crystals are minute, shining. 


and sometimes brownish externally. Colour 
white, also greyish or reddish. Transparent 
to subtranslucent. Lustre vitreous or pearly. 
Streak white. Brittle. Fracture flat con- 
choidal, uneven ; of massive varieties, splin- 
terv, occasionally earth}'. H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 
2-08 to 2-78. 



Fig. 10. 

Fig. 11. 

Comp. KS + 3A1S + 9H. 

Analysis hyCordier, of crystals from Tolfa ; 
Alumina .... 39-65 
Sulphuric acid . . . 3o-50 

Potash 1002 

Water 14-83 

. 100-00 

JBjff^ decrepitates and is infusible alone and 
with soda: with borax forms a colourless 

Soluble in sulphuric acid, when reduced 
to powder. Insoluble in water, but after 
gentle ignition, gives up alum to it, the ex- 
cess of alumina remaining undissolved. 

Localities. Tolfa, near Civita Vecchia, in 
the Papal States. Musay and Bereghszasz, 
in Hungary. Milo, Argentiera, in the 
Grecian Archipelago. The Island of Nevis. 
Pic de Sancy, in France. Elizabethpol, in 
Georgia. Silesia, in a coal-bed. 

Much of the best alum of commerce is 
procured from Alumstone by repeated roast- 
ings, washings, and finally crystallizing by 
evaporation. Some of the Hungarian va- 
rieties are so hard and compact as to be 
used for millstones. 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

31. P. G. Upper gallery, table-case B, 
in recess 6, Nos. 179 to 186. 

Alun-ammoniacal, Dufrenoy. See Am- 

Alun de Plume, Dufrenoy, See Halo- 


Alun de Rome, the commercial name for 
alum made at Tolfa. See Alum -stone. 

Alun-magnesibn, Dufrenoy. See Mag- 

, Alun Sodifere, Dufrenoy. See Soda 

Alunite, Necker. See Alumstone., 

Alunogene, Beudant, Dana, is a hy- 
drous sulphate of alumina, composed, 
when pure, of alumina 15*42, sulphuric acid 
35-99, water 48-59 = 100-00, corresponding 


Amausite, Dufrenoy \ 

to the formula Al S^ + 18 H. It occurs gene- 
rally in delicate fibrous masses or crusts, 
either white or tinged with yellow or red, 
when impure. Translucent. 'Lustre silky. 
Taste like that of common alum. H. 1-5 to 
2. S.G. 1-6 to 1-8. 

BB intumesces and fuses easily. Very so- 

Localities. It occurs at Araya near Cu- 
mana ; Socono ; Copiapo, in Chili, and other 
parts of South America; in numerous places 
in the United States ; at Adelaide, in New 
South Wales, &c. &c. 

Alunogen results from volcanic action, 
and the decomposition of Pyrites in shales. 
Amalgam, Dana. '\ See 

Ajmalgajme, Necker. I Native 

Amalgam E Natif d'Aegent, [ Amal- 
La Metherie. J gam. 

Amalgame d'Or. See Electrum. 

A variety of com- 
pact Felspar (Or- 
thoclase) from M- 
delfors in Sweden. 
Colour clear grey 
passing into grey- 
ish-white. Frac- 
ture perfect con- 

Amazon Stone. A bluish-green variety 
of Felspar (Orthoclase). It is slightly trans- 
lucent at the edges, and possesses a consi- 
derable amount of varying lustre. The 
stone brought from Lake' Baikal in Siberia 
is sometimes, though rarely, in pieces sufl3- 
ciently large to be made into small vases 
and other ornaments ; and, when well cut, 
it forms an Aventurine composed of silvery 
spangles in a green base. The verdigris- 
green variety found on the east side of Lake 
Ilmen is coloured bv copper. 
Brit. Mus., Case 30. 
M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 955. 
Amber is found in irregular masses of all 
shades of yellow, from the palest primrose to 
the deepest orange, sometimes brown. It is 
brittle, yields readily to the knife, affordmg 
a white streak, and breaks with a fracture 
which is more or less perfectly conchoidaL 
It varies from perfect transparency to com- 
plete opacity, sometimes, but rarely, being 
nearly as white as ivory, and has a vitreous 
or resinous lustre. H. 2 to 2-5 S.G. 1*08. 

Comp. C10H8 = carbon 78 96, hydro- 
gen 10-51, oxygen 10-52. Burns readily 
with a yellow flame, emitting an agreeable 
odour, and leaves a black, shining, light, 
carbonaceous residue. Becomes negatively 
electric by friction. Soluble in alcohol. 

12 AMBER. 

Considerable quantities of Amber are cast 
ashore during autumnal storms on the coasts 
of Pomerania and Prussia Proper, and are 
carefull}' collected. Amber is also found 
along the whole line of the Baltic coast, but 
the largest specimens are procured from the 
Prussian shores, and the search for it is an 
industry exercised from Dantzic to Memel. 
This is distinguished as marine Amber. The 
other description, called terrestial Amber, is 
dug in mines and is generally found in allu- 
vial deposits of sand and clay, associated 
with fossil wood, Iron Pyrites, and alum- 
shale. It is also found on the Sicilian coast, 
near Catania ; at Hasen Island in Greenland ; 
in claj^ at Auteuil, near Paris ; but more plen- 
tifully in certain lignite deposits of the 
Aisne, and occasionally on the sea-coasts of 
Norfolk, Essex, Sussex, and Kpnt. It oc- 
curs in sand at Kensington, near London; in 
Ireland on the coast at Howth, near Dublin ; 
at Craignashoke, in Ulster ; and at Eathlin 
Island, Antrim. Amber, to a considerable 
amount, is also said to be taken to China 
from a northerly part of Upper Burmah. 

The vegetable origin of Amber is now 
fully ascertained, by the experiments of Sir 
David Brewster on its optical properties, as 
well as from its association with coal, and 
lignite, and the occurrence in it of the re- 
mains of insects and plants. According to 
Goeppert, Amber is the mineralised resin of 
extinct Coniferae, one of which he has 
named Pinites succinifer, or Amber-bearing 
Pinetree. The insects inclosed in it, which 
are mostly, if not all, of extinct species, ap- 
pear to have been entangled in the then 
viscous substance while alive, and, in many 
cases, to have struggled hard to escape, as is 
evident from the legs and wings which are 
frequentl}^ found separated from the bodies 
to which they once belonged. 

Yellow amber, cut in facets, or simply in 
beads for bracelets and necklaces, was long 
in fashion, and is sometimes worn at the 
present day. It is used in the East by 
Turks, Egj'^ptians, Arabs, Persians, and the 
natives of India, to ornament their pipes, 
arms, the saddles and bridles of their horses, 
and even of their camels ; and in the West it 
is made into beads, necklaces, brooches, 
earrings, boxes, and small works of art, cane- 
handles, mouth-pieces of pipes, and occa- 
sionally into candlesticks, salvers, pipe- 
tubes, and other larger articles. Four amber 
mouth-pieces, set with brilliants, exhibited 
in the Turkish Section of the Great Exhi- 
bition of 1851 were valued together at 
£1,000. The estimation in which Amber is 
held in Turkey for the mouth-pieces of 


pipes, may be in some measure accounted 
for by the current belief entertained in that 
country, where it is a great mark of polite- 
ness to offer the pipe to a stranger, that Am- 
ber is incapable of transmitting infection. 
The straw-yellow, slightly clouded, trans- 
lucent variety is the rarest, and that pre- 
ferred to all others by the Orientals, who 
purchase it at extravagant prices. In other 
countries the orange-yellow transparent 
variety is decidedly preferred. 

".Sir Plume, of amber snuff-box justly vain, 
And the nice conduct of a clouded * cane :" ^ jj 
Pope, Rape oj the X,ocA:..« 

In the Museum of Mineralogy in Paris 
there is the handle of a cane made of Amber, 
the colour of which is ef so pure a yellow, 
and so limpid, that it might almost be mis- 
taken for a Brazilian Topaz. 

The principal use of Amber in the Arts is 
for obtaining, by distillation, succinic acid 
and oil of amber, which it affords at a l«w 
temperature, leaving an extremely black, 
shining residue, which is employed as the 
basis of the finest black varnishes. 

Amber was known to the ancients, and 
made by them into various ornamental arti- . 
cles. It was said by the common fable to I 
consist of the tears of those poplars into ] 
which Phaeton's sisters were transformed. 
Pliny says, because our ancestors believed 
that it was the juice of a tree isuccum) they 
called it (in Latin) succinum. The Greeks 
called it "Hxtxr^ov, (either from its resem- 
blance in colour to the alloy of gold and 
silver of that name, or from 'Hxixru^, a name 
of the sun), and whence, on account of its 
electrical properties, the derivation of the 
word electricity. By some of the ancients 
Amber was called Lyncurion, and believed to ^ 
be produced from the urine of the lynx ; 
from that of the males when of a deep and 
fiery tint ; but when of a pale hue from that 

* These clouded canes were made of fine 
marbles, richly mounted with gold, silver, amber, 
&c. In the early part of the eighteenth century 
the most fashionable sorts of walliing-sticks were 
made of certain fine marbles and agates, exhibit- 
ing either a splendid variety of colour, or a rich 
semi-opaque plain tint, which was most expres- 
sively described by the English term '■' clouded." 
These wands were made of the most slender pro- 
portions, both on account of their specific gravity, 
and the quality of the persons by whom they 
were to be carried ; and they were often richly 
mounted with silver, gold, amber, or precious 
stones. Such were the "clouded canes" of the 
age of Pope and Gay, which were frequently so 
greatlv valued, as to be preserved in cases of 
shagreen or sheaths of leather.— (See the Tatler 
No. 103, 6th December, 1709.) 


of the other sex. In common with other 
stones the ancients attributed particular pro- 
perties to Amber. Pliny states that it is 
useful in medicine, and that a collar of Am- 
ber worn round the neck of a young infant 
was considered in his time a singular pre- 
servative against secret poisoning, and a 
countercharm to witchcraft and sorcery. 
«' Callistratus saith, that such collars are 
very good for all ages, and namely, to pre- 
serve as many as weare them against fantas- 
ticall illusions and frights that drive folke 
out of their wits : yea and amber, whether 
it be taken in drinke or hung about one, 
cureth the difficultie of voiding urine." — 
Pliny, book xxxvii. cap. 3. 

The modern name Amber is probably de- 
rived from that by which this substance is 
known in the East ; anbar or anabar (Per- 
sian), anbaron (Arabic). 

Amber is imitated by mixing by degrees, 
at a moderate and gradually raised heat, 
rectified oil of asphalt with turpentine in a 
yellow copper vessel. When, after two or 
three boilings, it has become sufficiently 
thick, it is poured into moulds. 

Amber may be distinguished from Mellite 
and copal, which are often substituted for it, 
by spitting and fi'othing when burning, and 
when its liquefied particles drop, by their 
rebounding from the surface on which they 
fall; while Mellite does not fuse in the 
same manner when heated, and copal,^when 
heated at the end of a knife, takes fire and 
melts into drops which flatten as they fall. 

Amber ornaments, when broken, may be 
mended with cement composed oi linseed 
oil, gum mastic, and litharge, or by warming 
the fractured surfaces and pressing them to- 
gether, after they have been moistened with 
a solution of potash, or soluble glass, — the 
pieces being tied round with, string for a few 

Brit. Mus., Case 60. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 92. 

Ambltgonic Augite i6pAii.,Haidinger ; or 
Amblygonite, Breithaupt, Dana. Rhom- 
bic. This mineral occurs massive and in 
oblique rhombic prisms, which are rough 
externally and of a greenish -white, a moun- 
tain- or sea-green colour. Lustre vitreous, in- 
clining to pearly. Translucent. Streak white. 
Fracture uneven. H. 6. S.G. 3.0 to 3-11. 

Comp. Phosphate of alumina and lithia, 
in combination with double fluoride of 
aluminum and lithium ; represented by the 

formula (AP ps + K^ps) + (AI2 F^ + KF) 
where R stands for lithium, sodium, and 


Analysis by Rammelsberg, fi'om Camsdorf : 
Phosphoric acid . . . 47-15 
Alumina .... 38-48 

Lithia 7.03 

Soda 3-29 

Potash 0-43 

Fluorine . . . .8*11 

BB fuses readily with intumescence, and 
becomes opaque white on cooling. Forms a 
transparent colourless glass with borax. 
Easily soluble in sulphuric acid. Occurs in 
granite at Chursdorf and Arnsdorf near Pe- 
nig, in Saxony, associated Avith Tourmaline 
and Garnet : also at Arendal, in J^orway. 

The name is derived from kix-^Xvymio?, 
having an obtuse angle ; {kiM^Xv?, blunt, and 
■ycav'ioe,, angle). 

Brit. Mus,, Case 54. 

Amethyst. A variety of Quartz of a 
clear purple or violet-blue, of various de- 
grees of intensity; the colour not unfre- 
quently passing, in the same specimen, from 
the richest tint to almost colourless. The 
colour is supposed to be produced by the 
presence of a small per centage of man- 
ganese. Heintz, however, on analysing a 
very deep purple specimen from the Brazils, 
obtained in addition to silica, 0-0187 pro- 
toxide of iron, 0-6236 lime, 0-0133 magnesia, 
and 0-0418 soda ; whence he infers that the 
colour is due to a compound of iron and 
soda. The finest Amethysts are brought 
from India, Brazil, Ceylon, Persia, Morocco, 
and Siberia ; but inferior, though beautiful 
specimens are found in Transylvania, Hun- 
gary, Saxony, the Harz, Brioude in Au- 
vergne, Murcia and Catalonia in Spain. A 
vein of Amethyst of a very beautiful colour 
is said to exist at Kerry Head, in Ireland, 
and many years ago it was used for jewelr3\ 
(i^. J. Foot.) It occurs massive, in rolled 
pieces, and in hexagonal crystals, which are 
rarely so distinct as those of Quartz, being 
generally united together for the entire 
length of the prisms, so that only the pyra- 
midal terminations are separated from each 
other. For this reason, when broken in the 
direction of the prisms, the fracture presents 
a coarsely fibrous or wrinkled appearance, 
somewhat resembling that of the skin on the 
palm of the hand. All the varieties of Rock 
Crystal having this peculiar wrinkled frac- 
ture are classed by Sir David Brewster under 
the head of Amethyst, of whatever colour they 
may happen to be. It is also found in veins, 
or forming the interior coatings of Agates in 
trap-rocks. The Amethyst vaiies consi- 
derably in transparency. It has always 


been esteemed, on account of its beauty, as 
a gem, and possesses the advantage of being 
almost the only coloured stone that can be 
worn M'ith mourning. It appears to the 
greatest advantage when set in gold and 
surrounded -with pearls ; but when of a 
vivid tinge it will sustain the presence of 
the diamond, and may, in consequence, be 
set round with brilliants. The less gold 
that is employed in making it up the better. 
The name Amethyst is derived from the 
word ciuJ.i)va-To;, which the Greeks supposed 
to be formed of «, neg., and /j-itiOco, to inebriate, 
from some supposed quality of the stone in 
resisting intoxication. Pliny mentions an 
opinion that it takes its name from its colour 
approaching that of wine, but not reach- 
ing it. 

"The reason of the name. Amethyst, is 
generally thought to be this, that notwith- 
standing it approach very neare to the colour 
of wine, yet before it throughly tast thereof, 
it tumeth into a March violet colour : and 
that purple lustre which it hath is not alto- 
gether fix, but declinetb in the end to the 
colour of wine." — Pliny, book sxxvii. ch. 9. 
Brit. Mus., Case 20. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 501 to 504. 
AMETHYSTOLINE. The name given to the 
volatile fluid observed by Brewster in cavi- 
ties of Amethyst. 

Amiabtth, Jameson, Werner. \ See A^n- 
Amiaxthe, Brochant. J anthus. 

A^OANTHOiDE, Haiiy. A variety of Ami- 
anthus from Oisans, in Dauphiny, the fibres 
of which are somewhat elastic. 
Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

ArviiANTHOiD Magnesite, Nuttall. See 

Amianthus. The name given to the 
whiter and more delicate varieties of As- 
bestos, which possess a satin-like lustre,- 
owing to the greater separation of the fibres of 
which they are composed. Amianthus usu- 
ally occurs in Serpentine. It is found in the 
Tarantaise in Savoy, in Corsica, Dauphiny, 
St. Gotthard, Saltzburg, the Tyrol, United 
States, &c. It is also met with in Corn- 
wall, near Liskeard, and at the Lizard 
Point; in Scotland, at Portsoy, in Banff"- 
ghire ; at Towenrielf in Aberdeenshire ; at 
Glenelg in Inverness-shire ; and on the east 
coast of Balta Island in the Shetlands. The 
word Amianthus (from a.!x,lc/,vrc?, undefiled,) is 
expressive of the simple manner by which, 
when soiled, it may be cleansed stud restored 
to its original purity. " From its flexibility, 
and its resisting the efiects of fire, it is said 
to have been, by the ancients, wove into a 
kind of cloth, In which they wrapped the 


bodies of persons of distinction before they 
were placed on the funeral pile, that their 
ashes might be collected free from admix- 
ture; it was also used for incombustible 
wicks," * a purpose to which it is applied 
at the present day. 

Brit. Mus., Cas''e 34. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1151. 

A]SEMiOLiTE, Dana. Antimonite of quick- 
silver mixed Avith clay and oxide of iron, 
forming a red powder, found at the quick- 
silver mines in Chili, accompanied by ores of 

antimony, copper, and mercury; 
Silbe, near Olpe, in Westphalia. 
Analysis by Domeyko : 

Antimonious acid . 

Protoxide of mercury . 


Peroxide of iron . 

Water and loss 

also at 



Name. From a,w.,a./«v, vermilion. 

Amnion ALUM, Beudant, Necker ; Aioro- 
nia-alum; Ammoniak alaun, v. Kobell. 
Occurs in thin fibrous laj'ers and in octahe- 
drons, in Brown Coal, at Tschermig in 
Bohemia. H. 1 to 2. S.G. 1-56. 

Comp. Sulphate of alumina and ammonia, 

or N H4 S + Al S + 24 H = sulphate of 
ammonia 14*6, sulphate of potash 37-8, 
water 47-6 = 100. 
Analysis by Pfaff: 

Sulphuric acid . . . 36'00 
Alumina .... 12-14 
Ammonia .... 6-58 
Magnesia .... 0-28 
Water 45-00 

This salt is manufactured and used in France 
instead of potash-alum. It is prepared by 
mixing the sulphate of alumina obtained 
from alum-shale, lignite containing Iron- 
pyrites, or any other aluminous mineral im- 
pregnated with sulphide of iron, or by 
treating clay with sulphuric acid with de- 
composing urine (which contains ammonia- 
cal salts). The ammonia-alum then sepa- 
rates, and may be purified by repeated solu- 
tion and recrystallization. 


Am3Ionl\qub SULFATES, Haiiy. See 

Ajigibite, v. Kobell. A variety of Gers- 

Jaraeson's Mineralogy, vol. i. p. 445. 


dorffite, occurring in small octahedrons of a 
pale steel -grey colour at Lichtenberg in the 
Fitchtelbirge. H. 4. S.G. 6-08. 
Analysis by Von Kohell : 
Arsenic .... 45-34 

Nickel 37-34 

Sulphur .... 14-00 
Iron . . . . . 2-50 
Lead . . . . . 0-82 
Cobalt trace 


Ampelitis, Dioscorides. Cannel Coal. 

Amphibole, Haiiy. See Hornblende. 
The name is derived from aiJjpiQoXo;, ambigu- 
ous ; because it had been confounded with 

Amphibole BLANC, Haliy.^ See Tremo- 


Amphigene, Haiiy, (from «/*<?/, double, 
and yivos, origin.^ See Leucite. 
Ajviphilogite. See Didrimite. 
Amphodeijte, Nordenskiold, Phillips. A 
reddish-grey or dingy peach-blossom-red 
variety of A^northite, occurring both crystal - 
ized and massive at Lojo in Finland and at 
Tunaberg in Sweden. It resembles Felspar 
Ti crystalline form, and Scapolite in fracture, 
a. 4-5. S.G. 2-763. 
Analysis by Nordenskiold, from Finland : 

Silica 45-80 

Alumina . . . . 35'45 

Lime 1015 

Magnesia .... 5*05 
Protoxide of iron . . 1-70 
Water 1-85 


Name. From a^ijiy, both, and o'SeAoj, a spit 
or pointed pillar. 

Brit. Mus., Case 31. 

Anagenite. See Chrome Ochre, 

Analcime, Haiiy, Dana, Nicol, Phillips. 

Cubical. Primary form a cube. Oc- 
curs generally in icositetrahedral (or 24- 
sided) crystals. 

Colourless and transparent; or white, 
grey, red and opaque. Lustre shining, be- 
tween pearly and vitreous. Streak white. 
Brittle. Fracture imperfect conchoidal. Be- 
comes feeblv electric by friction. H. 5 to 
5-5. S.G. 2-068 to 2'2. 

Fig. 13. 



Comp. ¥a3 Si + 3A1 Si2 + 6H = silica 54-6, 
alumina 23-2, soda 14-0, water 8-1 = 100. 

Analysis hy Connel, from Old Kirkpatrick : 

Silica 55-07 

Alumina .... 22-23 
Soda .... 13-71 
Water 8-22 


BB loses water and becomes milk-white ; 
but when the heat is increased it again be- 
comes clear, and then fuses quietly to a 
transparent glass. Keadily decomposed by 
muriatic acid, with separation of viscid sili^ 
ca ; after ignition the decomposition is effect- 
ed with more difficulty than before. 

Analcime usually occurs in the cavities of 
amygdaloidal_ rocks, and is common in the 
trap rocks of Ireland and Scotland. 

Localities. — Scotch. Dumbartonshire ; 
Bowling and Long Craig, above Old Kirk- 
patrick; Salisbury Craig, Calton Hill, Ra- 
tho quarry, Edinburghshire ; Elie, Fife- 
shire ; Campsie Hills, Stirlingshire ; Can- 
na, Eig, Mull and Staffa; Waas in Hoy, 
Orkney. — Irish. Giant's Causeway, in 
small transparent crystals ; O'Hara's Rocks, 
near Port Stewart ; Gweedore, Donegal, in do- 
lomite ; Craignashoke,Derry. — Foreign. The 
most perfectly' pellucid crystals are found in 
the dolerite of the Cyclopean Isles, near Cata- 
nia, in Sicily ; also from the Seisser Alpe and 
Fassa in the Tyrol. It is also found in the 
Faroe Isles, Iceland, the Vicentine, Arendal 
in Norway, Andreasberg in the Harz, Nova 
Scotia, &c. 

Name. From ocvuXxn, weak ; in allusion to 
its weak electric power* when heated or 

Brit. Mus., Case 29. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1175, 
1176. Upper Gallerv, Table-case A in re- 
cess 4, No. 130. 

Analcime caenea, the name given by 
Monticelli to Sarcolite, from its flesh-red 

Analzlm, Haidinger. See Analcime. 

Anatase. Dana, Haiiy, Greg Sf Lett" 
som, Nicol, Phillips. Pyramidal ; primary 
form an octahedron with a square base. Oc- 
curs in small octahedral crystals of various 
shades of brown, passing into indigo-blue, 
which appear greenish-yellow by trans- 
mitted light. Semi-transparent to opaque. 
Lustre splendent and adamantine. Struc- 
ture lamellar. Streak white. Brittle. Frac- 
ture sub-conchoidal. Becomes negatively 
electric by friction. Exhibits a reddish- 


yellow phosphorescent light when heated. 
H. 5-5 to 6. S.G. 3-83 to 3-95. 

Fig. 14. 

Fig. 15. 

Comp. Pure titanic acid or Ti= titanium 
60-29, oxygen 8971 = 100. 

BB alone infusible. With soda forms a 
dull yellow globule, which' becomes white 
on cooling. Dissolves in warm concen- 
trated sulphuric acid. 

Localities. — English. Cornwall; at Looe 
Mills Hill quarry, near Liskeard; and at 
Tintagel Cliffs. Devonshire; Virtuous Lady 
mine, near Tavistock, fig. 14. — Welsh. Tre- 
madoc, Snowdon,/^. 15, with Brookite and 
Cleavelandite. — Forei^fn. Bourg d'Oisans 
in Dauphiny; Brazil, in Quartz, and at 
Minas Geraes, in detached crystals, which 
are so splendent as to be sometimes mis- 
taken for Diamonds. Tavatsch in the Ty- 
rol. The Grisons in mica-slate. Slidrein 
Norway. The Ural. Spain. 

Name. From coiaTain;, extension, in allusion 
to the height of the pyramids of the octahe- 
dral crystals. 

Brit. Mus., Case 87. 

Anauxite, Breithaupt. Occurs massive 
and granular. Colour greenish-white. 
Translucent at the edges. Lustre pearly. 
H. 2 to 3. S.G. 2-26. 

Comp. According to Plattner it is com- 
posed of silica 55-7, with much alumina, a 
little magnesia aad protoxide of iron, and 
11'5 per cent, of water. 

BB becomes white and fuses at thin edges. 

Locality. Bilin in Bohemia. 

Name. From avatbl'/iro?, without augmenta- 

Andalusite, Phillips, Jameson, Dana, 
Nicol, Baiiy. Rhombic. Occurs in slight- 
ly rhombic, four-sided prisms ; also massive, 
when it is exceedingly tough. Structure 
lamellar. Colour pearl-grey or flesh-red, 
sometimes purplish red. Translucent at the 
edges or opaque. Lustre vitreous, often 
weak. Streak white. Tough. Fracture 
uneven. K 7-5. S.G. 3-1 to 3-2. 

Fig. 16. 


Comp. Anhydrous silicate of alumina or 

A14 si^ = alumina 59*7, silica 40-3 = 100. 

Analysis by Hubert, from the Tyrol : 

Alumina . . . .*59 49 

Silica 39.24 

Peroxide of iron . . . 0-63 . 
Magnesia .... 0-25 
Lime 0-51 


S5 infusible alone: with borax fuses with 
difficulty, when reduced to powder, to a 
transparent colourless glass ; and with still 
greater difficulty and less perfectly in mi- 
crocosmic salt. With soda swells up, but 
does not fuse. Insoluble in acids. 9 

Localities. — Scotch. Auchindoir, Aber- '* 
deenshire; BDtriphny, Banffshire; Unst, 
Shetlands. — Irish. Scalp mountain, Done- 
gal ; Douce mountain, co. Wicklow ; also at 
Ltigganure, Glendalough and Glen Malure. — 
Foreign. Lisenz valley aboveInnspruck,in the 
Tyrol, in very large crystals. Near Brauns- 
dqrf in Saxony ; Guldenstein, in Moravia ; 
Bavaria; Siberia. 

Andalusite occurs in crystalline schists, 
principally in gneiss, in mica and clay-slate. 
It may be distinguished from Felspar by its 
greater hardness and infusibility ; from Co- 
rundum by its structure and lower specific 

Name. It is named after the province of 
Andalusia, in Spain, where it was first ob- 
served. See Chiastolite. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Andesine, Dana. Anorthic. Eesembles 
Albite. Colour white, grey, greenish, yel- 
lowish, flesh-red. Lustre subvitreous, in- 
clining to pearly. H. 6. S.G. 2-65 to 2-74. 

Comp. K3 Si + 3Ai Si or (K, Na, Ca, Mg)5 

Si + 3AlSi2. 

Analysis by AbicJi, from Marmato : 

Silica . 

. 59-60 


. 24-18 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 1-58 

Lime . 

. 5-77 


. 1-08 

Potash . 

. 1-08 

Soda . 

. . 6-53 

BB fuses much more readily than Albite, 
and yields a turbid glass. Imperfectly so- 
luble in acids. 

Localities. Andesine is one of the com- 
ponents of the rock Andesite, which occurs 
in the Andes (hence the names Andesine 


and Andesite) of South America. It is also 
met with in the syenite of Alsace, in the 
Vosges, and at Vapnefiord, Iceland, in 
honey -yellow transparent crystals. 


Ajs^dreolithe, La Metherie, names for Har- 
motome; after that of the place where it 
was first discovered, Andreasberg (in the. 
Harz) and >^'Soi, stone. 

Anglarite. a fibrous and compact va- 
riety of phosphate of iron, of a grey colour 
inclining to blue. Translucent. 

Comp, Fe4F + 4H. 

Analysis by Berthier : 

Phosphoric acid . . . 27-3 
Protoxide of iron . . . 56*0 
Water 16-5 

BB fuses to a black globule. 

Locality. Anglar (whence the name An- 
glarite) in the Haute Yienne, France, 

Anglesine, Beudant ; Anglesit, Hald- 
inger, v. Kohell; Anglesite, Beudant: Greg 
§' Lettsom, Nicol, Dana. Rhombic: is a 
sulphate of lead, occurring in rhombic 
prisms with dihedral terminations, but the 
crystals, when short, assume the general 
form of the octahedron. Colour white, grey, 
or yellowish ; frequently tinged blue or 
green by oxide of copper. Lustre adaman- 
tine, inclining to resinous. Transparent, 
opaque. Yery brittle, and yields to the 
nail. Fracture conchoidal. H. 3. S. G. 6 2 
to 6-3. 

Fig. 17. 

Fig. 18. 

Comp. Pb S = sulphuric acid 26-4, oxide 
of lead 73-6 = 100. 

Analysis bv Klaproih, from Anglesea : 
Oxide of lead . . .710 
Peroxide of iron . . .1*0 
Sulphuric acid . . . 24*8 
Water 2-0 

98-8 ■ 
BB decrepitates and melts to a globule, 
which becomes milk-white when cool : in 
the inner flame efi"ervesces and is soon re- 
duced to the metallic state. 

This ore of lead is derived from the de- 
composition of Galena, with which it gene- 
rally occurs. 


Localities. — Anglesite was first observed as 
a distinct species at Pary's mine in Anglesea 
(whence the name). It is found in brilliant 
crystals at Rent Tor, near Wirksworth; 
and in small yellow crystals at Crom- 
ford in Derbyshire ; in Cumberland, at the 
Mexico mine, near Hesket Newmarket (fig. 
17.) In Scotland, large and beautiful crystals 
were formerly found at Leadhills in Lanark- 
shire, and at Wanlock Head in Dumfriesshire, 
sometimes two inches long and with perfect 
terminations. Small but extremely perfect 
transparent crystals have been brought 
from Fondon, in Granada. 

Brit. Mus. Case 55, 

M.P.G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 44, 
No. 72 (British). 

Anhydrite Dana, Greg ^ Lettsom, Phil- 
lips, Jameson, Nicol : Rhombic : occurs (but 
rarely) crystallized in the form of a rectangu- 
lar prism, of which the lateral edges are 
sometimes, though rarely, replaced. Chiefly 
in granular, or almost compact aggregates, 
or with a columnar structure. Colour white, 
sometimes tinged with grey, blue, violet, or 
red; also brick-red. Translucent, some- 
times transparent. Lustre vitreous, inclin- 
ing to pearly. Streak greyish-white. Frac- 
ture uneven : of finely lamellar and fibrous 
varieties, splintery. Exhibits double re- 
fraction. H. 3 to" 3-5. S. G. 2.899. 

Fig. 19. Fig. 20. 

Comp. Anhydrous sulphate of lime, or Ca 

S=lime 41-18, sulphuric acid 58-82 = 100. 
BB becomes white and is finally covered with 
a friable enamel. With borax dissolves, 
with effervescence, to a transparent glass, 
which becomes yellow or brownish-yellow 
on cooling. 

Slightly soluble in water and muriatic 

Localities. — English. Granular and of a pale 
blue colour, in the gypsum-pits at Aston- 
on-Trent, near Derby ; Newark, Notts ; with 
Gypsum. — Irish. Cave Hill, near Belfast; in 
trap. — Foreign. Bex, in Switzerland ; Salz- 
burg, in the Tyrol ; Wurtemberg ; the Harz ; 
Hungary ; Bavaria ; Aussee, in Upper Aus- 
tria, of a brick-red colour, in Rock Salt. 

Anhydrite may be distinguished from 
Gypsum by its greater hardness and specific^ 


gravity. By absorbing water, -whicb it does 
very slowly, it becomes changed to Gypsum. 
At Bex extensive beds are altered in this 
manner, but by digging to a depth of 60 to 
100 feet, the Anhydrite is found unaltered. 
See also Gekrosstein, Mukiacite, Vulpi- 


Name. From «, priv., and vou^, water. 

Brit. Mus., Case 54. 

Anhydrous Binoxide of JIajstganese, 
Turner. See Pyrolusite. 

Anhydrous Scolezite : anhydrous lime- 
Labradorite from Pargas, in Finland. 

Anhydrous Silicate of Iron, Phillips, 
Thomson. See Fayalite. 

Anhydrous Silicate of Manganese. 
See Tephronite. 

Anhydrous Silicate of Zinc. See 


Willemite, Williamsite. 

Anhydrous Sulphate of Alumina. 
See Thenardite. 

Anhydrous Sulphate of LmE. See 

Anhydrous Sulphate of Soda and 
LniE, Cleaveland. See Glauberite. 

Ankerite, Dana, Nicol, Phillips, Hai- 
dinger, Greg §• Lettsom. A crystallized va- 
riety of Dolomite, containing a large pro- 
portion of iron. 

Hexagonal. Tellowish, or reddisb-white ; 
becoming brown on exposure. Translucent 
at the edges. Lustre vitreous, inclining to 
pearl V. Brittle. Fracture uneven. 11. 
3-5 to 4. S.G. 2-95 to 3-1. 

Camp. Ca C+ (Fe, Mg, Mn) C. 

Analysis by Berthier, from Gollrath : 
Carbonate of lime . . 51'1 
Carbonate of iron . . . 200 
Carbonate of magnesia . 257 
Carbonate of manganese . 3-C 

BB becomes black and magnetic; with 
borax gives the. colour of iron; with soda 
gives indications of manganese. 

Dissolves with effervescence in nitric acid. 

Localities. Near Torness, in the Orkneys, 
massive and in curved crj^stals, in amygda- 
loid; Golrath, Eisenerz, andthe Xieder Alp 
in StA'ria, with Siderite ; Rathhausberg, in 
the valley of Gastein, in Salzburg, in mica- 
slate. See also Rohwand. 

Name. After Prof. Anker, of Gratz. 

Brit. Mus., Case 47. 

Annabergite, Dana, Haidinger. Ob- 
lique. Occurs in capillary crystals of a fine 
apple-green colour, adhering to, or coating. 
Arsenical Nickel, of the decomposition of 


wiiich it is a result. It is soft, and has a 
greenish -white streak, and an uneven or 
earthy fracture. H 2 5 to 3. G. 3-078 to 

Comp. Ni3 As + 8H = oxide of nickel 

37-59, arsenic acid 38*41, water 24-00 = 

Analysis by Kersten : 

Arsenic acid . . . 38-30 

Oxide of nickel . . . 36-20 

■ Oxide of cobalt . . .1-53 

Water . , . . 23-91 

Protoxide of iron . . trace 

BB on charcoal, gives out an odour of 
arsenic, and, in the inner flame, fuses to a 
metallic globule. 

Dissolves in nitric acid. 

Annabergite occurs, with White Nickel, at 
Allemont, in Dauphiny, at Annaberg*, and 
elsewhere. , 

31. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 20. 

Annivite, Dufrenoy. A mineral analo- 
gous to Grey Copper, and according to 
Kenngott, an impure variety of that ore. 
It is found in the valley of Annivier with 
Copper Pyrites. 

Anorthite, Rose, Dana. Anorthic. Pri- 
mary form an oblique rhombic prism. Oc- 
curs in white translucent or transparent 
crystals, with a vitreous lustre inclining 
to pearly on the planes of cleavage. Streak 
white. Fracture conchoidal. H, 6 to 7. 
S.G. 2-66 to 2-78. 


Fig. 21. 

Comp. Ca3 si + 3 Al Si or like Scapolite, 
except that small portions of the lime are 
replaced by magnesia, potash, and soda. 

Analysis by Abich, from Somma : 

Silica . 
Peroxide of iron 
Lime . 
Magnesia . 
Soda . 



» Whence the name Annabergite. 


BB like Felspar, except that with carbonate 
of soda, in every proportion, it yields a 
white enamel, never a transparent glass. 

Is entirely decomposed by muriatic acid. 

Localities. — Irish. Carlingford Mountain, 
CO. Down, with Hornblende and syenite, in 
greenstone dykes, traversing limestone. — 
Foreign. — Principally at Vesuvius, among 
the old lavas of Monte Somma, generally oc- 
cupying the cavities of chloritic masses, 
and associated with Ice-spar, Augite, Mica, 
and Idocrase; Island of Procida; Faroe 
Islands ; Java ; the Konchekowskoi Kamen 
in the Ural. 

Anorthite may be distinguished from all 
the zeolites, as well as from Nepheline and 
Leucite, by its infusibility before the blow- 
pipe ; from Topaz by inferior hardness and 
specific gravity ; and from Chrysolite by 
lower degrees of specific gravity. Nitric 
acid has no effect on Chondodrite, while 
Anorthite is partly dissolved in it; the for- 
mer, too, is always yellow or brownish- 
yellow, the latter is invariably white. 

JVame From oivcgfio?, oblique. 

Brit. Mus., Case 30. 

Ajjorthitic Melane Ore, Haidinger. 
See Allanite. 

Anorthotomous Felspar, Mohs. See 

ANTHOPHYLLITE, Phillips. A variety of 
Hornblende (Tremolite) occurring in masses 
consisting of acicular fibres, which are often 
disposed in a radiating form. It has a. grey 
or clove-brown colour, with an occasional 
blue tinge and a glistening, pearly, pseudo- 
metaUic lustre. Translucent at the edges. 
H. 5 to 5-5. S.G. 2-94 to 3-16. 

Comp. Fe Si + Mg^ bi = protoxide of iron 
15-5, magnesia 259, silica 58-6 = 100. 

Analysis by Thomson, from Perth in Ca- 
nada E. : ' 

Silica . 

. 5760 

Alumina . 

. 3-20 

Magnesia . 

. 29-30 

Lime . 

. 3-55 

Protoxide of iron 

. 2-10 

Water. . . 

. 3-55 


BB fusibte with great difficulty, alone to a 
blackish-grey glass ; with borax to a trans- 
parent glass coloured grass-green by iron. 

Not decomposed by acids. 

Localities. Kongsberg and Snarum, in 
Norway ; Ujordlesoak, in Greenland , Had- 
dam, Connecticut, U. S. 

The name has reference to the resem- 


blance of its colour to that of the flower 

Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, 1007. 

Anthosidbrite, Dana, Hausmann, Nicol. 
A mineral resembling Cacoxene, occurring 
in fine fibrous, flower- like aggregates, of an 
ochreous-yellow, and yellowish-brown co- 
lour. Opaque or slightly subtranslucent. 
Lustre ^ilky. Tough. Gives sparks with 
steel. H. 6-5. S.G. 3-6. 

Comp. F^e bi^ + H = silica 60*4, peroxide of 
iron 35-6, water 4-0 = 100-0. 
BB becomes reddish-brown, then black, and 
fuses with difficulty to a black, magnetic 

Soluble in muriatic acid. 

Locality. Minas Geraes in Brazil, asso- 
ciated with Magnetic Iron. . 

Name. From oivdo;, a flower, and o-iSy^c?, 
iron ; in allusion to its occurrence in fibrous 
tufts, which are sometimes aggregated into 
feathery flowers. 

Brit. Mus., Case 14. 

Anthracite. A non-bituminous variety 
of Coal, with a bright and often iridescent 
lustre, and a sharp-edged, shining, con- 
choidal fracture, H. 2 to 2-5. S.G. 1-3 to 1-75. 

The Anthracite of South Wales contains 
from 88 to 95 per cent, of carbon, 4 to 7 of 
water, with some earthy impurities. 

Analysis* from Glamorganshire. S.G. 
1-375 : 


Hydrogen . 

. 3-46 


. . 0-21 


. 0-79 


. 2-58 


. . 1-52 


Coke left by the Coal 92-9 per cent. 

This variety of Coal is not easily ignited 
but when burning it gives out an intense 
heat, unaccompanied by smoke, and with 
little flame. It occurs in Carmarthenshire 
and Pembrokeshire in S. Wales; Bide- 
ford in Devon ; Biuney Craig, Linlithgow- 
shire; Kilkenny, in Ireland; largely in 
Pennsylvania, U.S., &c. 

Brit. Mus., Case 4. 

M. P. G. Upper Gallery, Wall-case 41, 
No. 164. 

See also Coal. 

Anthraconite. Limestone, which emits 

* Reporfonthe Coal suited to the Steam Navy, 
by Sir H. T. De la Beche and Dr. Lyon Play- 



a fetid odour when scraped or struck with a 
hammer, owing, probably, to its containing 
sulphuretted hj'drogen. It occurs colum- 
nar, granular, and compact, of various 
shades of grey, brown and black. The 
harder varieties, which take a good polish, 
are used for chimney-pieces, and in orna- 
mental architecture. It is found in Sweden, 
Carinthia, &c. ; also, in the mountain lime- 
stone on the banks of the Avon, near Clif- 
ton; and near Castleton and Matlock in 
Derbyshire. IMost of the Purbeck and 
Portland Limestones of Dorsetshire and 
Wiltshire belong to this class, and may be 
recognised -when used for mending the 
roads, by the strong fetid odour they give 
out when crushed by the passage of heavy 
vehicles. See also Swinestone. 

Brit. Mus., Case 46. 

31. P. G. Upper Gallery, Wall-case, 43. 

Anthracoxexe. a mineral resin of a 
brownish- black colour from the coal-beds of 
Brandeisl, in Bohemia. In thin splinters 
it is hyacinth-red. H. 2-5. S.G. 1-181. 
It melts easily with intumescence and 
burns to a slag, giving off much smoke 
and an odour which is not disagreeable. 

It is partly soluble in ether, but not at all 
so in alcohol, except after exposure, when it 
absorbs oxygen, and then alcohol takes up 
a little of it. 

Ai!iT:i'EDB.iT,Breithaupt. SeeEDiNGTONiTE. 

Antigokite, Schweizer. Rhombic. Oc- 
curs in foliated masses of a brownish -green 
colour by reflected light, and leek-green by 
transmitted light. Transparent in thin 
lamina. Lustre weak. Streak white. Feel 
smooth but not greasy. H. 2-5. S.G. 2-6. 

Co)np. Hydrated silicate of magnesia, 

Mg4 bi2 + H, or more correctly (MgS Fe) Si^ 

+ H. 

Analysis by Schweizer : 

Silica 46-18 

Magnesia .... 35'19 

Protoxide of iron . . 12-68 

Alumina .... 1'89 

Water .... 3-70 

BB fuses at the edges to a yellowish-brown 
enamel. With borax forms a glass coloured 
by iron. 

'Locality. The Antigorio* Yalley to the 
N.W. of Domo d'Ossola, in Piedmont. 

Antigorite has been shown by Professor 
G. J. Brush to be slaty serpentine in which. 

Whence the name Antigorite. 

according to Stockar-Escher, alumina re- 
places the silica. 

Antimoine Blakc, Broehant. See Ya- 


Antimoine Gris, BrochanL Grey Anti- 
mony. See Stibnite. 

Antimoine Hydro-sulfure, Haily. See 

Antimoine Muriatique, La Metherie. 
See Yalentinite. 

Antimoine 1^ atif, Haiiy. See Native 

Antenioine Oxide, Haiiy. See Yalen- 

Antimoine Oxide Sulfure, Haiiy. See 

Antimoine Oxide Terreux, Haily. 
See Stibiconise. 

Antimoine Rouge, Broehant. See Ker- 

Antimoine Sulfure, Haiiy. See Stib- 


Antunioine Sulfure Capilla i re, Saiiy. 
A fibrous variety of Stibnite, occasionally 
presenting a plumose, woolly, or felt-like 

Antimoine Sulfure Nickelifere^ 
Haiiy. See Ullmannite. 

Antimoine Sulfure Plombifere. See 


Antimoine 'Sulfure Plumbo-Cupri- 
fere, Haiiy. See Bournonite. 

Antimon-arsen, Naumann. See Ar- 
senical Antimony. 

Antimonate of Lead. See Blein- 


Antimonblende, v. Leonhard. See Ker- 

Antimonbluthe, v. Leonhard. See Ya- 

Antimonglanz, Naumann, v. Leonhard. 
See Stibnite. 

Antimonial Copper. See Wolfsber- 

Antimonial Copper Glance. See 


Antijionial Grey Copper, Phillips. 
Is merely a variety of Grey Copper. It 
rarely occurs crystallized and is of a dark 
lead-grey colour, with no appearance of any 
regular structure. Not very brittle. Frac - 
ture conchoidal. The iprincipal locality is 
Schwatz in the Tyrol,but it is also found at 
Kapnik in Transylvania, Clausthal in the 
Harz, Siberia, &c. It is the Schwarzerz of 
German miners. 

M. P. G. Principal floor, Wall-case 16 

Antimonial Nickel, Phillips. See Ull- 



Antimonial, Nickel. See Bkeithaup- 


Antimonial Ochre, Phillips. Occurs in 
earthy masses, and as a pulverulent crust ; 
also in pseudomorphs after Stibnite. Colour 
yellow, yellowish grey, or brownish opaque. 
Dull. Streak grey or yellowish-white and 
glistening. Soft and friable. Fracture un- 
even or earthy. S.G. 3-7 to 3-8. 

Comp. Probably antinionious acid or Sb 
with water. 

BB does not fuse, but forms a slight stain 
on the charcoal : with soda is reduced. 

Localities. Associated with Stibnite and 
other ores of antimony at Bruck in Rhenish 
Prussia, Nassau, Wolfsberg in the Harz, 
Kremnitz in Hungary, Saxony, Gallicia la 
Spain, Prance &c. 

Brit. Mus., Case 38. 

Antimonial Silver, Jameson, Phillips. 
See DiscRAsiTE. 

Antimonial Silver Blende, Naumann. 
See Pyrargyrite. 

Antimonial Sulphide of Iron. See 

Antimoniated Native Silver, Kirwan. 
See DiscRASiTE. 

Antimonial Sulphuret of Silver. 
See Pyrargyrite & Freislebenite. 

Antimoniate of Lead. See Bleinie- 

Antimonigsaures Bleioxyd. See Am- 


Antimonit, Haidinger, ^ 
V. KobelL ( CI CT 

Antijmonite, Brooke §• \ ^^^ Stibnite. 
Miller, Greg §• Lettsom. ) 

Antimonite of Lead. See Bleinierite. 

Antimonite of Lime. See Romeine. 

Antimonite of Quicksilver, Domeyko. 
See Ammiolite. 

Antimonkupferglanz, Breithaupt. See 


Antimonnickel. See Breithauptite. 
Antimonnickelglanz, Hausmann. See 
Antimonochrb ) S^e« Cervan- 

Antimonoker, .. ieon- K- I'J^J^^Z^ 

^«^^- J GERITE. 

Antimonoxyd. See Valentinite and 

Antimonphyllite, Breithaupt, Phillips. 
A mineral containing oxide of antimony, 
and occurring in thin inequiangular six- 
sided prisms. The locality is not known. 

Antimonsilber, v. Leonliard. See Dis- 


Antimonsilberblende. See Pyrar- 


Antimony, Dana, NicoL See Native 


Antimony Blende. See Kermesite. 
Antimony Bloom. See Valentinite.' 
Antimony Glance. See Stibnite. 
Antimony Ochre, Jameson, Nicol. See 
Antimonial Ochre. 

Antimony Silver, Nicol. See Discra- 

Antrimolite, Thomson. A variety of 
Mesolite occurring in white, silky, fibrous 
stalactites, about the size of a finger, in 
cavities of amygdaloid, at Ballintoy, co. 
Antrim, in Ireland. The fibres radiate from 
the axes. H. 3-7. S.G. 21. 
Analysis by Heddle : 

Silica 47-04 

Alumina .... 26-26 

Lime 9-88 

Soda 4-88 

Water .... 12-24 

BB melts quietly to a white enamel. 
Gelatinizes with muriatic acid. 

Brit. Mus., Case 29. 

Apatelite. Meillet. A mineral re- 
sembling Copiapite, occuning in small fri- 
able nodules of a clear yellow colour, dis- 
seminated in an argillaceous bed connected 
with the Plastic Clay, at Meudon and 
Auteuil, in France. 

Comp. 2 Fe2 S3 + 3 H. 

Analysis by Meillet : 

Suiphuric acid . . . 42-90 
Peroxide of iron . . . 53-30 
Water . . . . . 396 

Apatite. Werner, Dana, Phillips. Cry- 
stalline phosphate lime. Hexagonal, often 
hemihedral, occurs in six-sided prisms. 


Fig. 23. 

Fig. 24. 

terminated by one or more planes, or the 

prism is terminated by a six-sided pvramid , 




and the lateral edges are sometimes re- 
placed. Colours, usually pale and most com- 
monly white, yellowish -white, wine-yellow, 
green, blue, or bluish-green, and red, which 
are sometimes intermixed in the same 
crystal. Externally it is splendent; in- 
ternally the lusti-e is shining and resinous 
approaching to vitreous. Transparent to 
opaque. A bluish opalescence is some- 
times displayed in the direction of the 
vertical axis. Brittle. Cross fracture un- 
even, approaching to small-conchoidal. H. 5. 
S.G. 3-25, 

Comp. 3 Ca3 P + Ca (CI, F) = phosphoric 
acid 42-26, lime 50*0, fluorine 377, calcium 
o'97 ; or phosphate of lime 92-26 and fluoride 
of calcium 7-74, with part of the fluoride 
sometimes replaced by chloride. 

Analysis hyG. Rose, horn. Cabo de Gata, 
Spain: S.G. 3-235. 

Phosphate of lime . . 92-066 
Chloride of calcium . . 0-885 
Fluoride of calcium . . 7*049 

BB fusible with difficult}'- on thin edges : 
with borax forms a clear globule, and in salt 
of phosphorus dissolves in great quantity, 
affording a transparent glass, which when 
nearly saturated becomes opaque on cool- 
ing, and presents crystalline faces. Some 
varieties are phosphorescent when placed 
on ignited charcoal, and before the blowpipe. 
Localities. — English. Cornwall, of a grey- 
ish bkie at Stenna Gwvnn near St. Austell ; 
St. Michael's Mount ; 'Huel Kind, near St. 
Agnes; Fowey Consols and Huel Franco 
(Francolite), near Tavistock. Cumberland 
at the foot of Brandygill, Carrock Fells, of 
the form of ^s. 22 and 23. Devonshire at 
Bovey Tracey, in crystals sometimes two 
inches long, associated with black Tourma- 
line. — Scotch. Dee side in Aberdeenshire. — 
Irish. Near Kilroot, co. Antrim, in granite ; 
near Hilltown, Dublin; and at Killiney 
Hill, in limestone. — Foreign. Ehrenfrieders'- 
dorf and Schneeberg in Saxonv; Schlacken- 
wald in Bohemia, Pfitsch-Thal in Tyrol, St. 
Gotthard in Switzerland, Krageroe and 
Snarum in Norway, and (according to Nor- 
denskiold) in Bucharia in Asia, in crystals 
of a blue colour, (^Lazur- apatite^ associated 
with Lapis Lazuli. An hexagonal prism of 
a pale amethyst colour, in the Brit. Mus. 
(Case 57 B.), said to be from the neighbour- 
hood of St. Petersburg, was purchased by 
Mr. Greville for 78/. Professor Voelcker 
states that all the specimens of Apatite 
which he obtained from Krageroe, were 


perfectly free from fluorine and contained 
variable quantities of chloride of calcium. 
In Spain, at Logrosan in Estremadura, the 
massive varieties are used for building-stone. 
Losacio, province of Zamora, near Portugal. 

Apatite usually occurs in crystalline rocks, 
especially in those containing tin veins and 
iron ore : it is also found in granular lime- 
stone, and sometimes in serpentine. 

The name, derived from aTaraa (to de- 
ceive), was given to this mineral by Wer- 
ner, in consequence of the fallacious resem- 
blance it bears to other minerals. For 
varieties, see Asparagus stone, Moro- 
xiTE and Phosphorite. 

Brit. Mus., Case 57 B. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 312 to 
317: Wall Case, 25. 

Apatoid, one of the minerals found in 
meteorites, which have been named by 
Prof. C. U. Shepard. It occurs in very 
minute quantity, in small, yellow, semi- 
transparent grains in the Richmond stone, 
and sparingly in that of Bishopsville. H. 
5-5. It is so named from its resemblance 
in appearance to Apatite, but chemically 
it differs from the latter in not containing 
phosphoric acid. 

f A name forClino- 
clase; from «<?<»- 
! vhs, unmanifest; 
<! in allusion to the 
extremely mi- 
1 nute crystals in 
l^ which it occurs. 

Apherese, Beudant. See Libethenite. 

From a.<pxt^itn?^ subtraction ; in allusion to 
its being only a variety of an already 
recognised species. 

Aphrite, Phillips, is a nearly pure car- 
bonate of lime, differing from Schiefer-spar 
in being less coherent. It has a very pale 
yellowish, nearly silver-Avhite colour, some- 
times approaching to greyish- white. Occurs 
massive and disseminated, sometimes solid, 
more often in a loose or friable state, and 
composed of fine scaly particles, with a 
shining lustre intermediate between semi- 
metallic and pearly. It is opaque and very 
soft. It is usually found in veins or cavities 
in limestone rocks. It occurs in Kessia, and 
in the neighbourhood of Gera, in the forest 
of Thuringia. 

Brit. Mus.,' Case 46. 

Aphrizite: Aphrysite : Aphryzite, 
Dufrenoy. A sub variety of Tourmaline, 
occuring in small, brilliant, black crystals, 
bearing a resemblance at first sight to those 
of tin-ore. It is found in white Quartz, ia 

Aphanese, Beudant. 
Aphanesite, Dana. 


Norway ; in decomposed Felspar at Andreas- 
berg in the Harz ; and at St. Just in Corn- 
wall. {Fig. 25.) 

Fig. 25. 

^ Aphrodite. A soft and earthy mineral 
like Meerschaum, of a white or yellowish 
colour, and with a waxy lustre. Translucent. 
S.G. 2-21. 



Comp. Mg3 «i2+3 H. 
Analysis by Berlin : 
Silica . 

. 51-55 
. 33-72 

Protoxide of manganese . 1-62 
Protoxide of iron . . .0 59 
Alumina .... 0-20 
Water 12-32 


Locality. Longbanshytta, in Sweden. 

Aphrosiderite, Sandberger. A ferrugin- 
ous Ripidolite, occurring in fine scaly grains 
in the Duchy of Nassau and Weilburg, com- 

nnsfiH of 

Silica . 
Protoxide of iron 
Water . 






- 100-74 
Comp. 3 R3 si + 3^1 Si + 6 H (Genth.) 
See OwENiTE and Thuringite. 

Aphthalose, Beudant. From a.<pStTo?, un- 
alterable, and a,Xoi, salt. See Glaserite, 
Aphthitalite, Shepard. See Glaserite. 
Aphthonite, Svanberg. A mineral resem- 
bling an argentiferous Tetrahedrite (Grey 
Copper). It occurs massive, of a steel-grey 
colour and with a black streak, at Werm- 
land. H. 3. S.G. 4-87. 
Analysis by Svanberg : 

Sulphur .... 30-05 
Antimony .... 24-77 
Copper . . . . , . 32-91 

2inc 6-40 

Silver 3-09 

Iron 1-31 

Lead 0-04 

Cobalt 0-49 

Arsenic trace 



Apjohnite, Glocker. A manganesian 
alum occurring in acicular crystallizations 
with a silky lustre, like Asbestos, near Lagoa 
Bay, in S. Africa. 

Comp. Mn S + Al S^ + 24 H, or sulphate 
of manganese 16-3, sulphate of alumina 37-0, 
water 46-7 = 100. 

The name Apjohnite has also been given 
to a metallic ore of a brownish-leaden colour, 
found in Ireland, mixed with Iron Pyrites. 
The composition, according to Heddle, is re- 
presented by the formula 5 Fe S2 + 2 Pb S + 
12 Zn S, or bisulphide of iron 26-75, sulphide 
oflead2132, sulphide of zinc 51-93 = 100. 

Aplome, Haily, Phillips. A variety of 
iron-lime Garnet, commonly occurring in 
rhombic dodecahedrons, having their planes 
striated parallel to the shorter diagon- 
al. Colour deep-brown, or orange-brown. 
Opaque. Harder than quartz. S.G. 3-44. 

Fig. 26. 

Localities. The banks of the river Lena, 
in Siberia ; the Banat ; and Schwarzenberg, 
in Saxony. 

Name. From a,'r\oo?^ simple ; from the sup- 
posed derivation of the dodecahedron from 
a cube, by one of the most simple laws of 
decrement, viz., by replacement parallel to 
all its edges. 

Apophylltte, Dana, Haily, Phillips, Ni- 
col. Pyramidal. Occurring in square prisms, 
whose solid angles are sometimes replaced 
by triangular planes, which, by a deeper 
replacement, assume the foi-m of rhombic 
planes. Cleavage highly perfect, parallel to 
all the planes of the primary form, but most 

Fig. 27. I 

Fig. 28. 

Fig. 29. 

readily perpendicular to its axis. Structure 
lamellar. Colour white or greyish, some- 
times with a green, yellow, or reddish tinge. 


'i'ransparent to opaque. Lustre shining on 
the lateral planes of the prism, pearly on 
the terminal. Becomes feebly electric by 
friction. Streak white. Brittle. Fracture 
uneven. H 4-5 to 5. S.G. 2-3. 

Comp. Silica 527, lime 26-0, potash 4-4, 
water 16-7 = 100. 

Analysis by Berzelius, from Faroe : 

Silica o2-38 

Lime 24-70 

Potash 6-37 

Fluorine . . . .1-20 
Water ..... 16-20 

BB exfoliates, intumesces, and ultimately 
fuses to a white vesicular glass ; with borax 
raelts readily to a transparent globule. 
In nitric acid it separates into flakes, and in 
powder becomes gelatinous and translucent. 
Localities. — Scotch. It is found in Old 
Kilpatrick(y?o. 29), in Dumbartonshire ; in 
Fifeshire, at the Chapel Quarries, near Eaith ; 
at Talisker, in Invernesshire {Jip. 28) ; and 
in very transparent crystals at Ratho, near 
Edinburgh. — Irish. At Ballintoy, in An- 
trim, it is met with of a white colour upon 
Stilbite (Jig. 29) ; in small transparent 
crystals, and in large Avhite crystals like 
Jig. 27, at Portrush, and at Agnew's Moun- 
tain. — Foreign. Fine specimens of Apophyl- 
lite, coating cavities in amj'-gdaloid, occur 
in Greenland, Iceland, Poonah, and Ah- 
mednuggar, in Hindostan. It is also found 
in Sweden and Norway, and in perfect, well- 
defined crystals at Plombieres, in an ancient 
crust of cement, which Avas formerly spread 
over the valley where the hot springs rise. 

The name Apophyllite is derived from 
a,!ro<pvXXiica, to exfoliate, alluding to its be- 
haviour before the blowpipe. 

Brit. Mus., Case 27. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1177. 

Apostle Gesis. In the middle ages the 
apostles were sometimes symbolised under 
the names of various gems, as follows : 

St. Peter . . . Jasper. 

St. Andrew . . . Sapphire. 

St. James . . . Chalcedony. 

St. John . . . Emerald. 

St. Philip . . . Sardonyx. 

St. Bartholomew . . Carnelian. 

St. Matthew . . . Chrysolite. 

St. Thomas . . . Beryl. 

St. Thaddeus . . Chrysoprase. 

St. James the Less . Topaz. 

St. Simeon . . . Hyacinth, 

St Matthias . . Amethyst. 

Apyroti (from « priv., and ^'J^ jftre). A 


name given by some of the ancients to Ru- 
bies, because " fire hath no power of them." 
Aquajviarine, comprises the varieties of 
Beryl which are of clear tints of sky- 
blue or mountain-green. (See Bkryl.) 

It is made into bracelets, necklaces, brooch- 
es, and other articles of jewelry, as well as in- 
to seals and intaglios. The larger prisms are 
valued by the Turks for forming the handles 
of daggers, sword-hilts, &c. It is a pleasant 
stone for lapidaries to work, as it bears cut- 
ting and polishing without risk. Want of 
lustre, paleness and weakness of colour, being 
the principal defects to which it is liable, a 
good stone should have a suflficient depth in 
proportion to its spread surface, and it 
should be formed with a small table, a high 
bizel, with the under-part cut into delicate 
steps. The only stone with which the Aqua- 
marine is likely to be confounded is the blue 
Topaz, from which it may be distinguished 
by its inferior specific gi'avity and hardness, 
and inferior lustre. 

It is found in Hindostan, Brazil, Siberia, 
in the granite district of Nertschinsk, and 
in the Uralian and Altai Mountains. The 
prisms are commonly striated longitudinally, 
and they have been obtained exceeding a 
foot in length. 

The most splendid specimen of which 
we have any account belonged to Dom Pe- 
dro. It approaches, both in size and shape, 
the head of a calf, and exhibits a crystal- 
line structure only on one side, the rest 
being water-worn. It weighs 225 ozs, 
Troy, or more than 18^ lbs. The specimen 
is transparent and without a flaw. 

The name is derived from aqua, water, and 
marina, of the sea, in allusion to its limpid, 
pale green colour, like that of sea-water. 

The Aquamarine is the stone known to 
the ancients as the Beryl. 
Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 816a, 
836 to 838. 

Ar^eoxene. a mineral resembling Cro- 
coisite, only darker. It occurs massive, or 
imperfectly crystalline, with traces of a 
columnar structure, of a deep red colour, 
with a brownish tinge, and a pale yellowish 
streak. H. 3. S.G. 6-79. 
Analysis by Bergemann : 

Vanadic acid . . . 16-81 
Arsenic acid . . . 10-52 

Oxide of lead . . . 52-55 
Oxide of zinc . . . 18-11 
Alumina and peroxide of iron 1-34 
Phosphoric acid . . . trace 


BB on charcoal fuses with intumescence, 
yielding an arsenical odour, and a globule 
of lead. 

Locality. Dahn, in Bavaria. 

Dr. Krantz suggests that Arseoxene and 
Dechenite are identical. 

Arago]!*ite, Dana, Brooke 8f Miller; Ara- 
GONSPATH. Ehombic. Primary form a 
right rhombic prism. Occurs in hexa- 
gonal prisms, very frequently in twin 
crystals, also in globular, reniform, dendri- 
tic, and coralloid shapes ; sometimes fibrous 
and in compact masses. (See Flos Ferei 
and Satin Spar). Colour generally white, 
but sometimes tinged yellow, blue, and 
green. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resin- 
ous on fractured surfaces. Translucent, the 
small cr^'stals sometimes colourless and 
transparent, and refracting doubly in cer- 
tain directions. Brittle. Fracture subcon- 
choidal. Yields to the knife, but scratches 
Calc-spar easily. ' H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 2'93 to 

Fig. 30. 

Co7np. Ca C like Calcite = carbonic acid 
44-00, lime 560 = 100. 

Analysis, by Stromeyer, from Aragon : 
Carbonate of lime . . . 94'82 
Carbonate of strontia . . 4-08 
Water 0-98 


Thin fragments of transparent crystals 
decrepitate in the flame of a candle ; other 
varieties lose their translucency and fall to 
powder. Becomes phosphorescent on red- 
hot iron. 

Dissolves with effervescence in nitric 
and muriatic acids, and paper dipped into 
a mixture of the solution and alcohol 
burns with a purple flame. 

Name. This mineral is named after Ara- 
gon, the province in Spain where it was first 
discovered in large detached twin hexa- 
gonal crA'stals, imbedded with Gypsum in 
ferruginous clay. 

Localities. — English. Various parts of the 
United Kingdom ; in Devonshire, at Tor- 
bay, in aggregations of acicular crystals 
with a fibrous structure, and at Ilfracombe, 
in a spicular form. In fine radiating crys- 
tals, of a reddish-brown colour, at Cleator 
Moor, in Cumberland — Scotch. At Lead- 


hills, in long, radiating, transparent crys- 
tals, terminated as in Jig. 30. — Foreign. The 
most transparent and perfectly defined 
prisms have been found in a vein travers- 
ing basalt, at Bilin, in Bohemia. Eadiated 
and minute white crystals occur in the re- 
cent lavas of Vesuvius. In radiated co- 
lumnar forms, of a fine green colour, near 
Gerfalco, in Tuscany. 

Aragonite differs from Calcite in its greater 
hardness and specific gravity, and in con- 
taining generally from ^ to 4 per cent, of 
carbonate of strontia, and more rarely from 
2 to 4 per cent, of carbonate of lead. It may 
be readily distinguished from Calcite by at 
once flying to powder when exposed to 
heat, while Calc-spar placed by its side re- 
mainu unchanged, and does not lose even 
its transparency. The cleavage planes of 
Calc-spar are, moreover, always inclined, 
while those of Aragonite are in a longitudi- 
nal dii-ection. The calcareous concretions 
formed in the boilers of steam-engines are, 
in cases where the incrustations are com- 
posed of carbonate of lime, almost always 

Brit. Mus., Case 41. 

M. P. G. Slabs A 14—21, in Hall, from 
Beni- Souef in Egypt. 

Arcanite, Haidinger. See Glaserite. 

Arctizite, Jameson; Wernekite. See 


Arendalite. a variety of lime-and-iron- 
Epidote from Arendal, in Norway. The fine 
crystals from this locality often consist of 
concentric coats, the exterior of which can 
be removed, by which means, out of a large 
and imperfect crystal, one smaller but of 
a more perfect form can be obtained. S.G. 

Analysis by Geffken : 

Silica 3G-14 

Alumina .... 22-24 
Peroxide of iron . . . 14'29 

Lime 22-86 

Magnesia .... 2-38 
Protoxide of manganese . 2-12 


Brit. Mus., Case 35. 

Arfvedsonite, Dana, Nicol; Arfwed- 
SONITE, Brooke, Phillips, Allan. A variety 
of Hornblende containing a large proportion 
of iron, and also soda. Colour black and 
opaque. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resin- 
ous. Streak greyish-green. H. 6. S.G. 3-4 
to 3-5. 

Comp. Na^ Si + Fe Si = silica 49-4, soda 
11-3, protoxide of iron 39-3 = 100. 


Avalysis by v. Kohell, from Greenland: 

Silica .... 

. 49-27 


. 2-00 

Protoxide of iron . 

. 36-12 

vSoda .... 

. 8-ao 

Lime .... 

. 1-50 


. 0-42 

Protoxide of manganese 

. 0-62 


. 0-24 


Fuses even in the flame of a candle. 
BB boils up strongly, and yields a black 
magnetic globule. 

Not soluble in acids or in caustic potash. 

Localities. Kangerdluarsuk, in Greenland, 
associated with Socialite and Eudialite. Fre- 
derickshaven, in Norway. 

Name. After Professor Arfvedson, of 

Brit. Mus., Case 33. 

Argent Amalgame, Dufrenoy. See Na- 
tive Amalgam. 

Argent Antimonial, Haiiy. See Dis- 


Argent Antimonial Ferro-arseni- 
Fere, Haiiy. See Arsenic-silver. 

Argent Antimonie Sulfure, Haiiy. 
See Pyrargyrite. 

Argent Antimonie Sulfure Noir, 
Ha iiy. See Stephanite. 

Argent Arsenical, Brochant. See Ar- 

Argent Carbonate, Haiiy. See Sel- 

Argent Corne, Brochant, La Metherie. 
See Stephanite. 

Argent et Cuivre Sulfure, 5oMr?tow. 
See Stromeyerite. 

Argent Fragile, De Born. See Ste- 
phanite. . 

Argent Gris Antimonial, De Vide. 
See Freislebenite. 

Argent Iodure, Dufrenoy. See Iody- 


Argent Muriate, Brochant, Haiiy. See 

Argent Natif, Haiiy. See Native 

Argent Noir, Haiiy. See Stephanite. 

Argent Rouge Antimonie, iVec^er. See 

Argent Rouge Arsenie, Necker. See 

Argent Sulfure, Haiiy. See Silver 

Argent Sulfure Antimonifere et 
Cuprifere, Levy. See Freislebenite, 

Argent Sulfure Flexible, Bournon. 
See Flexible Silver-ore. 


Argent Sulfure Fragile, Haiiy, Du- 
frenoy. See Stephanite. 

Argent Tellure, Necker. See Hes- 
site. V I 

Argent Vitreuse, La Metherie. See \ \ 
Silver Glance. 

Argent Vitreux Aigre, Brochant. See 

Argentiferous Copper Glance, Jame- 
son. See Stromeyerite. 

Argentiferous Gold, Phillips. See 

Argentiferous Seleniet of Copper. 
See Eukairite. 

Argentiferous Sulphuret of Copper, 
Allan. See Stromeyerite. 

Argentine, Kirwan. See Slate-clay. 

Argentine, Dana. A form of carbonate 
of lime with a silvery-white lustre, a slaty 
structure, and containing a little silica. It ■ 
is found in the United States, near Williams- 
berg and Southampton, in Massachusetts ; 
and at the iron mines of Franconia, New 

Argentite, Greg §• Lettsom, Haidinger, 
Nicol See Silver-glance. 

31. G. P. Principal Floor, Wall-case 14 

Argile Figueline. a name often given 
to common plastic clay in France. It occurs 
at the base of the Paris basin, as at Auteuil 
and Vauves, near Paris, and makes into a 
red ware requiring a glaze. 

Argile Lithomarge, Haiiy. See Litho- 

Argile Martiale Rouge, ^ 
De Born. I See Red 

Argile Ochreuse Gra- j Chalk, 
phique, Haiiy J 

Argile Ochreuse Jaune, Haiiy. See 
Yellow Iron-ochre. 

Argile Schisteuse, Brochant. See 

Argile Smectique, Haiiy. See Ful- 
lers' Earth. 

Argillaceous Ironstone. See Clay 
Ironstone and Blackband. 

Argyrose, Beudant. See Silver 

Argyrythrose, Beudant. Sulphide of 
silver and antimony. See Pyrargyritk. 

Arkansite. The name given by She- 
pard to the thick black crystals of Brookite 
which occur, with Elseotite and Schorla- 
mite, at Magnet Cove, in Arkansas, U. S. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. • 

Armenian Stone. A commercial name 
for Lapis Lazuli. 

Arpidelite. See Sphene. 

Arquerite, Domeuko. A silver amalgam 


occurring in small octahedral crystals, and 
in arborescent forms, at the mines of Ar- 
queros, near Coquimbo, in Chili. Ductile 
and malleable. H. 2 to 2'5. S.G. 10-8. 

Comp. Native Amalgam or Hg Ag6 = 
silver 86*5, mercurv 13-5 = 100. 

Arragotst, Werner. 
Arragone, Jameson, 
Arragonit, Haidinger, Hausmann. 



AKKAGONiT, tiaiamger, jjiausmann. , o 
Arragonite, Brochant, Nicol, Phil- | ^ 
lips, Haiiy. I <! 

Arragon Spar, Kirwan. \ « 

Arsen, Naumann. See Native Arsenic. 
Arsenate of Lead. See Mimetite. 
Arsenate of Lime. See Pharmacolite. 
Arsenate of Zinc. See Kottigite. 
Arseneisen. See Le-ucopyrite. 
Arseneisensinter, Naumann. See Pit- 


Arsenglanz, Breithaupt. An impure na- 
tive arsenic, containing 3 per cent, of bis- 
muth, from Marienberg. H. 2. S.G. 5-36 
to 5-39. 

Arseniate of Cobalt. See Erythrine. 

Arseniate of Copper, Phillips. See 


Arseniate of Ikon, Phillips. See Phar- 


Arseniate of Lead, Phillips. See Mime- 

Arseniate op Lime. See Pharmaco- 

Arseniate of Nickel. See Annaber- 

Arsenic, Dana, Nicol. See Native Ar- 

Arsenic -Antimony, Nicol. See Arseni- 
cal Antimony. 

Arsenic Bloom. See Arsenolite. 

Arsenic Natif, Haiiy. See Native Ar- 

Arsenic Oxyde, Haiiy. See Arsenolite. 

Arsenic Pyrites, Jameson. See Mis- 


Arsenic-Silver. A mixture of Mispick el. 
Arsenical Iron, and Discrasite, found at An- 
dreasberg. in the Ilarz. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 14, 
No. 683, from Dolcoath mine, Cornwall. 

Arsenic Sulfure Jaune, Haiiy. See 

Arsenic Sulfure Rouge, HaUy. See 

ArsenicalAntimonial Silver, Phillips. 
See Arsenic- Silver. 

Arsenical Antimony, Dana, Phillips. 

Occurs in kidney-shaped masses and amor- 
phous ; with a granular or almost compact 
texture. Colour tin-white or reddish-grey, 
with a brownish-black tarnish. Lustre metal- 
lic, occasionally splendent, sometimes dull. 
Structure curved, lamellar. H. 3-5. S.G. 6-2. 

BB emits fumes of arsenic and antimony, 
and fuses to a metallic globule, which burns 
away, leaving oxide of antimon}-- on the 

Comp. SbAs^, or antimony 36*38, ar- 
senic 63-62 =100-00. 

Localities. Przibram, in Bohemia; 
Schladming, in Styria ; Andreasberg, in the 
Harz ; sparingly at Allemont, in Dauphiny. 

Arsenical Bismuth, Allan. See Eu- 


Arsenical Copper Pyrites, Levy. See 


Arsenical Iron, Phillips. See Mis- 


Arsenical Manganese. See Kaneite. 

Arsenical Mundic, See Mispickel. 

Arsenical Pyrites, Allan, Phillips, 
Kirwan. See Leucopyrite. 

Arsenical, Silver, Allan. See Arse- 
nic Silver. 

Arsenical Silver Blende, Naumann. 
See Proustite. 

Arsenicite. See Pharmacolite. 

Arsenicum Sandaraca, Linnceus. See 

Arsenide of Manganese. See Kaneite. 

Arseniet of Nickel, Thomson. See 
Copper Nickel. . 

ArseniivAlkies. See Leucopyrite. 

Arsenikantimon. See Arsenical An- 

Arsenikbleispath. See Mimetene. 

Arsenikbismuth. See Eulytine. 

Arsenikbluthe, Karsten. See Arseno- 
lite ; The Arsenikbluthe of Werner is, in 
part, Pharmacolite ; which see. 

Arsenikeisen. See Leucopyrite. 

Arsenikglanz. See Arsbngi-anz. 

Arsenikkies, Werner. See Mispickel, 

Arsenikkobaltkies. See Skutteru- 


Arsenikmangan. See Kaneite. 

Arsenikkupfer. See Domeykite. 

Arseniicnickel. See Copper Nickel, 
AND Smaltine. 

Arseniksilber. See Arsenic Silver. 

Arseniksilberblende. See Proustite. 

Arsenik-Sinter. See Iron-Sinter. 

Arsenik-wismuth, Werner. See Euly- 

Arseniosiderite, Dufrenoy, Dana. Oc- 
curs in fibrous concretions of a yellowish- 
browu or golden colour, resembling Caco- 


xene. The fibres are large and easily se- 
parated by the fingers ; ^vheu rubbed in a 
mortar, the powder, which is yellowish- 
brown, and rather darker than yellow-ochre, 
adheres to the pestle. Lustre silky. H. 
lto2. S.G. 3-52 to 3-88. 

Comp. 6aP As + 4 #*e2 As + 15 H, or ar- 
senic 37-86, peroxide of iron 42-14, lime 
11-11, water 8-89 = 100. 

jinalysis bv Dufrenoy : 

Arsenic acid 

. 34-26 

Peroxide of iron 

. 41-31 

Peroxide of manganese 

. 1.29 

Lime .... 

. 8-43 


. 0-76 

Silica .... 

. 4-04 


. 8-75 

BB fuses to a black enamel, and gives oflF a 
slight odour of arsenic on adding soda. 

Dissolves readily in hot nitric or muriatic 

This mineral seems to vary much in con- 
stitution ; it occurs in a manganese bed at 
Romaueche (Dep. Saone et Loire), in France. 

Arsenious Acid. See Arsenolite. 

Arsenite, Haidinger, Brooke ^ 3IiHer, 
Greg §• Lettsom, Nicol. See Arsenolite. 

Arsesiuret of Majs'ganese, Kane, 
Phillips. See Kaxeite. 

Arsenocrocite. See Akseniosiderite. 

Arsenolite, Dana. White arsenic, or 
arsenious acid, is formed from the decompo- 
sition of other ores, and (when pure) is com- 
posed of arsenic 65-76, oxygen 24-24. It 
occurs either in minute radiating capillary 
crj-stals and crusts investing other minerals, 
or"in a stalactitic or botryoidal form. It is 
white, sometimes with a yellowish or red- 
dish tinge, and has a silky or vitreous 
lustre. It possesses an astringent and 
sweetish taste, and is highly poisonous. 
H. 1-5. S.G. 3-69. 

BB volatilizes in white fumes ; in the inner 
flame blackens and gives ofi" an alliaceous 
odour. It differs from Pharmacolite in be- 
ing slightly soluble in hot water. 

Localities. Huel Sparnon, in Cornwall, 
in acicular crystals, filling cavities in Ar- 
senical Cobalt'^; Andreasberg, in the Harz ; 
Bohemia; Hungary; Hanau. 

In an interesting paper on the arsenic- 
eaters of Styria, by Charles Heisch, F.C S., 
in the Pharmaceutical Journal, it is stated 
that "Arsenic is commonly taken by the 
peasants in Styria, the Tyrol, and the 
Salz Kammergut, principally by huntsmen 
and woodcutters, to improve their wind and 

prevent fatigue. Th'e following particulars 
in reference to this subject Avere communi- 
cated to Mr, Heisch by Dr. Lorenz, Imperial 
Professor of Natural History, formerly of 
Salzburg : — ' The arsenic is taken pirre in 
some warm liquid, as coffee, fasting, begin- 
ning with a bit the size of a pin's head, and 
increasing to that of a pea. The com- 
plexion and general appearance are much 
improved, and the parties using it seldom 
look so old as they really are, but he 
has never heard of any case in which it was 
used to improve personal beauty, though he 
cannot say that it never is so used. The 
first dose is always followed by slight sym- 
ptoms of poisoning, such as burning pain in 
the stomach, and sickness, but not very 
severe. Once begun, it can only be left off 
by very gradually diminishing the daily 
dose, as a sudden cessation causes sickness, 
burning pain in the stomach, and other 
sjmiptoms of poisoning, very speedily fol- 
lowed by death. As a rule, arsenic-eaters 
are very long lived, and are peculiarly ex^j 
empt from infectious diseases, fevers, &c.J 
but unless they gradually give up the prac-" 
tice, invariably die suddenly at last. In 
some arsenic works near Salzburg with 
which he is acquainted, he says the only 
men who can stand the work for any time 
are those who swallow daily doses of arsenic, 
the fumes, &c., soon killing the others.' " J 

Brit. Mus., Case 56. I 

M. P. G. Table-case 14, on principal floor.^ 

Arsenopyrite, Glocker. See Mispickel. 

Arsenous Acid. See Arsenolite. 

Arsenphyllite, Breithaupt. A mineral 
similar in composition to Arsenolite, but 
homceomorphous with Valentinite. 

Arsen-silber Bleatde, Breithaupt. See 

Asbest, Werner. Asbeste, Haiiy, Bro- 
chant. See Asbestos. 

Asbeste Ligniforme, Haiiy. See Rock 

Asbestos, Asbestus, Kirwan, Dana, 
Phillips, Nicol. A hornblendic mineral : a 
fibrous variety of Actinolite or Tremolite. In 
the process of decomposition, these minerals 
assume a paler colour, and separate into 
fibres, which are sometimes as fine as those 
of flax. When heated to redness all ex- 
traneous matter is destroyed, while the 
fibres themselves remain uninjured. In that 
form it may be woven into cloth, which, 
from its incombustibility, has been employed 
for various purposes. By the ancients it 
was used to wrap up the bodies of the dead 
before placing them on the funeral pile, by 
which means the ashes and unconsumed 

bones were presei-ved separately for subse- 
quent preservation in vases. They also made 
napkins of it, -which, when, soiled, were 
cleansed by being thrown into the fire ; and 
used it for wicks of lanips, which maintained 
perpetual fire in their temples ; which lamps 
were called inrSia-Tu^ unextinguished or per- 
petual. The people of Greenland make wicks 
of lamps of it at the present day. It is said 
that certain tribes of Indians used to make 
dresses of Asbestos, which, when dirty, had 
only to be thrown into the fire to be ren- 
dered clean again. At the present day it is 
chiefly used for wicks of lamps, and for 
making fire-proof safes. It is from the pro- 
perty of resisting the action of fire that it 
has received the name of wcSeo-roj (Asbestos) 
or unconsumable. 

Localities. — English. Cornwall, at the 
Lizard, St. Cleer, Goonhilly Downs, and 
near Liskeard. — Scotch. Portsoy, in Banff- 
shire, Glenelg, Inverness-shire, and Swina- 
ness, Batta and Fetla, in the Shetland 
Islands. — Irish. Near Strabane, and at 
Bloomfield, co. Wexford. — Foreign. Savoy, 
the Tyrol, Saltzburg, and in Corsica in 
.such abundance as to have been used by 
Dolomieu for packing minerals. The 
Corsicans mix it with clay, which they 
make into pots, which, though light, are 
less fragile than if made of clay alone, at 
the same time that they bear sudden changes 
of temperature better. 

Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

AsBOLAN, Breithaupt ; Asbolane, Brooke 
^ Miller. See Earthy Cobalt. The 
name is derived from cttrZoXvi, soot. 

Asparagus Stone. A translucent wine- 
yellow coloured variety of Apatite, found 
imbedded in Talc at Zillerthal in the Tyrol, 
and Villa Rica in Spain. 

Brit. Mus., Case 57 B. 

Aspasiolite. a variety of lolite, occm*- 
ring in six-sided and twelve-sided prisms, 
like Fahlunite, but with a less perfect cleav- 
age. It is of greenish -grey to a whitish colour, 
with a weak lustre. H.'3-5. S.G. 2-76. 

. lolite + Al Si + 5 H. 

nalysishy S cheer er : 

Silica . 

. 50-40 


. 32-38 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 2-34 


. 8-01 

Water . . . 

, 6-73 

BB infusible. 
• Locality. Krageroe in Norway, associated 
with Quartz and lolite. 


Name. 'Fvova.oi' priv. and u-ZivvCoi, to extin- 
guish. , 

Brit. Mus., Case 32. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1148 to 

AspHALTic Oil. See Asphaltum — Se- 
neca Oil. 

Asphalt, Kirwan, Phillips, Asphaltum, 
Hatchett, a(r!pct.XTog, Dioscorides. A compact 
species of Bitumen. Solid and opaque, of 
a velvet-black colour, sometimes approach- 
ing to brownish-black ; with a shining re- 
sinous lustre, and a brilliant conchoidal 
fracture. Sectile. Feels greasy, and emits 
a bituminous odour when rubbed. Soft. 
S.G. 1 to 1-2. Puses at 100° C. (212° Fahr.). 
Burns with a bright light and a smoky 
flame, leaving a small quantity of ashes. 
An Asphaltum from the island of Brazza, 
in Dalmatia, consists, according to Kersten, 
of petrolene (volatile oil) S'O, brown resin, 
soluble in ether, 20-0, asphaltene (bitumen 
soluble in alcohol and ether) 74-0, yellov/ 
resin, soluble in alcohol, 1-0 = 1000. (Dana). 

Asphaltum is the most common variety of 
Bitumen. It is found in great abundance of 
a black colour, with a fracture like ordinary 
pitch, on the shores, or floating on the surface 
of the Dead Sea ; in the islands of Barbadoes 
and Trinidad ; and a large deposit of it oc- 
curs in Tschetschna, between Terek and 
Argun. " The Pitch Lake in Trinidad, three 
miles in circumference, covers an area of 
99 square miles, and is of unknown thick- 
ness. The Bitumen is solid and cold near 
the shores, but gradually increases in tem- 
perature and softness towards the centre, 
where it is boiling. The solidified bitumen 
appears as if it had cooled as the surface 
boiled, in large bubbles. The ascent to the 
lake from the sea, a distance of three- 
quarters of a mile, is covered with a hard- 
ened pitch, on which trees and vegetables 
flourish ; and about Point La Braye, the 
masses of pitch look like black rocks 
among the foliage. The lake is underlaid 
by a bed of mineral coal." (Manross, quoted 
by Dana). The Pitch Lake of Trinidad, ac- 
cording to Mr. G. P. Wall, yields three 
kinds of Asphaltum, viz. : — 

1. Asphaltum Glance, Avhich is hard and 
brittle, of an intensely black brilliant lustre, 
and eminent conchoidal fracture. It con- 
tains but a small proportion of earthy im- 
purity, and only a little water. This is the 
rarest and most valuable kind. 

2. Ordinary Asphaltu7n, of a brownish - 
black colour, dull, and generally with an 
even fracture. It contains 20 to 35 per cent, 
of earthy admixture, a considerable propor- 


tion of water, and possesses the property of 
plasticity, which it gradually loses on long 
exposure to the sun and atmosphere. 

3. Asphaltic Oil, occurring associated 
and diluted Avith water, but when concen- 
trated it appears as a dense black fluid, 
•with a powerful bituminous odour. If col- 
lected in an open vessel, the more volatile 
part evaporates after a few months, leaving 
a solid black substance of similar appear- 
ance, and with properties analogous to those 
of Asphaltum Glance. 

Asphaltum is also found near Matlock, 
and in the Odin mine, near Castleton, in 
Derbyshire, and occasionally in the Free- 
stone Quarries at Binney, near Edinburgh, 
where it is so abundant, that the work- 
men make candles of it. In Cuba it is 
very extensively ditfused (Chapapote). It 
is also found along the margin of the Mag- 
dalena Valley, in New Grenada, Coxitam- 
bo, in Peru, of great purity, with a high 
lustre, and a perfect conchoidal fracture. 
In Texas, within 100 miles of Houston, 
there is a small lake about a quarter of a 
mile in circumference, filled with Bitumen 
or Asphaltum. In France at Aniches (De- 
partment du Nord) ; near Alcobaca, in 
Portugal ; Avlona in Albania ; Mount Leba- 
non ; Arabia ; Persia ; in the countries on 
the borders of the Tigris ; and the Lower 
Euphrates ; and in Koordistan ; Birmah ; 
Ava; Pegu; &c. 

Asphaltum was employed by the an- 
cient Egyptians in the process of em- 
balming the dead, either alone, or in combi- 
nation with other substances. The ancients 
also used it as an ingredient in mortar, and 
the walls of Babylon are said to have been 
built of a mortar of this kind. The people 
of Arabia still use a solution of it, in oil, to 
besmear their horse-harness, to preserve it 
from insects, and in Albania it is used for 
paying the bottoms of ships. Two ship- 
loads of Asphalt were sent to this country 
from the Pitch Lake of Trinidad, by Admi- 
ral Cochrane; but it was found that the 
cost of the oil necessary to render it fit for 
use exceeded the price of pitch in England, 
and the project was therefore abandoned. 
Asphalt is used for lining cisterns, and for 
pavements. It is also a constituent of 
Japan varnish. 

Brit Mus., Case 60. 

31. P. G. A 28 in Hall, large mass from 
the Pitch-Lake, Trinidad. Horse-shoe 
Case, Nos. Ill to 116. 

AsTERiA. The name used by Pliny to de- 
note the asteriated crystals of Sapphire, or 
those displaying diverging rays of light. It 


is an opalescent variety of Sapphire, which, 
when cut en cabochon, displays a silvery star 
with six rays. It is semi transparent, and 
has often a reddish -purple tinge. The sum- 
mits of the primary rhombohedron are 
replaced bj' secondary planes, that present 
a varying chatoyant lustre. If these crj'- 
stals are cut en cabochon, or in the form 
of an ellipse, taking care that the summit 
of the ellipse shall be situated exactly over 
the point corresponding with the summit of 
the rhombohedron, there will be produced 
the appearance of a star with six rays, from 
which, when held in the sunshine, a bright 
yellowish-white light streams forth in beau- 
tiful contrast to the rich purplish blue of 
the other parts of the stone. The flatter 
the ellipse the more varying is the lustre 
displayed over the surface" of the stone ; as 
on the other hand, with a high ellipse it is 
condensed on a single spot." — {Mawe). 

" The jewellers appraise the value of the 
Ayn-ul-hireh according to the number or 
perfection of the threads (zanar) visible in 
it, which should give the stone, when 
turned about, the appearance of a drop of 
floating water. This description accords 
with the quartz Cat's-eye rather than with 
the asteria ; but there is some difficulty in 
reconciling the uncertainties regarding this 
mineral. The Ayn-ul-hireh, probably com- 
prises both of the above minerals; in the 
same manner as the turmali apparently em- 
braces both the tourmaline and zircon fami- 
lies." — Frinsep: *^ Oriental Account of the 
Precious Minerals." 

AsTRAKANiTE, Rose. A mineral occurring 
in whitish, transparent or translucent, im- 
perfect prismatic crj'Stals, in the salt lakes 
east of the mouth of the Volga. S.G. 2-251. 

Comp. Mg. S -f Na b -<- 4 H, or sulphate of 
magnesia 35-9, sulphate of soda 42'5, 
water 21-6 = 100. 

ASTKAPHYA LITE, from ka-r^Kiryi, a flash of 
lightning. See Fulgukite. 

Asphaltum Glance. See Asphalt. 

Atacamite, Dana, Jameson, Nicol. Rhom- 
bic; usually occurs in minute rectangular 
octahedrons, or in modified rectangular 

Fig. 31. 


prisms ; also massive lamellar. Colour va- 
rious shades of bright green, rather darker 

than emerald, sometimes blackish-green. 
Translucent or nearly transparent, soft and 
brittle, with an apple- green streak. Lustre 
vitreous. H. 3 to 3-5. S.G. 4 to 4-3. 

Comp. Muriate of Copper, or CuCl + 3 Cu 

H= oxide of copper 55-8, chloride of cop- 
per 31-0, water 12-7 = 100. 

Analysis by Bihra, from Algodan Bay, 
in Bolivia : 

Oxide of copper . 

. 56-00 


. 14-54 

Chlorine . 

. 1612 


. 12-13 

Silica . 

. . 0-91 


BB tinges the flame bright green or blue, 
and gives off fumes of muriatic acid ; yields 
a bead of copper on charcoal. 

Soluble without effervescence in nitric 
acid, and communicates instantaneously a 
fine blue colour to ammonia. 

Localities. Chiefly at Los Eemolinos and 
Solidad, in Chili; in Bolivia, in the dis- 
trict of Tarapaca; and at Tocopilla, 16 
leagues north of Cobija. Also in the iron 
mines of Schwartzenberg, in Saxony; on 
some of the lavas of Vesudus ; in South 
Australia, and in small rhombic prisms 
on Malachite and Quartz, at the Mala- 
chite mines in the Serra do Bembe, near 
Ambriz, on the West Coast of Africa. 

What was originally called "Peruvian 
green sand," or Atacamite, from its being 
obtained from the Atacama Desert, between 
Chili and Peru, is produced artificially by 
pounding the crystallized and laminar va- 
rieties for the purpose of using it as sand 
for letters (Arsenillo), instead of blotting 

Atacamite is distinguished from Mala- 
chite by its solubility in nitric acid without 
effervescence ; the colour it communicates 
to flame, and the rapidity with which it 
turns ammonia blue. It differs from arse- 
niates of copper by not exhaling arsenical 
fumes BB. 

Brit. Mus., Case 59. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 16. 

Atelesite. The name given by Breit- 
haupt to small oblique crystals containing 

Athereastite. An altered Scapolite, 
which it resembles both in form and ap- 
pearance. Colour green and opaque. 

Locality. The mines of Arendal, in Nor- 


Atlaserz. See MALAcniTE. 
Atramenstein. See Mist. 


AvENTURiNE. A vitreous variety of Quartz, 
generally translucent, and of a grey, green, 
brown, or reddish-brown colour, and con- 
taining minute yellow spangles. These are 
most frequently produced by scales of Mica, 
but sometimes, according to Gahn, by me- 
tallic copper crystallized in the form of flat 
segments of a regular octahedron. Aven- 
turine was formerly found on the north 
shores of the White Sea ; it is now found 
tolerably abundantly in Silesia, Bohemia, 
France, Cape de Gata in Spain, India, but 
chiefly in the neighbourhood of Ekater- 
inenburg in Siberia. It is used for ring- 
stones, shirt-studs, ear-i-ings, snuff-boxes, 
and other ornamental articles of a similar 
kind. By far the finest specimen of the 
Siberian variety in this country is a highly 
polished vase, four feet high and six feet in 
circumference, which, with its ^pedestal of 
polished grey porphyry, was presented to 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison as " the explorer 
of the geology of Eussia" by the late 
Emperor Nicholas I. The prevailing tint 
of this magnificent work of art is French- 
white or pearl-grey, clouded with delicate 
rose-coloured tints, and it is equally re- 
markable for the beauty of the material, 
and the elegance of its form, as for its 
excessive rarity ; the difiiculty of procuring 
a stone of such large dimensions, and of 
polishing so hard a substance being so great, 
that only one other similar vase (presented 
to the late Baron Humboldt, and now in 
the Royal Museum, Berlin), has been made. 
The materials of the base and pedestal were 
obtained in the Kourgon mountains in the 
province of Tomsk, and were cut and po- 
lished in Siberia. According to Fremy & 
Clemandole, beautiful specimens of artificial 
Aventurine may be obtained by heating 
together for twelve hours a mixture of 300 
parts of pounded glass, 40 of protoxide of 
copper, and 80 of oxide of iron, and after- 
Avards allowing the mixture to cool very 
slowly. In fact the name for the natural 
substance has been borrowed from that of 
the artificial gold-spangled glass, which in 
its turn, originated in the circumstance of a 
workman having accidentally (jpar aventure) 
let fall some brass filings into a pot of 
melted glass, which he thereupon called 
Aventurine ; and mineralogists subsequently 
adopted the terra, and applied it to the 
natural substance, an imitation of which 
had been thus obtained by accident. 
Brit. Mus., Case 21. 


M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 535 
to 542. 


Ayentubine Quartz, See Aventurine. 

AuGiTE, Dana, Nicol, Phillips, Werner. 
Oblique : a sub-species of Pyroxene, con- 
fined to the opaque and black or greenish- 
black varieties common in basaltic and 
volcanic rocks. It occurs crystallized, but 
mostly in indeterminatelj'' angular pieces 
and roundish grains. The crystals are 
generally small and imbedded, and have a 
vitreous lustre inclining to resinous. Streak 
varying from white to grey. Fracture un- 
even, conchoidal. Brittle. ' H. 5 to 6. S.G. 
3-33 to 3-36. 

Fig. 32. 

Comp. (Ca, Fe, Mg)3 (Si, Ai)2. 
A)inlysis by Von Waltershausen, from Et- 
na (black') : 

Silica 47-63 

Alumina .... 6-74 
Magnesia .... 12-90 

Lime 20-87 

Protoxide of iron . . 11-39 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-21 
Water 0-28 

BB fuses, emits a few bubbles, and finally 
yields a glassy globule, more or less tinged 
by iron : readily soluble with borax. 

Localities. — Scotch. Arthur's Seat, Edin- 
burgh in basalt ; Inchkeith, and in the Isle 
of Skye. — Irish. Portrush, in Antrim, in 
large, perfect, black crystals ; also at Fair- 
head in larger but less perfect crystals. — 
Foreign. In very fine crystals imbedded 
m basalt, at Aussig and Tbplitz in Bohemia, 
and in some of the scoriae of Monti Rossi, 
on Etna; also in the volcanic regions of 
Vesuvius (in small brilliant crystals), Strom- 
boli, Auvergne, the Eifel, Teneriffe, Bour- 
bon, and numerous other localities. 

Name. From a.v'yyi, brilliancy. 

Augite forms an important constituent 
in basaltic and volcanic rocks, but it is 
never found in granite rocks. The crystals 
met with in basalt are generally larger 
than those found in lava. 

Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1034 to 

1038, 1042: Upper Gallery; Wall- case 1,^ 
Nos. 37 to 41 : Table-cases A. and B. 
Aui?f A, 3Ionticelli. See Hauyne. 
AuERBACHiTE. A mineral nearly allied' 
to Zircon in form and composition, but, 
differing from it in inferior hardness and] 
specific gravity, and greater fusibility withi 
potash. Probably it is altered Zircon, in 
which a portion of the zirconia is removed. 
Pyramidal. Colour brownish -grey. Lustre 
weak, greasy. H. 6'5. S.G. 4-06. 

BB alone infusible : fuses with hydrated 
Comp : 

Silica 42-91 

Zirconia .... 55-18 
Oxide of iron . . . 0-93 
Unknown and loss . . 0-95 

It was named by Hermann after Dr. 

AuRiCHALCiTE, Bottger, Dana. A car- 
bonate of zinc and copper, occurring in 
acicular crystals, forming drusy incrusta- 
tions, or in fibrous, silky, and" divergent 
groups ; also, laminated, or columnar and 
granular. It is translucent, with a pearly- 
lustre, and varies in colour from pale green 
to verdigris-green. FI.2. 

Comp. 2(Zn, Cu) C + 3(Zn, Cu,) H, or 
oxide of copper 29 2, oxide of zinc 44-7, 
carbonic acid 19-2, water 9-9 = 100. 
Analysis by Bottger, from the Altai : 
Oxide of zinc . . . 45-62 
Oxide of copper . . 28-35 
Carbonic acid . . . 16-07 
Water .... 9-93 

BB gives out water in a matrass, and green 
crystals become brownish-black. In the 
outer flame does not fuse, but in the inner 
flame forms a slag, which is yellow while 
hot, but white on cooling. Yields a green 
glass with borax and salt of phosphorus. 

Soluble with effervescence in muriatic acid. 

Localities. — English : in small groups of a 
pale-green colour and laminated structure, 
at the Rutland mine, near Matlock, in 
Derbyshire, and at Roughten Gill, in Cum- 
berland. — Foreign. Loktefskoi, a copper- 
mine in the Altai, forming a drusy covering 
on Calc-spar and Brown Iron -ore ; and at 
Reszbanya, in Hungary. The Green Cala- 
mine of Patrin is a variety of Aurichalcite, 
found in cavities, near Cleopinski. 

Auriferous Pyrites. Iron Pyrites con- 

taining minute quantities of gold. It occurs 
in most gold regions. 

AuKiFEROus Quartz. Veins chiefly com- 
posed of Quartz containing Native Gold are 
found in North Wales, Spain, Portugal, 
California, Australia, and other countries. 
Several veins of this character occur near 
Dolgelly, in Merionethshirre. 

Specimens of gold-bearing Quartz from the 
Grass Yalley, Nevada county, California, 
•will be found in the entrance-hall of the 
Museum of Practical Geology. See also 
Case 11, Principal Floor (Australia). 

AuROTELLURiTE. Haidinger. A variety 
of Sylvanite from Nagyag in Transylvania, 
where it is associated with Blende, Grey 
Copper ore, and Copper Pyrites, with Quartz 
and Brown Spar. Colour silver-white, in- 
clining to brass-yellow, and sometimes to 
grey. Occurs disseminated and crystallized 
in very small, rather broad, four- sided 
prisms. Sectile. S. G. 7-99 to 8-33. 
Analysis of yellow crystals, by Petz : 
Tellurium .... 51-52 
Antimony . . . . 6-75 

Gold 27-10 

Silver 7-47 

Lead 8-16 

Affords a grass-green solution in nitric 
acid, with the evolution of much nitrogen. 
As it contains a considerable quantity both 
of gold and silver, Aurotellurite is worked 
on account of both those metals. 
Brit. Mus., Case 49. 

f Names for Na- 
tive Telluri- 
um, used in 
older works on 
AuTOMALiTE, Nicol, Phillips. Autoima- 
LiTH, Werner. Automolite, Dana. A Zinc- 
Spinel. Occurs in octahedrons and in tetra- 
hedrons, of which the angles are replaced : 
also macled. Colour dark green or black ; 
dark bluish-green by transmitted light. 
Nearly opaque. Lustre vitreous, inclining 
to resinous. Streak grey. Brittle. Fracture 
splintery or conchoidal. H. 8. S.G. 4-1 to 4-6. 

Comp. Zn Al. 

Analysis from Fahlun, by Ekeberg : 
Alumina . . . . 60 00 
Oxide of zinc . . . 24 25 
Peroxide of iron . . .9 25 

Silica 4-75 

Protoxide of manganese . trace 


AuRUM Paradoxum, 
AuRUM Problematicum. 


BB alone, unaltered ; and nearl}- so with 
borax and salt of phosphorus. 

Not acted on by acids or alkalis. 

Localities. Fahlun in Sweden, in talcose 
slate. Near Sather and Garpenberg iu 
Sweden, compact, Franklin, New Jersey, 
with Quartz, Felspar, and Jeffersonite. 
Haddam, Connecticut ; in Granite associated 
with Chrysobery], Garnet and Tantalite. 

Name. From avi-of^oXos , a deserter; in al- 
lusion to the presence of oxide of zinc in 
a mineral not resembling an ore. 

Brit. Mus., Case 19. 

AuTUNiTE, Brooke §• Miller, Greg &," 
Lettsom. A name given to the yellow 
phosphate of Uranium and Lime (Uranite) 
from its occurrence in the neighbourhood of 
Autun in France. 

It has also been found in Cornwall at 
South Basset, Tolcarne mine, and Huei 


AxESTONE, (Jameson), a name for Jade ; 
in consequence of its being used by the New 
Zealanders for axes and offensive weapons. 
See Nephrite. 

AxiNlTE, Dana, Haiiy, Nicol, Phillips. 
Anorthic. This mineral is seldom found 
massive, oftener disseminated, but most fre- 
quently crystallized in very oblique rhom- 
boidal prisms, which are often so flat as to 
appear tabular. Its most common colour is 
violet or clove-brown of various shades, 
passing into plum-blue or pearl-grey, and. 
greyish -black. Lustre brilliant externally, 
of fractured surface vitreous. Transparent to 
translucent. Streak uncoloured. Easily 
frangible. Fracture in transparent varie- 
ties, small and imperfectly conchoidal. Be- 

Fig. 34. 

Fig. 35. 

Fig. 36. 

comes electric by heat or friction. Exhibits 
trichroism; different colours, as cinnamon- 
brown, violet-blue, olive-green being seen 
in different directions, while "on looking 
through a crystal in the direction of the 
optic axis, a dark-violet stripe is seen, 
which is interrupted at the point occupied 
by the axis." H. 6-5 to 7. S. G. 3-27. 



Comp. K3 (si, 'ii)2 + 2R(si, B) Ram- 

mehberg Sf Hose : or (Ca Mg Mn Fe) Si^ + 

2{¥e ^i) si + 2 6a. B. L. Gmelin. 
Analysis from Dauphiny, by Rammelsherg : 
Silica . . . ' / . 43-68 
Boracie acid . . . o-61 

Alumina .... 15*63 
Peroxide of iron . . . 9*45 
Peroxide of manganese . 3 05 

Lime 20-67 

Magnesia . . . .1-70 
Potash .... 0-64 


BB melts easily, with intumescence, to a 
greenish-Tvhite semitransparent glass, which 
becomes black in the outer flame, in con- 
sequence of the manganese passing to a 
higher degree of oxidation. With borax 
dissolves readily, yielding an iron-coloured 
glass, which assumes a violet tint after long 
heating in the outer flame. 

^^ot acted on by acid, except after fusion, 
and pulverisation, when it is completely 
dissolved in muriatic acid, with the forma- 
tion of a jelly of silica. 

Localities. — English. In very perfect cr\'s- 
tals of a clove-bro^vn colour (Jigs. 35 and 36) 
in Cornwall, at Botallack and Trewellard, 
near St. Just ; also lately at Lostwithiel and 
St. Columb. Brent Tor, four miles north 
of Tavistock in Devonshire. Pseudomor- 
phous crystals of Chlorite, with the form of 
the Crystals from St. Just, are found on 
Dartmoor, — Foreign. Axinite wasfirstfound 
at Thum, in Saxony, whence its name of 
Thumite or Thumerstone ; it is also found 
at St. Christophe, near Bourg d'Oisans in 
Dauphine; near Bareges in the Pyrenees; 
at Santa Maria in Switzerland; at the 
silver mines of Kongsberg in Xorwaj^, at 
Arendal ; in Savoy ; in the Harz ; Coquimbo 
in Chili ; Cold Spring in Xew York, &c. 

Xame. The name is derived from a|/v-/,, an, in allusion to the form of the crystals, 
which are sharp like the edge of an axe. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, Xo. 1010. 

Brit. Mus., (3ase 40. 

AxoTOMOus Arse-^ 
>'icPYPaTES, Jameson. I ^ Leucopyrite 

AX0T03I0US Arse- / »ee i^elcopyrite. 
^^CAL Pyrites, Mohs.J 

AX0T05I0US Iron, v. Kohell. See Kib- 

AxoTOMocs Iron-ore, Mohs. See II- 


Azorite, Teschemacher, Dana. Pvra- 


midal. Columbate of lime, occurring in mi- 
nute square pyramids, somewhat shorter 
proportionally than the regular octahedron. 
Colourless, or white with a faint greenish- 
yellow tinge. Translucent to opaque. Vi- 
treous in fracture. H. 4.4 to 4-5 

BB infusible; smaller crystals become 
opaque white, the larger become reddish in 
the outer flame, and pale yellow in the inner. 

It is found in an albitic rock, associated 
with black Tourmaline and Pyrrhite in the 
Azores, whence the name Azorite. 

Azure Copper-ore, Jameson. Blue car- 
bonate of copper ; See Chessylite. 

Azure-spar. Azurestone, Jameson. 
AzuRlTE, Phillips, Jameson. See Lazu- 
LiTE. Beudant uses the term Azurite for 
Blue Carbonate of Copper. See Chessy- 


Babel Quartz. A variety of Rock 
Crystal. Instead of tapering gradually 

Fig. 37. 

towards their extremities, as is the case 
with many crystals of Quartz, these diminish 
suddenly at intervals, and are built up as it 
were of a series of short steps, which, from 
their fanciful resemblance to the successive 
storeys of the Tower of Babel, have caused 
the name of Babel-Quartz to be given to 
this variety. 

Locality. Tamar mines, Devonshire. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Jvo. 528. 

Babingtonite, Levy, Dana, Nicol, Phil- 
lips. Anorthic. Colour dark greenish-black. 
Lustre vitreous. Surface brilliant. Faintly 
translucent in splinters ; appearing greenish 
parallel to the axis, and brown transversely 


Fig. 38. Fig. 39. 

to it. Fracture imperfect conchoidal. H. 5-5. 
to 6. S.G. 3-35 to 3-5. 

Comp. (Ca Fe)6 Si5. 

Analysis from Arendal, by Arppe : 
Silica ....". 54-4 
Lime 19-6 



Protoxide of iron 


Thick fluid resin . . . 32-41 

Protoxide of manganese 

. 1-8 

Earthy impurities . . . 0-39 






Loss by ignition . 


Locality, The vicinity of Lake Baikal in 


BB fuses easily on the surface to a black 
magnetic enamel. With borax gives a 
transparent amethystine-coloured bead, 
"which becomes bluish-green in the re- 
ducing flame. 

Dissolves slowly in boiling muriatic acid. 

Babingtonite resembles certain dark va- 
rieties of Augite. It occurs in very distinct 
crystals at Arendal in Norway, and in large 
irregular laminated crystals, imbedded in 
white Quartz in one of the Shetlands. 

Name. After Dr. Babington. 

Brit. Mus., Case 35. 

Bagrationite, Kohscharow. A variety of 
Allanite, having the same angles as Uralor- 

Baierine, Beudant. The name proposed 
by Dam our for varieties of Colunabite from 
Limoges, which give a streak like those 
from Bavaria. S.G. 5*6 to 57. 

Fig. 40. 

Anali/sis by Damour : 

Coiumbic acid . . . 78*44 

Protoxide of iron . .14-96 

Protoxide of manganese . 6-52 


Name from Baiern, Bavaria, 

Baikalite, a dingy-green coloured crys- 
talline variety of Sahlite (Augite) found in 
Granite at the mouth of the Sljumanka river, 
which falls into lake Baikal in Siberia: 
hence the name Baikalite. 

Baikerite, a chocolate-brown coloured 
mineral wax. It has the hardness of 
ordinarv wax, but becomes soft with the 
warmth of the hand ; at 52° C. (125-6° F.) 
it melts to an oily liquid, and at a higher 
temperature distils over, leaving a little 
carbonaceous residue. Soluble in hot ether, 
naphtha, and turpentine. 

Analysis : 

Wax-like substance insoluble 

in alcohol 7*02 

Wax-like substance soluble in do. 60 18 


Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

Balats Ruby, Balas Ruby: Balass 
Ruby, Kirwan. The name given to the 
rose-red varieties of Spinel. The Balas Ruby 
is held in much less estimation than either 
Oriental or Spinel Ruby, and is often con- 
founded with burnt Topaz. Nevertheless it is 
sometimes employed in jewelry, and fetches 
a high price ; a fine stone of 24 to 30 carats, 
being worth from 8/. to 16Z. In an oriental 
work on jewels, entitled Khawds-ul-hejar, 
the stone is treated of under the name of 
Balaksh (Balakshan being synonomous with. 
Badakshan). Hence the European name — 
Balas Ruby, or Ruby of Badakshan. 

The Rubinus Balassius or Pallacius, was 
one of the gems included by the ancients 
under the general name Carbuncle : pro- 
bably it is the Carhunculus amethystizontes of 

Ballesterosite, a variety of Pyrites 
from Gallicia, containing trace's of' zinc and 

Baltimorite, Thomson. A mineral of a 
greyish-green colour, composed of longitu- 
dinal fibres adhering to each other. It is 
opaque, but translucent at very thin edges. 
Lustre silky. Hardness very little less than 
Calc-spar, or nearly 3. 

Analysis : 

Silica . 

. 40-95 


. 34-70 

Oxide of iron 

. . 10-05 


. 1-50 

Water . 

. 12-60 

99 80 

BB infusible, but turns brown : with soda 
melts to an opaque, with borax to a trans- 
parent bead. 

This mineral bears considerable resem- 
blance to Asbestos, but the latter contains 
more silica and much lime, which is absent 
in Baltimorite. 

The name was given by Dr. Thomson, 
who first examined it, from. its being found 
at Baltimore, U.S. It also occurs dark 
green and fibrous at Killin in Perthshire. 

Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

Bamlite, Erdmann. A mineral with the 
structure and appearance of some kinds of 
Kyanite. Occurs in oblique and generally 
strongly striated, four-sided prisms ; also 
massive and radiated plumose. Colour grey- 


isii or greenish -white, or bluish-green. 
l>anslucent. Lustre silky. Fracture un- 
even and splintery. H. 6 to 7. S. G. 2-984. 

Comp. Al^ Si^, or alumina 

42-4, silica 

57-6 = 100. 

Analysis by Erdmann : 

Silica .... 

. 56-90 


. 40-73 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 1-04 

Lime .... 

. 1-04 


. trace 

BB infusible. ' 

Jjocalities. Bamle (whence the name 
B'lmlite) and Brakka in Norway, in gneiss. 

Band Jaspis, Werner. See Ribbon 

Baralite, Dana. Occurs massive and 
cellular. Colour greenish-black. Opaque. 
Lustre glimmering. Streak greyish-green. 
H. 4. 

Comp. Silica, alumina, peroxide of iron, 
lime, magnesia and water. 

BB alone infusible. Wholly soluble in 
muriatic acid. 

Locality. Baralon,Cote-du-Nord,'France. 

Barbadoes Tar. See Petroleum. 

Barnhardtite. Occurs massive, of a 
pale bronze-yellow colour, resembling that 
of Pyrites, but with a less bright lustre. 
Tarnishes readily to pinchbeck and iridescent 
tints. Streak black, and slightly shining. 

Comp. 2CuS + re2S3. 

Analysis hy Taylor. 

Sulphur .... 29-40 
Copper .... 47-61 

Iron 22-23 

Silver trace 


BB gives off fumes of sulphur, and melts 
to an iron-black magnetic globule. 

Localities. United States, in a mine 
on the land of Dan Barnhard (whence the 
name Barnhardtite), Cabarras co.. North 
Carolina; near Pioneer Mills, and at the 
Phoenix and Vanderberg mines, and near 
Charlotte in Mecklenburg co. 

Barolite, Kirwan. Witherite ; the name 
derived from /3o(iey«. heavy, and ^/fo?, stone, has 
reference to its high specific gravity. 

Baroselenite. The name used by Kir- 
wan for Barytes ; derived from /3«gu?, heavy, 
and Selenite, in allusion to its high specific 
gravity, and the resemblance some of its 
crystals bear to those of Selenite. 

"Brit. Mus., Case 52. 




Barsowite, Brook §■ 3Iiller. A Felspathi 
mineral occurring in boulders in the auri- 
ferous sand of Barsowkoi, near Kyschtimsk, 
in the Ural, as the gangue of the blue Cor- 
undum, It is found massive, of a snow- 
white colour, and a more or less pearly lus- «| 
tre. Texture granular, with a nearly per- ■ j 
feet cleavage in one direction. Fracture 
granular, or splintery. H. 5-5 to 6. S.G. 
2-74 to 2-75. 

Co7np. Ca3 si2 +3 M Si=(Ca + Al) Si|. 

Analysis by Varrentrapp : 

Silica 49-01 

Alumina .... 33.85 

Lime 15-46 

Magnesia .... 1*55 

BB alonp fuses to a vesicular glass at the 
edges : with borax melts slowly to a colour - 
less glass. 

Gelatinises easily on being heated with 
muriatic acid. 

Barystrontianite, Traill. The mineral 
to which this name has been given is not 
a distinct species, but a mechanical mix- 
ture found at an old lead mine two miles 
west of Stromness, on Pomona, or Mainland, 
one of the Orkneys ; and on the beach at 
the Point of Ness. It occurs in yellowish- 
white aggregations, with a dull pearly lustre. 
It consists of 

Strontianite . . . . 68-6 

Barytes 27-5 

Carbonate of lime . . .2-6 
Oxide of iron . . .0-1 


Baryta, Carbonate of. See Wither- 

Baryta, Bicalcareo-carbonate of. 
See Alstonite and Bromlite. 

Baryta, Sulphate of. See Barytes. 

Baryta, Sulphato-Carbonate of. See 


Baryta Harmotome. See Harmo- 

Baryte Carbonatee. See Witherite. 

Baryte, Brooke §• Miller. Baryte Sul- 
fate k, Haiiy. Barytes, Dana, Greg §■ 
Lettsom, Phillips. Rhombic. Occurs mas- 
sive and crystallized, with a lamellar 
structure, which in the massive varieties 
is sometimes curved; also fibrous or gra- 
nular. Colourless, or inclining to yellow, 
blue, red, grey, or brown. Transparent to 
opaque, i^ustre vitreous, inclining to re- 
sinous. Streak white. Possesses double 
refraction when held in a particular direc- 

tion. Sometimes fetid wlien rubbed. H. 
2-5 to 3-5. S.G. 4-3 to 4-7. 

Fig. 41. 

Fig. 42. 

Comp. Ba S. = sulphuric acid 24-33, ba- 
ryta 65-67 ; but, part of the baryta is fre- 
quently replaced by strontia, and oxide of 
iron, silica, carbonate of lime and alumina 
occur sometimes as impurities. 

BB decrepitates violently, and melts with 
great difficulty or only at the edges, impart- 
ing a yellowish- green colour to the flame. 
In the inner flame reduced to a sulphide, 
which when moistened, smells slightly he- 
patic. Not acted on by acids. 

May be distinguished from Strontia by 
not tinging the flame red when tested with 
muriatic acid and alcohol. 

Localities. — British. The finest crystallized 
specimens found in the United Kingdom 
have been procured from Dufton in Cumber- 
land, see Jig. 41. Very large and perfect de- 
tached crystals occur in the mud at the 
bottom of a cave at Silverband near Dufton ; 
one of them has been found weighing 1 cwt. 
Fine translucent dagger-shaped crystals of 
a yellowish -white tint occur at the iron 
mines at Cleator moor in Cumberland ; Jig. 
43. ' Figs. 42 and 43 represent Cornish forms. 
Other British localities are the Fullers' Earth 
pits at Nutfield, near Eeigate in Surrey ; 
Leadhills in Lanarkshire, Jigs. 41 and 42 ; 
Breidden Hills, Shropshire; Wotherton in 
Derbyshire ; Co. Cork ; &c. — Foreign. Przi- 
bram and Mies in Bohemia ; Felsobanya and 
Kremnitz in Hungary ; Freiberg, Marien- 
berg, Clausthal ; Eoya, and Eaure, in Au- 

Name. From /3«jyj, heavy. 

Barytes is a very widely difi'used mineral, 
and commonly occurs in beds or veins of 
metallic ores ; when associated with ores of 
iron it exercises an injurious influence on 
the process of smelting. It sometimes forms 
veins in secondary limestone. 

The following have been described as sub- 
species, though diff'ering only in appear- 
ance : 1. Granular Heavy Spar : 2. Colum- 
nar Heavy Spar : 3. Radiated Heavy Spar, 
or Bolognese Stone : 4. Hepatite : 5. Cawk. 

The white varieties of Barytes are ground, 
after having been heated and thrown into 


water, and used as a pigment, either alone 
or mixed with white-lead. It has, also, late- 
ly been proposed to employ Barytes in sugar- 
refining. Most of its 'salts are highly 
poisonous. The nitrate is used in pyro- 
technv for making c^rem^re, in the follow- 
ing proportion: Nitrate of Barytes 77, 
Flowers of Sulphuv 13, Chlorate of Potash 
5, Metallic Arsenic 2, Charcoal 3. In the 
year 1847, 10,320 tons of Barytes, worth 
about \l. per ton, for grinding, were raised 
in the United Kingdom, principally in 
Shropshire and Derbyshire. 

Brit. Mus., Case 52. 

M.P.G. The largest crystal of Barytes 
ever found in the United Kingdom is placed 
on the floor at the S.E. end of the Horse- 
shoe Case. It weighs lOOlbs. See also Horse- 
shoe Case Nos. 241 to 254. 

Barytine, Beudant. See Barytes. 

Barytocalcite, Brooke. Oblique. Pri» 
mary form an oblique rhombic prism. 
Occurs massive and crystallized. White, 
yellowish, greyish or greenish. Transpa- 
rent or translucent, with a vitreous lustre 
inclining to resinous. Streak white. Brit- 
tle. Fracture imperfect conchoidal. H. 4. 
S.a 3-6 to 3-7. 

Fig. 44. 

Fig. 45 

Comp. Ba C + CaC = carbonate of bary- 
ta 66-3, carbonate of lime 33-7 = 100-0. 
Analyses ; a. by Children, h. by Delesse : 
a. h. 

Carbonate of barvta 65-9 66-20 
Carbonate of lime . 33-6 31-89 
Silica . . . „ 0-27 

99-5 98-36 
BB infusible alone, becomes cloudy, and 
gives a yellowish-green colour to the flame. 
With borax fuses to a transparent glass, in 
the oxidating flame of a pale amethystine 
tinge, which becomes colourless in the inner 

Soluble with effervescence in muriatic 

Localities. It occurs plentifully, both cry- 
stallized and massive, in veins in Mountain 
Limestone, at Bleagill, Alston Moor, Cum- 
berland. The crystals are greyish-white, 
and semi-transparent. Sometimes crystals 
two inches long are met with, but in gene- 


ral tliey do not exceed half an inch to an 
inch in length. The larger crystals are fre- 
quently decomposed, and converted into a 
Avhite mealv-looking substance like Barytes. 

Brit. Mus., Case 41. 

Baryto-calcite, Thomson. See Leeds- 


Baryto-celestine, Thomson. The mine- 
ral from Kingston and Sydenham, Canada 
\V., so called by Thomson, is pure Celestine. 

Barytophyllit, Breithaupt. See Chlo- 


Basalt -JASPER, a name given to semi- 
vitrified on porcellanic shales. 

Basaltine, the name given by Kirwan 
to crystallized Hornblende, because it is 
"mostly found in basalts and lava." 

Basanite. See Lydia^t Stone. 

Basanomelane, Kobell. Titaniferous 
Iron ; according to Breithaupt, a variety of 

Analysis from Gastein in Switzerland, by 
V. Kobell : 

Protoxide of iron . . o'Ol 

Peroxide of iron . . . 85 -33 
Titanic acid . ... 9-66 


Name. From ^xa-ocvo;^ touchstone, and 
At;'Aflt?, black. 

Basic Flucerien. See Flucerinb. 

Basicerine, Beudant. See Fluocerine. 

Basis(;hes Schwefelsaures Eisen- 
oxyd. See Copiapite. 

Bastite, Brooke §• 3Iiller. A name given 
to Schiller Spar from its occurrence at Baste 
in the Harz. 

Batkachite, Breithaupt. A variety of 
Chrysolite in which a great part of the Mag- 
nesia is replaced by liine. (Ca^ Mg2) Si. It oc- 
curs massive, exhibiting traces of a rhombic 
prism. Colour pale greenish -grey to nearly 
■white. Lustre resinous inclining to vitreous. 
Streak white. Fracture small conchoidal. 
H. 6. S.G. 3-03. 

BB infusible alone ; slowly soluble in salt 
of phosphorus leaving a silica residue ; with 
soda fuses with diflficulty to a dark-coloured 

Not acted on by acids. 

Locality. Rinzoniberg, a mountain in 
Southern T3'rol. 

Name. From /3«»T|«;tef, a frog, from its re- 
semblance to the colour of that animal. 

Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

Bavalite, Dufrenoy. A silico-aluminate 
of oolitic iron, analogous to the Chamoisite 
and Berthierine of Havancres, but of a some- 

what deeper colour. It is found at [fiavalon' 

Baudisserite. A name given to Mag- 
nesite, from its occurrence at Baudissero in 

Baulite. a variety of Krablite, resem- 
bling pitchstone and pearlstone ; formerly 
ejected abundantly from the volcanoes of 
Iceland and Faroe. Occurs in globular 
masses sometimes with a radiated and con- 
centric fracture. S.G. 2-623. 
Soluble in muriatic acid. 
Name. After the mountain of Baula in 
Brit. Mus., Case 30. 

Beaume de Momie. See Asphalt. 
The colour momie, made from Asphalt, re- 
ceived its name from the circumstance of 
the material being sometimes taken from 
Egyptian mummies, that being supposed to 
be of the finest quality. 

Beaumontite. The minute crystals, sel- 
dom exceeding a line in length, occurring 
on syenite-schist with Haj^denite, at Jones's 
Falls, near Baltimore, U. S., have been de- 
scribed by Levy, under the name of Beau- 
montite, as modified square prisms. Dana 
has shown that the form cannot be a square 
prism. In physical and other characters 
the crystals resemble Heulandite. S.G. 2-24. 
An analysis by Delesse afforded 

Silica 64-2 

Alumina . . . . 14 1 

Protoxide of iron . . .1-2 

Lime 4-8 

Magnesia . . . . 1'7 
Loss and soda . . . 0*6 
Water 13-4 


Name.. After Elie de J3eaumont, Pro- 
fessor of Geology at the Ecole des Mines, 

Fig. 46. 

Beekite, Kengott, W. Pengelly. This is 
not, strictly speaking, a distinct mineral 
species, but merely a particular form of Chal- 
cedony deposited on fossils, either sponges, 
corals, or shells— generally spiral univalves. 
It occurs in New Bed Conglomerate in round- 
ed masses, resembling the pebbles with 


whicli they are associated, and similar to 
them both in form and dimensions. The 
Beekites, as these rounded masses are called, 
vary in diameter from half an inch to a foot, 
but they rarely exceed from three to six 
inches in diameter. Their surfaces are com.- 
posed of Chalcedony, generally arranged 
in tubercles varying in size from a pin's 
head to a pea, each of which is not unfre- 
queutly surrounded by one or more rings, 
and occasionally the same ring invests two 
or even more tubercles. 

When broken the interior is most com- 
monly found to be calcareous, and in a decom- 
posing state. Occasionally the nucleus has 
entirely decomposed ; in which case only 
a few grains of matter remain within the 
crust, and the Beekite will float in water. 

Localities. — British. A very few specimens 
have been found in Carboniferous Limestone, 
near Sidcot, in Somersetshire, and in the 
north of Scotland. They are, however, 
found in every part of the Conglome- 
rate of Torbay, in Devonshire, from Good- 
rington Sands on the south, to Tor- Abbey 
Sands on the north; but they are con- 
siderably moi-e abundant at Livermead 
Head, and at and near Paignton Harbour 
than elsewhere in the district. — Foreign. 
Beekites have also been found in Austra- 
lia, in Triassic Conglomerates, and on the 
banks of the Nerbuddah in India. 

Name. After Dr. Beeke, dean of Bristol, 
by whom they were first publich' noticed. 
'Beetle or Bettle -stones. Names 
sometimes given in S. Wales to septarian 
nodules of Clay Ironstone from the Coal- 

Beilstein, Werner. See Nephrite. 

Bell- METAL Ore. A name given to Tin 
Pyrites, from its resemblance in appearance 
to bronze, or bell- metal. 

Belonit, Glocker. SeeAiKENiTE. 

Beraunite, Breithaupt. A variety of 
Delvauxene, resulting from the decomposi- 
tion of Vivianite. It occurs foliated and ra- 
diated, with one perfect and one imperfect 
cleavage. Colour hyacinth-red, or reddish- 
brown. Streak reddish, ochreous-yellow. 

Comp. Hydrous phosphate of peroxide of 

BB fuses and colours the flame bluish- 

Soluble in muriatic acid. 

Localities.— English. Huel Jane, near Tru- 
ro in Cornwall, in scaly and brittle masses, 
associated with Vivianite on Eisen-nickel- 
kies. — Foreign. Near Beraun (whence the 
name Beraunite) in Bohemia, in Limonite. 
Near Kertch in the Crimea. 



Brit. Mus., Case 57. 

Berengelite. a mineral near Guay- 
quillite, described by Prof. Johnston. Co- 
lour dark brown with a green tinge. Lus- 
tre and fracture resinous. Powder yellow. 
Odour resinous and disagreeable. Taste 
slightly bitter. 

Comp. C40 H51 08. 

Analysis : 

Carbon . . . .72-472 
Hydrogen . . . .9-198 
Oxygen .... 18-330 

rori;ns a bitter solution with cold alcohol, 
A resin of a clear red colour is obtained 
by evaporation, and remains soft and viscid 
at the ordinary temperature. 

Locality. It forms a lake like the Pitch - 
lake of Trinidad (see Asphaltum) in the pro- 
vince of St. Juan de Berengela (whence the 
name Berengelite'), about one hundred miles 
from Arica in Peru, and is used instead of 
pitch for paying boats and vessels. 

Beegbutter, Werner. Rock -Butter. See 
Bergcrystal, German. See Rock-Crystal. 
Bergholz, Sterzing. Probably an altered 
Chrysotile. See Xylolite. 

Bergholz, Werner. See Rockwood. 
Bergmannite. a brick-red or greyish- 
white Natrolite, occurring massive in Zircon- 
syenite, near Brevig and Stavern in Nor- 
way ; and shown by R. Blum to result from 
the alteration of Elagolite. 
Analyses by Scheerer ; 

Red. White. 
Silica . . . 47-97 48-12 
Alumina . . . 26-62 26-96 
Peroxide of iron . 0-73 0-22 
Soda . . . 14-07 14-23 

Lime . . . 0'68 0-69 
Potash. . , . trace trace 
Water . . . 9-77 10-48 

99-88 100-7 
Brit. Mus., Case 31. 

Bergmehl, Fahhroni, Widenman. See 
Mountain -meal. 
Bergmilch, Werner. See Agaric-mine- 


Bergpeoh. See Asphalt. 
Bergseife, Werner. See Rock-Soap. 
Bergtheek, Hausmann. See Asphalt. 
Beril noble, Brochant. Berill, Wer- 
ner. Berillus, Wallerius. See Beryl. 
Bernerde. See Retinite. 
Bernstein, Werner. See Amber. 
Beuthieeite, Fhillips, Nicol, Dana. Is 
D 4 

40 BERYL. 

not found crystallized, but in indistinct elon- 
gated prisms or confusedly lamellar masses, 
-vvith a longitudinal cleavage parallel to the 
axis of the prism. Colour dark steel-grey, 
inclining to pinchbeck-brown; surface often 
covered with iridescent spots. Lustre me- 
tallic. H. 2 to 3. S.G. 4 to 4-3. 

Comp. FeS+Sb2 S3 = Sulphur 28-9, an- 
timony 58-4, iron 12-7. 

Analysis of specimens from the Neue Hoff- 

nuug Gottes, near Freiberg, by C. v. Hauer : 

"Sulphur .... 80-53 

Iron . . . . . 10-16 

Antimony .... 59-30 


BB fuses readily, emits vapours of anti- 
mony, and forms a black magnetic slag. 
Gives an iron reaction with fluxes. 

Dissolves readily in muriatic acid, giving 
out sulphuretted hydrogen. 

Localities. Chazelles and Martourel in 
Auvergne, associated Avith Quartz, Calc-spar, 
and L-on Pyrites ; Commune of Lalaye, in the 
Vosges; Braunsdorf in Saxony; Arany 
Idka in Hungary; the neighbourhood of 
Padstow in Cornwall, of a steel-grey colour, 
and with a fibro-crystalline structure. 

Name. This mineral was first discovered 
and described by M. Berthier, who called it 
Haidingerite, after his friend Mr.Haidinger ; 
but his name being already associated with 
another species, Mr. Haidinger proposed the 
present name in compliment to the ori- 
ginal discoverer. 

Berthierite yields antimony of such infe- 
rior quality, as to be worthless as an ore 
of that metal. 

Brit. Mus., Case 11. 

Beryt^. a variety of Emerald, possessing 
the same crj^stalline form, hardness and spe- 
cific gravity, and differing from it only in 
colour. H. 7-0 to 8. S.G. 2-67 to 2-732. 


Peroxide of iron . 1*00 
Lime . . .0-50 


Fig. 47. 


Comp. (Be + Al) Si2 = Be + Al +4.Si = 
Glucina 14-1, alumina 19-0, silica 66-9 = 

Analyses: a. from Siberia, hj Du Menil ; 
b. from Hirschgasse by Borntrager : 
a. b. 
Silica . . . 67-00 66-90 
Alumina . . . 16-50 18-15 
Glucina . . . 14-50 12-20 

99-50 100-20 
From these analyses it appears that the 
colouring matter is oxide of iron. Some- 
times the same crystal is of two or even 
more colours, and occasionally it is irides- 
cent. Some Beryls are quite colourless, but 
the colours are generally blue or yellow. 
The crystals (six-sided prisms) are of very 
variable dimensions, from mere threads to a 
foot or more in length, and 4 inches in thick- 
ness; but the latter are never sufiiciently 
perfect or transparent to be used in jewelry. 
The finest Berjds are described by Pliny as 
those " qui viridatem puri maris imitantur," 
which are of a clear sea-green colour, hence, 
crystals of clear tints of sea-green or sky- 
blue are called Aqua-marinas, or Aquama- 
rines. The Beryl when of good colour is best 
cut into facets. The greenish-yellow variety 
is sometimes mistaken for Chrj'soberyl, but 
may be distinguished from it by its inferior 
lustre, hardness and specific gravity. Peb- 
bles of Quartz are sometimes taken for Be- 
ryls, and vice versa. The two may be distin- 
guished by observing that the crystals of 
Beryl are striated longitudinally, while those 
of Quartz are striated transversely, or at 
right angles to the axis of the prism. More- 
over the fracture of the two minerals is 
widely different, for the Beryl breaks in 
smooth planes, the faces of which are at 
right angles to the axis of the crystals, 
whereas the fractured surface of Quartz is 
invariably conchoidal. 

Localities. — English. Beryls are found in 
CoruAvall, at St. Michael's Mount, in small 
bluish crystals in Mabe parish, 3 miles west 
of Falmouth, and in the parish of Constan- 
tine ; also amorphous at Huel Castle near 
St. Just. — Scotch. Kinloch Rannoch. Mount 
Baltoch, in diverging prisms of a pale green 
in Granite. With Topaz, near Braemar, in 
the alluvium of the Don and Dee. In. the 
granite and gneiss of Cairngorm, Banff- 
shire, and in primary limestone at Port- 
soy. — Irish. Very fine specimens, mostl}' of 
a fine blue,sometimes quite transparent and of 
considerablesize, in the Mourne mountains, of 
CO. Down. On the north-west side of the 
small lake on Binion Hill. In fine radiating 
crystals on Slieve Havila, and on the Chim- 
ney Rock mountain. Also in Dublin co., in 
the neighbourhood of Killiney and Dalkey ; 
at the Three Rock mountain, and at Stillor- 
gan. Near Round Wood, in Glen Malure, 
and also in Glen Macnass, Wicklow. — Fo- 
reign. Siberia, in the granite district of 

Nertscbinsk, and in the Uralian and Altai 
mountains. Limoges in France ; Finbo and 
Broddbo in Sweden ; Pfitscher Joch in the 
Tyrol. Bodenmais and Rabenstein in Ba- 
varia; the island of Elba; the mines of 
Schlackenwald ; Australia and the East 

Beryls of gigantic dimensions have been 
found in the United States, at Acworth 
and Grafton, N.H., and Royalston, Mass. 
One Beryl from Grafton, KH., weighs 2900 
lbs. ; it is 32 inches through in one direc- 
tion and 22 in another, transverse, and is 4 
feet 3 inches long. Another crystal from 
this locality, according to Prof. Hubbard, 
measures 45 inches by 24 in its diameters, 
and a single foot in length ; by calculation 
it weighs 1076 lbs. At Eoyalston one crystal 
exceeded a foot in length. A gigantic 
opaque Beryl from J^orth America, unfit for 
jewelry, weighing 80 lbs., was in the Great 
Exhibition of 1851. There is also one of 
about the same size, but of more perfect 
form, in the British Museum. It is also 
found in Siberia, Hindostan and Brazil. 

In Mr. Turner's collection there is a crys- 
tal of Beryl, exhibiting decided opalescence, 
and showing a six-rayed star like some va- 
rieties of Corundum. 

The name is derived from the Persian 
helur, changed by the Romans into heryllus. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 810 to 817, 
523, 825. 

Bekzelianite, or Selenite of Copper. Oc- 
curs in thin dendritic crusts, having an im- 
palpable composition. Colour silver-white, 
with a metallic lustre, and a shining streak. 
Soft, and when rubbed down and polished, 
assumes the colour of tin. 

Comp. -e-u Se = Selenium 38-4, copper 61-6. 

BB emits fumes of Selenium, and fuses to a 
grey bead, which is slightly malleable. With 
soda, slowly reduced. 

This mineral is generally found in minute 
seams traversing Calc-spar, or as dendritic 
delineations of a black colour, owing to the 
decomposition it undergoes from exposure 
to the air. It comes from the copper mine 
of Scrickerum, in Smaland, Sweden, and 
near Lehrbach in the Harz. 

Berzeliit, Kuhn. See Kuhnite. 

Berzelin, Necker. See HAtJYNE. 

Berzeline. Tbe name given by Beudant 
to Selenide of Copper. See Berzelianite. 

Berzeline, Ntcker, Phillips. A mineral 
near Leucite in composition, found in Pepe- 
rino at Monte Albano and San Marino 
near Rome; and also at Galloro, -near La 
■Riccia, in the drusy cavities of an augitic 


rock. It occurs in extremely minute white 
octahedrons and cubo-octahedrons, as well 
as in twin crystals, the faces of which are 
often uneven and rounded, and dull super- 
ficially: also massive. It is colourless, 
white or grey, with a vitreous lustre, and is 
slightly translucent and very brittle. H. 5. 
S.G. 2-727, to 2-428. 

BB in the forceps, fuses with diflSculty to a 
pale glass. 

With heated muriatic acid forms a green- 
ish jelly. 

Name. After Berzelius, the Swedish 

Brit. Mus., Case 4. 

Beudanite, Covelli. See Nepheline. 

Beudantite, occurs in aggregations of 
small slightly obtuse rhombs, with the sum- 
mits tnmcated. Colours black and brown. 
Opaque. Translucent in thin fragments, 
and of a deep brown colour by transmitted 
light. Lustre resinous, streak greenish- 
grey. H. 4 to 4-5. S.G. 4-295. 

Comp. 2Pb S + #e S+Fe^ P + 9H or 

2Pb5 P+ ¥e^ P + 9Fe S + 27H. 
Analysis by Dr. John Percy : 

Arsenic acid 
Phosphoric acid 
Silica . 

Peroxide of iron 
Oxide of lead 






Water 8-49 


BB infusible, but gives ofi" odours of sul- 
phurous acid, and deposits a yellow coating 
on the charcoal. With fluxes gives the reac- 
tion of iron and some copper. 

Muriatic acid attacks the powder slowly 
when boiled, forming a reddish-yellow solu- 

Beudantite has been referred to Pharma- 
cosiderite (Cube Ore), but the above anah'- 
sis shows that it must be a distinct mineral. 

Localities. Associated with Brown Iron- 
ore at Horrhausen and Montabaur (Dern- 
bach) in the district of Nassau, on the 
Rhine; also found by Dr. Krantz, in 1856, 
at the Glendore iron mine near Cork. The 
crystals from this locality are small but very 
brilliant and distinct, resembling Pharma- 
cosiderite of a brown colour and translucent. 
The crystals from Dernbach and Cork con- 
tain little or no arsenic, while in those from 
Horrhausen arsenic acid almost entirely 
replaces the phosphoric. 

Name. After JBeudant, the French mine- 


Beurre de Montagne, bufrenoy. 
Mountain Butter. See Petroleum. 

Bezoar Minerals, J. Woodward. Stones 
composed commonly of several crusts one 
within another, and having the crusts close 
and cohering without any internal cavity. 

Bicarbonate of Ammoi^ia. Occurs in 
yellowish to white crystals in the guano de- 
posits on the coasts of Africa and Patagonia 
and the Chinca Islands- H. 1-5. S.G.1-45. 

Comp. NH40C2 + H = ammonia 32-91, 
carbonic acid 55-69, water 11-40= ICO. 

BiLDSTEiN, Werner. See Agalmatolite. 

BiMSTEIN, German. See PuMlCE. 

BiOTiNA, or BiOTiNE. The name given by 
Monticelli to the Anorthite found by him 
among the old lavas at Mount Vesuvius. It 
is easily distinguished from other species 
with which it is associated by its superior 
brilliancy. Colour white or j'ellowish. 
Transparent. Fracture vitreous, inclined to 
conchoidal. Presents double refraction. 

5J? unchanged. 

Partly soluble in nitric acid. 

Name. In honour of M. Biot. 

BiEBRiTK. Oblique. Usually occurs 
in stalactites and crusts investing other 
minerals. Colour flesh- and rose-red. Lustre 
vitreous. Translucent. Friable. Taste as- 

Comp. (Co, Mg) S + 7 H. 

Analysis by Winkelhlech : 
Sulphuric acid 
Oxide of cobalt . 
Magnesia . 
Water .... 

. 29-05 
. 19-90 
. 3-86 
. 46-83 


BB imparts a blue colour to glass of borax. 

This mineral is found in the rubbish of old 
mines at Bieber (whence the name Biebrite) 
near Hanau ; at Leogang in Saltzburg, and 
at Tres Puntos, near Copiapo, in Chili. 


Silver ore. 

Blnnite, Heusser. A mineral identical 
with Enargite except in crystallization. It 
occurs in longitudinally striated, right rhom- 
bic prisms. Colour steel-grey to black. 
Streak a little darker than Dufrenoysite. 
Brittle. Fracture conchoidal. 

Locality. — Found with Dufrenoysite in 
the Dolomite of Binnen Valley, in Valais. 

BroTiTE, Brooke §• Miller, Dana, Greg §* 
Lettsom, Hausmnnn. Rhombic. Occurs 
in six-sided tabular prisms, with a highly 
perfect basal cleavage. Sectile ; thin laminae 


flexible and elastic. Sometimes white or 
colourless, but generally dark-green or 
brown or nearly black. Lustre vitreous. 
Transparent to opaque. Streak uncoloured. 
Optically uniaxial. H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 2-7 
to 3-1. 


Comp. (Mg, Fe, K)3 si + (Al Fe) Si. 
Analysis of a black Mica from Pfitsch in 
Tyrol, by F. Bukeisen : 

Silica 38-43 

Alumina 15*71 

Protoxide of iron . . . 13-04 
Magnesia .... 17'28 

Potash 11-42 

Lime, manganese, and fluorine trace 
Water 2-76 


BB fuses with difliculty to a grey or black 

Biotite may be distinguished from biaxial 
Mica by being completely decomposed by 
concentrated sulphuric acid, leaving a resi- 
due of pearly scales of silica. 

Localities. Inverness in Scotland; Skye, 
Jig. 48 ; Vesuvius (see Meroxene). 

Name. After Professor Biot, who first 
pointed out the optical difierences between 
various kinds of Mica. 

Brit. Mus., Case 32. 

BiRousA. The Persian name for Turquois. 

Bismuth-blende, Phillips. See Euly- 


Bismuth- GLANCE, Jameson. See Bis- 


Bismuth-nickel. See Grunauite. 

Bismuth-ochre, Jameson, Kirwan. 
Crystalline form, according to Von Born, 
that of cubes or quadrangular lamellae. Oc- 
curs massive or disseminated ; pulverulent, 
earthy. Colour straw-yellow, sometimes 
passing into pale yellowish-grey and ash- 
grey, or verging on apple-green. Lustre 
glimmering, dull in. earthy specimens. 
Opaque. Easily frangible. Fracture small- 
grained, uneven or earthy. S.G. 4-36. 

Comp. I3i = oxygen 10-35, bismuth 89-65, 
= 100, with iron'and other impurities. 

Analysis by Lampadius 
Oxide of bismuth . 

„ „ iron 
Carbonic acid 
Water . 





BB on charcoal, easily reduced to the me- 
tallic state, and is volatilized if the heat be 
continued. Soluble -with effervescence in 

Localities. — English. Cornwall at Cost- 
all-lost Mine, St. Roach, and at the E07- 
a4 Iron Mine near Lostwithiel. — Foreign. 
Pulverulent at Schneeberg and Johanngeor- 
genstadt in Saxony ; Joachimstahl in Bo- 
hemia; -with plumbo-cupriferous sulphide 
of bismuth and native gold at Beresof in 

Bismuth-ochre has been often mistaken 
for Green Iron-ore, from which it may be dis- 
tinguished by its external aspect, and by 
the minerals which accompany it. 

It occurs with Native Bismuth, and is 
also accompanied by Quartz and Brown 

Bismuth Glance. See Bismuthine. 

Bismuth Silver, Dana ; Bismuthic 
Silver, Phillips; Bis3iuthic Silver-oke, 
Kirwan. Probably either cubical or hexa - 
gonal. Generally in amorphous masses; 
rarely in acicular or capillary crystals. Co- 
lour tin-white or greyish, subject to tarnish. 
Lustre metallic. Opaque. Fracture uneven. 
Sectile. Soft. 

Analysis by Klaproth ; 

Biiwiuth .... 27-0 

Lead 33-0 

Silver ..... 15-0 

Iron 4-a 

Copper 0-9 

Sulphur ..... 16-3 ^ 


BB melts readily to a silvery bead, cover- 
ing the charcoal with the oxides of lead 
and bismuth, and giving off fumes of sul- 

Soluble in nitric acid. 

Localities. With Copper Pyrites, in small 
amorphous masses, at Schapbach, in the 
Yaliey of Kinzig in Baden ; in the cupre- 
ous shale of Mansfeld in Thuringia, and at 
the mine of S. Antonio, near Copiapo, Chili. 
It was formerly worked as an ore of silver. 

Bismuth Oxide, Haiiy. See Bismuth 

Sulfure, Haiiy. See Bis- 


fki:e, Levy. 

Sulfure Plombo-argei^ti- 
See Bismuth Silver. 
Bismuth Sulfure Plombo-cupkifere, 
Haiiy. See Aikenite. 

BiSMUTHlNE, Brooke ^- Miller, Beudant, 
Greg §• Lettsom. Ehombic. Primary 


form a right rhombic prism. Occurs in aci- 
cular prisms, and in minute crystals deeply 
striated longitudinally; also massive or 
coarsely disseminated with a foliated struc- 
ture like that of Galena, or a fibrous one 
like Antimony. Colour and streak tin- 
white or lead-grey, sometimes yellowish- 
white, with an iridescent tarnish. Lustre 
metallic. Opaque. Soft and brittle. H. 2 
to 2-5. S.G. 6-4: to G-5. 

Pig. 49. 

Fig. .50. 

Comp. Bi2 S3 = sulphur 18-4, bismuth Sl-6. 

Analysis from Cornwall, by Rammelsherg ; 
Sulphur .... 18-42 
Bismuth .... 78-00 

Iron 1-04 

Copper 2-42 

Melts in the flame of a candle. BB melts 
easily with a blue flame and sulphurous 
smell ; if the heat be continued it is for the 
most part volatilized, emitting numerous 
small drops in an incandescent state, cover- 
ing the charcoal with yellow, and leaving a 
residue which is reducible with difficulty to 
the metallic state. 

Eeadily soluble in hot nitric acid; and 
yields a white precipitate on dilution with 

Localities. — English. In Cornwall {,fig. 
49) at Dolcoath, near Camborne ; St. Just, 
Botallack ; Fowey Consols mine ; Hue! Ar- 
thur ; George and Charlotte mine near Cal- 
lington; near Tavistock; also in Cumber- 
land at I3randy Gill, Carrock Fells, &c. — Fo- 
reign. Joachimsthal, and Schlackenwald 
in Bohemia; Johanngeorgenstadt, Schwar- 
zenberg, Altenberg and Schneeberg in Sax- 
ony ; foliated with Cerite at Bastniis near 
Riddarhj'tta in Sweden; with Chrysoberyl 
at Haddam, Connecticut, U.S. Tal-ca in 

M. P. G, Principal Floor, WaU-case 9 

BiSMUTiTE, Breithaupt, Dana. Occurs 
in pseudomorphous acicular crystals ; also 
incrusting and amorphous. Colour white, 
and dull mountain -green, occasionally straw- 
yellow and yellowish-grey. Lustre vitreous 
when pure, sometimes dull. Streak greenish- 
grev or colourless. Subtranslucent to opaque. 
Brittle. H. 4 to 4-5 S.G. 6-86 to 7-67. 


Comp. Bi4C5H4= oxide of bismuth 90*28, 
carbonic acid 6.29, water 3-43 = 100. 

Analysis, from South Carolina, by Ram- 
melsberg ; 

Bismuth .... 90-00 
Carbonic acid . , ,6-56 
Water 3-44 


Melts on a burning coal, and is reduced 
-with effervescence to a metallic globule, 
covering the coal -ftdth -white oxide of bis- 

Soluble in muriatic acid, affording a deep 
yellow solution. 

Localities. In small amorphous pieces at 
Joachimsthal in Bohemia, with small long- 
ish prisms of what are considered to be a 
neAV carbonate of bismuth ; Johanngeorgen- 
stadt and Schneeberg in Saxony, with 
iS^ative Bismuth ; near Hirschberg in Reuss 
Voigtland, with Brown Iron Ore, Native 
Bismuth, and Bismuth Glance; also, in the 
gold district of Chesterfield, S. Carolina. 

Brit. Mus., Case 49. 

BisuLPHURET OF CoppEE, CovelK. See 


BisuLPHUKET OF Iron, Thomson, See 
Iron Pyrites. 

BiTELT.URET OF Lead, Thomson. See 


BiTTERKALK, Hausmann. See Dolomite. 

BiTTEKSALz, Werner. See Epsomite. 

Bitter Spar, Phillips, or Rhombspar. 
The cl-ystallized or large grained and easily 
cleavable kinds of Dolomite. 

Hexagonal. Usually occurring in the 
form of its primary crystal, an obtuse rhom- 
bohedron, very nearly allied to that of car- 
bonate of lime. Colour greyish or yellow. 
Lustre somewhat pearly. Semitransparent. 
Very brittle: harder than Calc-spar. Cleaves 
readily into rhombohedronsof thesame form 
as the crystals. H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 2-85 to 2-9. 

Fig. 51. 

Comp. Ca C + Mg C = carbonate of lime 
54-35, carbonate of magnesia 45-65 = 10, 
but tlie latter is sometimes replaced by a 
small proportion of carbonate of iron. 


BB not distinguishable from Calc-spar, 
but it is more slowly soluble in acids, with 
a very slight effervescence. 

Localities. — The finest and most trans- 
parent crystals are found at Traversella 
in Piedmont, at St. Gotthard ; and near Gap 
in France. In England it is a common 
mineral at many localities. 

Bitter Spath. See Bitter Spar. 

Bitume Asphalte, Brochant. Bitume 
DE JuDEE, Rome de VLsle. See Asphalt. 

Bitume Elastique, Haiiy. See Elate- 


Bitume Glutineux, Haiiy, See Earthy 


Bitume Liquide] Blanchatre, Haiiy. 
See Naphtha. 

Hitume Liquide Brui^ ou Noiratre, 
Haiiy. See Petroleum, 

Bitumen. Includes several distinct varie- 
ties, as Earthy Bitumen, Compact Bitumen 
or Asphaltum, Elastic Bitumen, Maltha or 
Mineral Tar, Naphtha, Petroleum, includ- 
ing Seneca or Genessee oil, &c. 

Brit. Mus., Case 60. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 101, 102, 
111 to 116. 

BiTUMiNiTE, Traill. See Torbanite. 
See also Cannel Coal. 

Bituminoses Holz. Bituminous Wood. 

Bituminous Coal. Softer than anthra- 
cite, less lustrous, and of a more purely 
black or brownish-black colour. S.G. varies 
from 1-14 to 1-5. The proportion of Bitumen 
is very inconstant, varying from 10 to 60 per 
cent., and the coal is termed Dry or Fat ac- 
cording to the amount of Bitumen it con- 
tains. There are several varieties of Bitu- 
minous Coal, viz. Pitch or Caking Coal ; 
Cherr}'- Coal, Splint Coal, Flint Coal, Parrot 
or Cannel Coal, Coking Coal, Brown Coal, 

Black Ambkr. The name given by the 
Prussian Amber-diggers to Jet, because it is 
found accompanying Amber, and, when rub- 
bed, becomes faintly electric. It is cut into 
various ornamental articles by the Amber- 

Black Band. The most valuable kind 
of Clay Ironstone, from which the greater 
part of the Scotch iron has been made, since 
its discovery by Mr. Mushet in 1801. Black- 
band ironstone is distinguished from ordi- 
nary Clay Ironstone by the large proportion 
of carbonaceous matter which it contains. 
It is found in the Upper Coal-measures of 
Lanarkshire; also in those of South Wales; 
Staffordshire; and in Ireland, at Roscom- 
mon and Clonmore. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases, 51 



and 52. Upper Gallery, Wall-case, 43. No. 

Black Chalk. A kind of clay containing 
a large amount of carbon. Colour black. 
Opaque. Sectile. Soils the fingers and leaves 
a mark on paper. Streak black and shining. 
H. 1 to 1-5. S.G. 2-1 to 2-2. 

Becomes red or white in the fire. 

Black Chalk is found in England, France, 
Portugal, Spain and Italy. 

The finer kinds are made into artists' 
crayons, and used for drawing on paper. 

Blaok Cobalt Ochre, Allan, Jameson, 
Kirwan. See Earthy Cobalt. 

Black Copper, Phillips, Black Oxide 
OF Copper. An impure, earthy, black oxide 
of copper, resulting from the decomposition 
of other ores ; being mixed with more or 
less sulphide of copper. Pyrites, and other 
impurities. See Melaconite. 

M. P. G., Principal Floor, Wall-cases 1 
(British) ; 15 (Foreign). 

Black Garnet; Black Garnet of 
Frascati. See Melanite. 

Black Hematite. See Psilomelane. 

Black Iron Ore. See Psilomelxne. 

Black Jack. The name for Blende 
among English miners. 

Black Lead. See Graphite. 

Black Manganese -ore, Jameson. See 

Black Silicate of Manganese. See 

Black Silver. See Stephanite. 

Black Sulphide of Silver. The name 
given to an earthy form of Silver Glance 
found in some of the Cornish mines. 

Black Tellurium, Phillips. See Nagya- 

Black Wad. See Wad, 

Blakeite. The name given to octa- 
hedral crystals, possibly of iron- alum (Co- 
quimbite) from Coquimbo, analysed by J. 
H. Blake. 

A nalysis : 

' - - - 41;37 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 26-79 


. 1-05 


. 0-30 

Silica . 

. 0-82 

Water . . . 

. 29-40 

Blattererz, Blattertellur. See 

Blatterkies. See Marcasite. 
Blatterzeolite, Werner. See Heu- 


Blattriger Stilbit, Hausmann. See 


Blau-Bleierz, Werner. See Galena. 
Blaue Eisenerz, Werner. See Vivi- 


Blaueisenstein, Klaproth. See Croci- 


Blauspath, Werner. See Lazulite. 
Bleicarbonat, Naumann. See Ceru- 


Bleierde, Werner. See Cerusite, 

Bleifahlebz. See Bournonite. 

Bleigelb, Hausmann. See Wul^enite. 

Bleiglanz. See Galena. 

Bleiglatte. See Plumbic Ochre. 

Bleigumml See Plumbo-Eesinite, 

Bleilasur. See Linarite. 

Bleihornerz, Naumann, v. Leonhard. 
See Cromfordite. 

Bleimolybdat. See Wulfenite. 

Bleinierk, Hausmann. Bleinierite, 
Nicol. Amorphous, reniform, spheroidal; 
also earthy and incrusting. Structure often 
curved lamellar. Colour white, grey, yel- 
low, brown. Lustre resinous. Dull or earthy. 
Opaque to translucent. Streak white, 
greyish or yellowish. H. 4. S. G. 393 to 

Comp. Antimoniate of lead. 

Analysis from Cornwall, by Dr. J. Percy. 
Antimonious acid . . 47-36 
Oxide of lead . . . 40 73 
Water 11-91 


BB on charcoal fuses to a metallic glo- 
bule, gives out fumes of antimony, and 
finally yields a bead of lead. 

This mineral is, probably, a mechanical 
mixture of Lead and Antimony Ochres. It 
occurs at Nertschinsk, in Siberia, where it 
is supposed to result from the decomposition 
of other ores of antimony. Also, in large 
detached masses near the surface of the 
ground, at Trevinnick mine, near Endellyon, 
in Cornwall, with Jamesonite and Antimony 
Ochre ; and is the result of the decomposi- 
tion of the former mineral. 

M. P. G. Principal floor. Wall-ease 20. 

Bleimulm, a black, powderj'-, sulphide of 

Bleischeelat. See Scheeletine. 

Bleischimmer. See Jamesonite. 

Bleisulphotricarbonat, Bammels- 
berg. See Leadhillite. 

Bleischweif. The name given by Wer- 
ner to compact Galena, in contradistinction 
to the crystalline and granular forms of that 
mineral. It occurs in veins, and is gene- 
rally accompanied by common Galena. When 
that is the case, the Bleischweif always 
forms the sides of the vein. 



Bleivitkiol. See Anglesite. 

Blende. Cubical, tetrahedral. Primary 
form the rhombic dodecahedron. Occurs 
crystallized and amorphous, in macles, and 
massive, fibrous, and botrj'oidal. The forms 
of its crystals are very numerous. Structure 
perfectly lamellar, and mechanically divi- 
sible with facility into the dodecahedron, oc- 
tahedron, obtuse rhombohedron, acute rhom- 
bohedron, and irregular tetrahedron. Lustre 
splendent to adamantine. Colour brown, 
yellow, red, blackish-brown, rarelj' green; 
white or yellow when pure. Translucent 
or opaque. Streak varying with the colour, 
from white to reddish-brown. Yields to 
the knife, is moderately brittle, and easily 
frangible in the direction of the laminae. 
H. 3-5 to 4. S. G. 3-9 to 4 2. 

Fig. 55 

Fig. 56, 

Comp. Sulphide of zinc, or Zn S = sul- 
phur 33, zinc 67 = 100; but part of the zinc 
is often replaced by iron and cadmium. 

BB infusible both alone and with borax, 
when strongly heated in the outer flame it 
emits vapours of zinc, which coat the char- 

Soluble in nitric acid with the evolution 
of sulphuretted hj'drogen. 

This mineral (the Black Jack or Mock 
Ore of the English miners) is of very 
frequent occurrence, being met with in 
beds and veins accompanying most of the 
ores of silver, lead, and copper. It was 
divided by Werner into three subspecies. 
Yellow Blende, Brown Blende, and Black 
Blende. Of. these the brown was consid- 
ered to be the most common, and of inter- 
mediate age between the other subspecies, 
of which the yellow is the newest. The 
value of this ore has considerably increased 
of late years, but formerly large heaps of 
refuse were frequently formed in the Cornish 
mines of the Blende extracted in working 
for Copper and Tin ores. Although thus 
looked upon in itself as a worthless sub- 
stance, it was considered a favourable indica- 
tion as regarded future prospects ; the saying 

being that " Jack rode a good horse;" by 
which was meant that a rich deposit of the 
ore in request might be expected to occur 
below it. 

Localities. — English. In Cornwall at 
mines near St. Agnes (^gs. 54, 55, and 56.") 
Huel Crofty, Camborne ; and white, mam- 
millated, with a fibrous structure, at Huel 
Unity and Fowey Consols. Alston, and 
other places in Cumberland. — Scotch. Of the 
form of fg. 54, with Galena, in the Edin- 
burgh coal-fields. — Foreign. The black va- 
rieties are found in Transylvania, Hungary, 
and the Harz. Fine black and brown. 
crystals are met with at Salila in Sweden, 
Ratieborzitz, in Bohemia, and many Saxon 

Name. From the German blendena, hil- 
liant ; from blenden, to dazzle. 
Brit. Mus., Case 5. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases 12, 
27 to 29 (British) ; 21 (Foreign). 

Blistered Copper-ore. The name given 
in Cornwall to botryoidal and reniform 
varieties of Copper Pyrites (Chalcopyrite). 
It is found at Cook's Kitchen, Huel Basset, 

Bloodstone. A jaspery variety of Quartz 
of a deep green colour, interspersed with red 
spots like drops of blood. On account of it's 
beautiful colour and great hardness, it is 
much used for seals, rings, and such other 
ornaments as are commonly made of Agat j. 
That which possesses the most translucency, 
and has the most numerous red spots is the 
most highly esteemed. 

In the middle ages, the red spots were sup- 
posed to be the blood of Christ. 

Bloodstone is also made into burnishers. 
It is found massive in Bucharia, Tartary, 
Persia, Siberia ; also in Upper Saxony, Ice- 
land, and the Hebrides. 

The name Heliotrope (from '<x<«?, the sun, 
and T^sVsj, to turn) was given to it because, 
when immersed in a vessel of water, it was 
said to make the image of the sun to appear 
in it of the colour of blood. The Ethio- 
pian Heliotrope especially produced this 
phenomenon. " Out of the water the sun 
is seen in it as in a mirror, the eclipses of 
the sun become visible, and the moon is 
beheld to pass under the great star." (Plin}-.) 
Brit. Mus., Case 23. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 551, 552. 
Blcedite, a mineral occurring on Anhy- 
drite at Ischl, and proved by analyses of Von 
Hauer to be identical with Astrakanitc. 
Colour, orange-yellow. Translucent. Com- 
pact. S. G. 2-251. 
Blue Asbestos. See Crocidolite. 

Blue Carbonate of Coiter, Blue 
Copper, Phillips, Jameson. See Azurite. 
Blue Copper. See Covelline, 
Blue Felspar. See Lazulite. 
Blue Iron Earth, an earthy variety of 
Vivianite, found in Cornwall, Greenland, 
Syria, Carinthia, &c. It is frequently white 
when first dug up, and becomes blue on 
exposure to the atmosphere. 

Analysis from Kertsch, by Segeih: 
Phosphoric acid . . 24.95 
Protoxide of iron . . 48*79 
Water .... 26'26 


Blue Ironstone. See Crooidolite. 

Blue John. The name by which the com- 
pact and granular varieties of Fluorspar are 
known by the miners of Derbyshire. It is 
turned in a lathe and made into vases, 
tazzas, and other ornamental articles, the 
finest varieties for which purposes are found 
at Tray Cliff, near Castleton. The red 
and some other tints of the ornaments into 
which it is converted are not those natural 
to the stone, but are brought out by expos- 
ing it to heat. 

M. P. G. Entrance Hall. A beautiful 
vase of Derbyshire Fluor-spar stands on pe- 
destal 35. See also Horse- shoe Case on the 
Principal Floor. 

Blue Lead, or Blue Ore. Names often 
given by miners to distinguish Galena from 
Cerussite, Anglesite, &c. 

Blue Lead. A variety of Galena pseu- 
domorphous after Pyromorphite. It occurs 
massive, and likewise in long, irregular, six- 
sided prisms, which are superficially dull 
and rough, and of a colour between lead- 
grey and indigo- blue. Soft, sectile, and 
easily frangible. S.G. 5*4. 

Localities. It has been found in Cornwall, 
at Herodsfoot Mine, near Liskeard, and at 
Huel Hope ; at Zschopau in Saxony ; and 
at Huelgoet and Poullaouen, in France, ac- 
companying carbonates of lead and copper. 
The specimens from Huel Hope, when held 
in the flame of a candle, burn like the 
supersulphuret of lead of Johnston. 

Blue Malachite. See Azurite. 

Blue Spar. See Lazulite. 

Blue Talc of Taberg, in Wermland, 
Werner. See Tabergite. 

Blue Vitriol, Allan. See Ctanosite. 

Blutstein, Hausmann. See Hematite. 

BoDBNiTE. Probably a variety of Allanite. 
It occurs in long prismatic crystals of a 
rhombic form. Colour brown, reddish- 
brown, to nearly black, with a somewhat 
greasy lustre. H. 6 to 6-5. S. G. 2-53. 


nalysis by Kerndt : 





Protoxide of iron . 


Yttria . 


Oxide of cerium 


Oxide of lanthanium 






Protoxide of manganese 


Potash . 




Water . . . 




BB glows like Gadolinite; in platinum 
forceps fuses at the edges after long heating, 
and gives to the flame the yellow colour of 
soda in the outer flame. 

Locality. Occurs with Oligoclase at Bo- 
den, near Marienberg, in the Saxon Erz- 

BoG-BUTTER, Williamson. A variety of 
Hartite or Guavaquillite, occurring in Irish, 
peat-swamps. It melts at 51° C (124° F.), 
and dissolves easily in alcohol. 

Comp. C53 H32 03 + H = carbon 75-05, 
hydrogen 12-56, oxygen 12-39. 

Boghead Cannel Coal, Boghead Coal, 
Boghead Mineral. See Torbanite. 

Bog-iron-ore is a loosely aggregated 
form of peroxide of iron (Limonite) occur- 
ring in low marshy grounds, and frequently 
found in the peat-bogs of Ireland and the 
Shetlands. It is of recent formation, result- 
ing from the decomposition of other varieties 
of iron, and often takes the form of the 
leaves, nuts, or stems found in the marshy 
soil. It varies in composition, containing 
from 20 to 78 per cent, of peroxide of iron; 
the protoxides of iron and manganese, from 
a mere trace to 9 or 10 per cent, of phosphoric 
and organic acids, from 7 to 30 per cent, of 
water, with almost always silica in a state 
of chemical combination. "When it occurs 
in small globular concretions, it is termed 

Bog-iron-ore was subdivided by Werner 
into three species, having reference rather 
to the conditions under which they are 
formed than to any particular difference in 
their characters or composition, viz. 1. Mo- 
rasterz or Morass-Ore; 2. Sumpferz or 
Swamp-Ore ; and, 3. Wiesenerz or Meadow- 
Ore, which have been formed, according to 
that author, in the following manner. " The 
water which flows into marshy places is im- 
pregnated with a vegetable acid, formed 


from decaying vegetables, which enables it 
to dissolve the iron in the rocks over which 
it flows, or over Avhich it stands. The water 
having reached the lower points of the coun- 
try, or being poured into hollows, becomes 
stagnant, by degrees evaporates; and the 
dissolved iron being accumulated in quan- 
tity by fresh additions of water, then follow 
successive depositions, which at first are 3"el- 
lowish, earthy, and of little consistence, and 
this is Morass-Ore; but in course of time 
they become harder, their colour passes to 
brown, and thus Swamp -ore is formed. After 
the water has completely evaporated, and 
the swamp is dried up, the swamp-ore be- 
comes much harder, and at length passes 
into Meadow-ore, which is already covered 
with soil and grass." — Jameson's Min,, vol. 
ii. pp. 338-9. 

Brit. Mus., Case 16. 

31. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 19 

Bog-manganese or Wad chiefly consists 
of oxides of manganese and water, with some 
oxide of iron, and often silica, alumina, 
lime or baryta. See Wad. 

Bohemian Diamond. A name sometimes 
given to limpid and transparentRock-crystal, 
when cut and polished. 

Bohejiian Garnet. See Pyrope and 

Bohemian Topaz. See Citrine. 

Bohnerz, Bean-ore. A variety of Li- 
monite, or hydrous oxide of iron, occurring 
in spherical or ellipsoidal concretions, which 
have a concentric lamellar structure. 

31. P. G. Wall-case, 18. 

Bois de Montagne, Brochant. See 
Mountain AVood. 

Bois Petrifie. Brochant. Wood-stone, 
See Wood-opal. 

Bole. This substance is closely related to 
Halloysite in appearance, and particularly 
so in the large amount of water which it con- 
tains ; but it is more variable in character. It 
probably results from the alteration of some 
felspathic or aluminous mineral, and consists 
chiefly of hydrated bisilicate of alumina, in 
which a portion of the alumina is replaced 
by sesquioxide of iron. From the analysis 
of Wackenroder it appears to contain either 
2 or 4 atoms of water, according to the way 
in which it is dried. It occurs in solid 
amorphous masses of a brownish, yellowish, 
or reddish colour, inclining to blackish - 
brown, has a greasy feel, and adheres strong- 
ly to the tongue, ft yields to the nail, breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture, and has a shin- 
ing streak; subtranslucent to opaque. In 
water it emits a crackling noise, and sepa - 


rates into small pieces with the evolution of 
air- bubbles. H. 1-5. S. G. 1-4 to 2. 

BB fuses easily to a yellow or green 

Analysis, from Capo di Bove, by C. Von 
Hauer : 

Silica .... 45-64 

Alumina . . . 29-33 

Peroxide of iron . . 8-88 

Lime .... 0-60 

Magnesia . , . trace 

Water .... 14-27 


Localities. Bole is found in irregular beds 
or disseminated masses in clayslate and 
basalt. It occurs at Striegau in Silesia, the 
Habichtswald in Hessia, near Sienna in 

Bole is distinguished from Lithomarge 
by its fusibility and physical characters. It 
was formerly employed in medicine as an 
astringent, and is now used as a pigment. 

Name. From /S&jAos, a clod of earth. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1121, 
Upper Gallery, Table-case B in recess 6, Nos. 
202 to 204. 

Bolognese Stone. A grey or yellowish- 
grej- variety of Barytes forming rounded 
masses, composed of minute fibrous crystals, 
diverging from the centre. It becomes 
phosphorescent when heated, and remains so 
for some time even after cooling. Bolog- 
nese phosphorus is made bv mixing the 
powder of this stone with a little gum, and 
exposing the mixture to a slight red heat,- 
and afterwards for some time to the light of 
the sun, when it is found to be phosphor- 
escent in the dark. It is found in clay at 
Monte Paterno, near Bologna, whence the 

Brit. Mus.. Case 52. 

Boltonite, Shepard, Geo. J. Brush. A 
variety of Chrysolite. It occurs disseminated 
in irregular masses, seldom showing any 
traces of crystalline form. Colour ash-grey 
to yellowish-white, the darker colours chang- 
ing to yellow on exposure to the weather. 
Lustre vitreous. Fracture uneven or small 
conchoidal. Fragments colourless and 
nearly transparent. H. 6 to 6o. S.G. 3-21. 

Comp. Magnesia-chrj'solite, or R^ ^j, 

Anrilysis hj J. L. Smith : 

Silica 42-82 

Alumina .... trace 
Magnesia .... 54*44 

Protoxide of iron . 


Lime . . . . 
Loss by ignition . 



BB in the platinum forceps does not fuse, 
but becomes pale yellow. With salt of phos- 
phorus gives a reaction for silica and iron. 
Partially decomposed by very dilute muri- 
atic acid, when reduced to powder. 

Locality. Bolton, Massachusetts, U. S. 

Boltonite differs from other varieties of 
Chrysolite in being a silicate of magnesia, 
and not of magnesia and iron. 

Bolus, or Bole of Sinope. A variety of 
Bole, the composition of which, according 
to the following analj'sis of Klaproth, is 

nearly (i^e,Al) Si + 2H. 

Analysis : 

Silica . . . . 

. 32-0 


. 26-5 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 21-0 

Chloride of sodium 

. 1-5 

Water . 

. 17-0 

BoMBiTE, Leschenault. A mineral consi- 
dered b_v Laugier to be a variety of Touch- 
stone, of which it possesses all the characters. 
It has no definite chemical composition or 
form, but occurs in rounded fragments or 
amorphous masses, derived apparently from 
some old formation. Colour bluish-black. 
Very finely granular. Scratches Quartz. 
S.G. 2-2L 
Analysis by Laugier : 

Silica . 

. 50-00 


. 10-50 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 25-00 

Magnesia . 

. 3-50 

Lime . 

. 8-50 

Carbon . . . 

. 3-00 


. 0-30 

Locality. The environs of Bombay. 
BoNSDORFFiTE. A hydrated variety of 
lolite, of a dark olive-green or greenish- 
brown colour, found at Abo. 

Comp. lolite + 6H. 

Analysis by Bonsdorff: 



Alumina . . . . 


Peroxide of iron . 


Magnesia . . . . 


Water,with some protoxide of 

manganese and magnesia. 



Brit. Mus„ Case 32. 


BooRT, BoRT, or BowB. A kind of Dia- 
mond, forming from two to ten per cent, of 
the rough diamonds imported from the 
Brazils. It is generally of a spherical shape, 
and appears to be formed of a confused mass 
of interlaced and twisted parts, like the knots 
in a piece of wood. For this reason it can- 
not be cleaved like ordinary Diamonds, and 
is only of use as a material for polishing 
other stones, for which purpose it is broken 
and reduced to powder in a mortar. Al- 
though usually round, it sometimes presents 
crj'stalline forms, in which case they are 
generally badly defined, at the same" time 
that the stone itself has a more uneven out- 
side than ordinary rough Diamonds. Its 
colour is mostly greyish -white, or blackish, 
and it is less frequently found coloured than 
the more regularly crystallized stones of the 
same class. Its specific gravity is also 
somewhat greater than that of ordinary 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 3 (under 
glass shade) ; No. 4. 

BoRACic Acid, Phillips. See Sassolht. 

BoRACiTE. Cubical, tetrahedral. Occurs 
in transparent and colourless cubes, with 
dodecahedral and tetrahedral surfaces : also 
amorphous. Colour white, inclining to 
grey, yellow, or green. The opaque white 
crj'stals are not so hard, and contain a pro- 
portion of carbonate of lime. Lustre vi- 
treous, more or less translucent. Streak 
white. Fracture conchoidal, uneven. Pyro- 
electric. Harder than Felspar. H. 4-5. S.G. 

Fig. 57. 

Comp. 2(Mg2 B4) + Mg CI, or boracic 
acid 62-50,. magnesia 36-86, chloride of mag- 
nesium 10-64 = 100. 
Analysis by Siewert : 

Chloride of magnesium . 11.14 
Boracic acid . . .61-34 
Magnesia .... 26-00 
Protoxide of iron . . . 1'52 

BB on charcoal, fuses with difiiculty, and 
forms a clear yellowish bead, which, on 
cooling, solidifies to a crystalline enamel- 
like mass, covered with needles. 

Slightly soluble in hot water, and slowly 
dissolved by acids. 


Localities. In beds of Anliydrite, Gypsum, 
or Salt, in small but veiy perfect isolated 
crystals at Kalkberg and Scliildstein, near 
Liineberg, in Hanover ; Segebei'g, near Kiel, 
in Holstein; Luneville, La Meurthe, in 
France ; massive or as part of the rock at 
the salt-mine of Stassfurth, in Prussia. 

Brit. Mas., Case 39. 

Borate of LiaiE, Hayes. See Hayes- 


Borate of Lime, Phillips. See Datho- 


Borate of Magnesia, Phillips. See 


Borate of Soda, Phillips; Borax, 
Dana. Oblique. Occurs in prismatic 
crystals variously terminated, and yield- 
ing to mechanical division parallel to the 
lateral planes of the primarv form — an 
oblique rhombic prism of 86^ 30' and 93<3 30' 
— and both its diagonals. Colour whitish, 
sometimes with tinges of blue, green, or 
grey. Lustre vitreous, sometimes earthy. 
Translucent or nearly transparent to opaque. 
Streak white. Soft and brittle. Fracture 
conchoidal. Taste sweetish- alkaline. H. 2 
to 2-5. S.G. 1-74 

Fig, 58. 

Comp. Na B2 + 10 H=boracic acid 36-58, 
soda 16-25, water 47-17 = 100. 

BB swells and then fuses to a transparent 

Soluble in eighteen parts ©f water at temp. 
60° F., and in six pai-ts of boiling water ; 
and the solution changes vegetable blues 
to greens. 

Localities. Thibet, where it is dug in 
large lumps on the borders of lakes, when 
the heats of summer have rendered the 
waters shallow ; or the' water of the lakes 
is admitted into reservoirs, at the bottom of 
which the salt is found after the water has 
evaporated. From Thibet it is carried to the 
East Indies, whence, after being purified, it 
is exported under the name of Tincal. In 
Persia, the water of certain wells being con- 
ducted into reservoirs and evaporated, de- 
posits the Borax, or Borech, as they call it. 
It is now made in large quantities from the 
boracic acid of the Tuscan lagoons. It is 
also found in the province of Potosi, in 


Peru ; in Cevion, and in the mineral springs 
of Chambl}-,' St. Ours, Canada W. 

This salt is used as a flux in several 
metallurgical processes, and is highly valu- 
able in aiding the process of soldering. It 
is also used in the manufacture of glass and 
artificial gems. See Tincal. 

Brit. Mus., Case 39. 

BoRAziT. See Boracite. 

Bornine, Beudant. See Tetradymite. 
Named after De Born. 

Bornite, Brooke §■ Miller, Nicol. See 
Ertjbescite. This name has also been 
given by one or two authors to a variety of 
Telluric Bismuth (see Tetradymite), 
which occurs in thick foliated masses, with 
a crystalline structure, and from half an 
inch to an inch in diametei", splitting 
into thin plates like Talc and Mica. 
Colour and lustre like those of highly 
polished steel. Flexible. Sectile. Soils the 
fingers like Plumbago or Molybdenite. 
Streak metallic, and nearly the colour of 
the pulverised mineral. H. 2-25. S.G. 

Comp. 2 Bi Te + Bi S^. 

Analysis by C. T. Jackson : 

Bismuth .... 7908 
Tellurium .... 18-00 
Selenium . . . . I'l 8 > 

Gold 0'06 

Loss ..... 1-14 


BB on charcoal, fuses giving off' white 
fumes, which have the odour of Selenium ; 
leaves a white deposit on the charcoal, and 
a yellow ring near the globule, and a little 
metallic Bismuth is obtained. This, cu- 
pelled, gives a little gold. 

Localities. Field's gold mine, in Dahlonga, 
Georgia ; in a vein of Quartz, in hornblende- 
slate rocks, associated with Native Gold and 
some Auriferous Iron Pyrites. Jose, in Bra- 
zil, in marble. 

Name. After De Born. 

Brit. Mus., Case 7. 

BoRN.STEiN or Bernstein. See Amber. 

BoROCALCITE. ) e tt 

BoHONATRocALciTE.} See Hayesine. 

BoROsiLicATE OF LiME, Thomson. See 

BoitsAURERKALK. See Hayesine, 

BoTRYOGENE, Nicol, Haidinger, Phillips. 
Oblique : Primarv form an oblique rhom- 
bic prism of 119° m' and 60° A'. Oc- 
curs in small cr3^stals, which are often ag- 
gregated in reniform and botryoidal shapes, 
consisting of globules with a crystalline 
surface, sometimes like a bunch of grapes ; 


whence its name from t^oT^v?, a grape. 


our deep hyacinth-red, passing into ochre- 
yellow in massive varieties. Lustre vitreous. 
Translucent. Streak ochre-yellow. Taste 
slightly astringent. H. 2-25 to 2-5. S.G. 

Fig. 59. 


Comp. Fe3 b2 + 3 ^e ^^ + 36 H = sulphate 
of protoxide of iron 19-0, sulphate of per- 
oxide of iron 48o, water 327 = 100-0. 

Becomes covered with a dirty yellow 
powder when exposed to a moist atmo- 
sphere, but remains unaltered if kept dry. 
BB intumesces and gives off water, leav- 
ing a reddish -yellow earth. 

Partly soluble in boiling water, leav- 
ing an ochreous residue. 

Locality. The Mellanrumsort level in the 
great copper mine of Fahlun in Sweden, 
forming a coating on Gypsum or Pyrites. 

Brit. Mas., Case 65. 

BoTRYOLiTE, Hausmann. A variety of 
Datholite occuring in mammillary concre- 
tions, formed of concentric layers, having a 
splintery or fibrous texture. Colour ex- 
ternally pearl - or yellowish-grey ; internally 
white, greyish and red in concentric circles. 
Translucent at the edges. Brittle. It dif- 
fers from Datholite in containing two atoms 
of water instead of one. 

Comp. CaB + CaSi + 2H. 

Analysis by Rammelsberg ; 

Lime . . ... . 34-27 

Silica 36-39 ' 

Boracic acid . . . 18-34 

Water 10-22 

Alumina and peroxide of iron 0-78 


BB melts into a white glass. 

Locality. Arendal in Norway, in gneiss, 
accompanied by Schorl, Magnetic Iron ore 
and Iron Pyrites. 

Name. From I3ot^v;, a grape, and >-/^«?, 
stone ; from its occurring sometimes in small 
botryoidal masses, which are white and have 
an earthv texture. 

Brit. Mus., Case 39. 

Bottle Stone of Moravia. A kind of 
Chrysolite of a dirty green and greyish- 
green colour, found in flat pieces about an 
inch in size. 


BouLANGERiTE, Thaulow. Generally oc- 
curs massive, in plumose masses which ex- 
hibit a. crystalline structure when fractured ; 
also granular and compact. Colour bluish, 
lead-grey, often covered with yellow spots 
from oxidation. Lustre metallic. H. 2o 
to 3. S.G. 5-75 to 6.. 

Comp. Pb S + i Sb2 S3 = sulphur 17'9, an- 
timony 24-1, lead 58-0 = 100. 

Analysis from Molieres, by Boulanger : 

Sulphur 18-5 

Antimony .... 25o 

Lead 53-9 

Iron 1-2 

Copper 0-9 


BB fuses readily, giving off sulphurous 
acid, and fumes of oxide of antimony ; on 
charcoal the presence of lead is indicated by 
a yellow circle. 

Localities. Abundantly at Molieres (Gard) 
in France; Nasafjeld in Lapland; Wolfs- 
berg; massive, acicular, and fibrous near 
Bottino in Tuscany. 

Name. After M. Boulanger, Engineer. 

Brit. Mus., Case IL 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 21, 

BouRNOKiTE, Jameson, Phillips, NicoL 
Rhombic: occurs crystallized in a right 
rhomboidal prism (the primary form) vari- 
ously modified. Crystals often cruciform ; 
also massive, granular, and compact. Colour 
and streak steel-grey, inclining to dull lead- 
grey with a tinge of black. Opaque. Frac- 
ture uneven, or flat conchoidal, with a bril- 
liant metallic lustre. Brittle ; yields to the 
pressure of the nail. H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 5-7 
to 5-9. 

Fig. 60. 

Fig. 61. 

Fig. 62. 

Comp. Pb* Sb + Cu2 bb. 

Analysis from Wolfsberg bv Rammelsberg , 
Sulphur . . .' . 19-76 
Antimony .... 24-34 

E 2 


Lead 42-88 

Copper 13 06 


BB decrepitates and melts, giving off sul- 
phur and fumes of antimony, after which a 
crust of sulphide of lead remains, inclosing 
a globule of copper. Readih' dissolves in 
nitric acid, forming a blue solution. 

Localities. — English. In Cornwall at Huel 
Boys, in the parish of St. Endellion (where it 
was first noticed), /^fs. 60 and 61 ; also at St. 
Merryn, near Padstow ; Nansloe, near Hel- 
stone; Budock Vean, near Falmouth; and 
in very fine, sometimes compound crj^stals 
{wheel-ore) at Herodsfoot mine, near Lis- 
keard, fig. 62. — Irish. Cahirglissawn lead 
mine, between Gort and Kenmare, Kerry. — 
Foreign. Very large crystals of Bournonite 
are found in the mines of Neudorf, in the 
Harz, where they occasionally exceed an 
inch in diameter. Good crystals occur at 
Kapnik in Transylvania, and at Servoz 
in Piedmont. Other localities are Brauns- 
dorf and Gersdorf in Saxony. Clausthal 
and Andreasberg in the Harz.^ France, at 
Cransac, Dept. of F Aveyron. Mexico. 

Named in honour of Count de Bournon, 
who first described this mineral, and who 
gave it the name of Endellione, after the 
parish of Endellion, in Cornwall, where it 
was first found. 

Brit. Mus., Case 11. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Case 15, Wall- 
cases 7 and 14 (British) ; 21 (Foreign). 

BouKNOXiT-NiCKELGLANz. An Ore from 
Wolfsberg, in the Harz, which is consi- 
dered by Rammelsberg to be a compound of 
UUmannite and Bournonite. It occurs in 
cubes. H. 4-5. S.G. 5-63 to 5-7. 

Analysis : 


. 28-00 

Antimony . 

. 19-53 

Nickel . 

. 27-04 

Cobalt . 

. 1-60 

Lead . 

. 5-13 

Copper . 

. 1-33 


. 0-51 


BovEY Coal. A kind of Lignite occur- 
ring in deposits of pipe-clay in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bovey-Tracey, in Devonshire. 
It burns with a weak, often bluish flame, 
and gives off an offensive smell. S.G. 1-4 
to 1-558. 

BowENiTE. A bright apple-green variety 
of Serpentine, resembling Nephrite. Struc- 
ture granular. Very tough. H. 5. S.G. 2*57. 


Comp. 2 Mg3 Si2 -i- Mg H. 
Analysis by Smith §• Brush . 

Silica . 


Protoxide of iron 

Lime • 

Water . 


Locality. Smithfield, Rhode Island, D. S. 

Name. After Bowen, by whom it was first 
described (as a variety of Nephrite). 

BowR. See Boort. 

Brachttypous Lead Baryte, 3Iohs. 
See Cromfordite. 

Brachytypous Zinc Baryte, Mohs. See 


Branchite, Savi. A colourless, translu- 
cent mineral, resembling Scheererite, from 
the Brown Coal of Mount Vaso, in Tuscany. 
It fuses at 75° C. (167° F.), but does not 
crystallize on cooling. S.G. 1. 

Soluble in alcohol. 

Brandisite. a variety of Clintonite, oc- 
curring in crystals, lining cavities in a rock 
chiefly composed of Pyroxene, at Toal de la 
Faja de Monzani, in the valley of Fassa, 

It was named by Von Kobell after Count 
de Brandi. See Disterite. 

Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

Brass Ore, Kirwan. A mixture of 
Copper Pyrites and Blende. 

Braunbleieez, Werner; or Brown Lead 
Ore. See Pyromorphite. 

Braun Eisenstein, Werner. See Limo- 


Braunitk. Pyramidal. General form a 
pyramid very like the regular octahedron. 
Occurs both crystalline and massive, or 
fibrous and divergent, of a dark brownish- 
black colour, with a submetallic lustre. 
Streak black, or slightly brownish. Brittle. 
Fracture even. H. 6 to 6-5. S.G. 4*75 to 

Comp. M-n = (Mn Mn) = manganese 
69-68, oxygen 30-32. 

^waZysis from Vizianagram, h^A.J. Scott, 
(S.G. 4-5) : 

Binoxide of manganese . 73-79 



Silica . 
Peroxide of iron 


BB alone on charcoal infusible, but with 


borax it melts -with a slight eflFervescence. 
Soluble in muriatic acid, with the evolu- 
tion of chlorine, leaving a trace of silicious 

Localities. Forms veins in porph3'ry at 
(Ehrenstock, near Ilraenau ; Elgersburg and 
Friedrichsroda in Thuringia; Leimbach in 
Mansfeld ; St. Marcel (see Marceline) in 
Piedmont; Vizianagram in India, &c. 

Named by Turner and Haidinger in honour 
of M. Braun, of Gotha. 

Brit. Mus., Case 13. 

Braunite may be distinguished from other 
ores of Manganese by its g«-eater hardness, 
and from Hausmannite by the direction of 
its cleavage being parallel to the faces of 
the pyramid, instead of being parallel with 
the bases, as is always the case with the 
latter mineral. 

Braunspath. See Brovi^n Spar. 

Braunstein, Hausmann. See Haus- 

Braunsteinkiesel, Werner. See Gar- 

Brazilian Ruby. The name given by 
lapidaries to light rose-coloured Spinelle, and 
pink- coloured lopaz. 

Brazilian Sapphire. The name given 
by some authors to light-blue Topaz, and by 
lapidaries to Indicolite. 

Brazilian Topaz. The name given by 
lapidaries to gold -yellow Topaz, with a tinge 
of red. 

Brazilian Tourmaline. The name 
sometimes given by lapidaries to Brazilian 

Brecciated Agate. Agates consisting of 
fragments of Jasper, Bloodstone, Carnelian, 
&c., cemented by a paste of Chalcedony. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 557. 

Breislackite, Nicol ; Breislakite, 
Brocchi, Phillips. A variety of Augite oc- 
curring in wool-like flexible fibres, of a 
chestnut-brown colour, at Capo di Bove, 
amongst the older lavas of Vesuvius. 

BB alone, fuses to a brilliant and magnetic 
black scoria ; with borax forms a green glass, 
which becomes colourless on cooling. 

Not apparently acted on by boiling muri- 
atic acid. 

Name. After Breislak, the Italian geolo- 

M.P. G. Upper Gallery, Table-case B in 
recess 6 ; Nos. 88 to 135. 

Breithauptite, Haidinger ; or Antimo- 
NiAL Nickel. A mineral formerly found in 
the Andreasberg mountains, but long since 
exhausted. Hexagonal. Occurs in thin 
hexagonal plates ; also arborescent and dis- 
seminated. Colour light copper-red, in- 


dining to violet when fresh fractured. 
Lustre metallic. Opaque. Streak reddish- 
brown. Fracture uneven. Brittle. H. 5-5. 
S.G. 7-54. 

Comp. Ni Sb -= antimony 68-6, nickel ai-4. 
Analysis by Stromeyer : 

Antimony .... 63*78 
Nickel . . . . . 28-94 

Iron 0-86 

Galena . . . . . 6-43 


BB on charcoal the antimony sublimes. 

Locality. The Pyrenees, especially in the 
neighbourhood of the Pic du Midi d'Ossau. 

Name. After Breithaupt, Professor of 
Mineralogy at Freyberg, 

Breithauptite has been observed in a cry- 
stallized form amongst the products of blast 

Breunnerite, Dana, Phillips, Brooke 8r 
Miller. Hexagonal, with a perfect rhom~ 
bohedral cleavage. Primary form a rhomb 
of about 107° 30'. Occurs crystallized, also 
massive, granular, and fibrous. Colourless, 
yellowish, or brown. Lustre vitreous, some- 
times inclining to pearly on cleavage sur- 
faces. Streak greyish- white. Brittle. Frac- 
ture flat conchoidal. H. 4 to 4-5. S.G. 3 
to 3-6. 

Fig. 63. 

Comp. (Mg, Fe, Mn)C. MgC + FeC = 
carbonate of magnesia 42*0, carbonate of 
iron 58 0=^100. 

Analysis from Zillerthal, by Stromeyer : 
Carbonate of magnesia . 84-79 
Carbonate of iron. . .13-82 
Carbonate of manganese . 0*69 

BB infusible ; gives an iron re-action, be- 
comes black, and sometimes magnetic. 
Slowly soluble in muriatic acid when pul- 

Breunnerite usually occurs in detached 
imbedded crystals, of the primary form, in 
Chlorite-slate, and Serpentine. It may be 
distinguished by its brown or yellow colour 
from the crystals of Bitter Spar, with which. 
it is accompanied, the latter being white or 

Localities. St. Gotthard ; the Zillerthal, 
and Hall in the Tyrol. The only British 
locality where it has been met with is in 
E 3 


the Island of Unst, in Shetland, where it 
occurs in small yellowish-brown crystals, 
imbedded in green foliated Talc, at the head 
of Norwick Bay. 

Named by Haidinger, in compliment to 
Count Breunner. 

Brit. Mus., Case 49. 

Breunxerit, Haidinger, Hausmann ; or 
Breunnerite, Nicol. Native carbonate of 
Magnesia, See Magnesite. 

Brevicite occurs in transparent colour- 
less prisms, and white, laminar, radiated 
masses, which are sometimes marked with 
striae of a dark-red hue. 

Comp. 2 Na Ca, 2 Al, 5 Si, 4 H. 

Analysis from Stroni, bv Souden : 
Soda . . . . ' . . 10-32 

Lime 6-88 

Magnesia .... 0*21 
Alumina .... 28-39 

Silica 4388 

Water . . . . . 9-63 


Locality. Brevig in Norway (whence 
the name Brevicite). 

Brit. Mus., Case 28. 

Bre w ST KRiT, Haidinger, Hausmann, JSfau- 
mann, V. Kobell ; Brewsterite, Greg ^ Lett - 
som, Phillips, Beudant. Oblique. Primary 
form an oblique rectangular prism. In small, 
greyish-white, or yelloAWsh crystals, with a 
vitreous lustre, except on the faces of 
cleavage, which are pearly. Transparent 
to translucent. Streak uncoloured. Brittle. 
Fracture uneven. H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 2*09 
to 2-16. 


Fig. 64. 

Comp. (Sr, 



Si + Al bi3 + I 

Analysis by 



Silica . 


. 53-04 


. 16-54 


. 6-05 


. 9 01 

Lime . 

. 0-80 

Water . 

. 14 73 



BB loses its water, becomes opaque, and 
then froths and swells, but does not fuse. 


With salt of phosphorus melte easily, leav- 
ing a skeleton of silica. 

Soluble in acids, leaving a residue of 

Brewsterite was first discovered at Stron- 
tian in Argyleshire, where it occurs in small 
translucent crystals, both colourless, and 
of a brownish tinge, generally associated 
with Calcite. It is found, also, at the 
Giant's Causewa}^, lining cavities in amyg- 
daloidal rocks; in the lead mines of St. 
Turpet ; near Freiburg in the Brisgau ; in 
the department of the Is^re in France, and 
in the Pyrenees. 

Named after Sir David Brewster. 
Brit. Mus., Case 28. 

Brewstoline, Dana, a transparent, co- 
lourless fluid detected by Sir David Brew- 
ster in Siberian Amethyst. It also occurs 
in minute cavities in crystals of Topaz, 
Chrysoberyl, Quartz crystals from Quebec, 
and in blue Topaz from Aberdeenshire. The 
fluid expands one-fourth its size by an in- 
crement of 30° F., or is nearly thirty-two 
times more expansible than water, by a 
change of temperature from 50° to 80° 
Brewstoline is stated by R. T. Simmlen 
to be liquid carbonic acid. 

Name. After Sir David Brewster, by 
whom the first accurate researches were 
made into the nature of the liquids and 
gases which occur in the cavities of Quartz, 

Brick-red Copper Ore, Kirwan, See 
Tile -ORE. 

Bright White Cobalt, Kirv)an, Phil- 
lips. See COBALTINE. 

Brittle SilverGlance,"! 
Jameson. j 

Brittle Silver Ore, ! See Stephan- 
Allen. \ ite. 

Brittle Sulphuret of | 
Silver, Phillips. J 

Broad foliated Gypsum, Kirwan. See 

Brochantite, Greg §• Lettsom. Rhom- 
bic. Primary form a right rhomboidal 



Fig. 65. 

Fig. 66. 

prism. Occurs in small, well-defined, trans- 
parent crystals of an emerald-green to a 
blackish-green colour, having a vitreous 


lustre. Crystals striated vertically. Streak 
bright green. Brittle. Fracture conchoidal 
scarcely observable. H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 3-8 to 

Comp. Cu S + 3CuH = Cu4 y H3= sul- 
phuric acid 17'7, protoxide of copper 70'3, 
water 12-0 = 100. 

Analysis by Magnus, from Rezbanya : 
Sulphuric acid . . . 17*13 
Protoxide of copper . . 62-62 
Oxide of zinc . . . 8-18 
Oxide of lead . . . 0-03 
Water .... 11-88 


BB oa charcoal^ fuses and yields a bead of 

Localities. Associated with Malachite and 
Native Copper at Ekatherinenburg, in Sibe- 
ria. Nassau. Also in small brilliant cry- 
stals on a white quartzose rock, associated 
Avith fibrous Malachite, at Roughten Gill, 
in Cumberland. 

Named by Levy after Brochant de Villiers, 
the French Mineralogist. 

Brit. Mus., Case 28. 

Bromic Silver. ) See Bromy- 

Bromite, Haidinger. j rite. 

Bromlite. The name given by Thomson 
to Alstonite. It occurs at Brownley Hill 
mine near Alston, Avhich appears to have 
been mistaken for Bromley Hill. 

Bromsilber. f See Bromyr- 

Bromure d' Argent, j ite. 

Bromyrite. Cubical: in cubo-octahe- 
drons. Colour, when pure, bright yellow, 
with a slightly greenish tinge ; often grass- 
green or olive-green externallv. Lustre 
splendent. Sectile. H. 1 to 2. S.G. 5-8 to 6. 

Comp. Bromide of silver or Ag Br = bro- 
mine 42-6, silver 57*4 = 100. 

BB fuses easily. 

Imperfectly soluble in acids: soluble in 
heated concentrated Ammonia. 

Localities. Accompanying other silver -ores 
in Mexico, in the district of Plateros, and at 
the mine of San Onofre, seventeen leagues 
from Zacatecas-; also at Chanarcillo,inChili, 
with Chloride of Silver; and with Horn 
Silver, at Huelgoet, in Bi'ittany. 

Brit. Mus., Case 59. 

Brongniardite, Damour. A mineral near 
Schilfglaserz {Dufrenoy). Lustre metallic. 
Streak greyish-black. Fracture uneven. 
H. scratches Calc-spar, and yields to the 
knife. S.G. 5.95. 

Comp. PbS + Ag S + Sb2 S3 or (Pb, Ag) S 
+ iSb2 S3 = sulphur 190, antimonv 30-7, 
silver 25-7, lead 24-6 == 100. 


Analysis bv Damour : 

Sulphur' .... 19-14 
Antimony .... 29-75 

■ Silver 24-81 

Lead 24-94 

Copper . . . .0-70 

Iron 0-22 

Zinc 0-37 


BB on charcoal decrepitates, fuses easily, 
giving off sulphurous odours and white 
vapours ; after roasting, yields a globule 
of silver, surrounded with a yellow areola of 

Locality, The mines of Mexico, with Iron 

Name. After M. Brongniart. 

Brongniartin, Von Leonhard. See 

BrojSzite : a variety of Diallage. Ob- 
lique; isomorphous with Augite: primary 
form an oblique four-sided prism with a very 
distinct cleavage parallel to the lateral 
planes. Colour greenish-brown, brown, or 
ash-grey, with a pseudo-metallic lustre, fre- 
quently approaching that of bronze. Struc- 
ture lamellar. Surface striated. Opaque 
in mass, translucent in thin laminae. H. 5-5. 
S.G. 3-4. 

Analysis from Ultenthal by Regnault : 

Silica . 

. 55-84 


. 30-37 

Protoxide of iron 

. 10-78 


. 1-09 

Water . 

. 1-80 


BB melts with great difficulty. 

Is not acted upon by acids. 

Localities. In crystalline masses imbedded 
in serpentine, near Kraubat in Upper Sty- 
ria ; very abundantly on Monte Bracco, near 
Sestri, in Piedmont ; Baste in the Harz, im- 
bedded in greenstone ; near Hoff in Bayreuth ; 
Ulten-Thal, Tyrol ; also in Serpentine at 
Coverack Cove, near the Lizard, in Corn- 
wall ; in syenite at Glen Tilt, in Perthshire ; 
in greenstone in the Isle of Skye; and 
at Benenagh in Londonderry. 

Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

Brookite, Phillips, Beudant. Rhombic : 
primary form a right rhombic prism. Occurs 
in more or less translucent crvstals of a hair- 
brown, yellowish, or reddish colour, with a 
brilliant lustre inclining to metallic: the 
opaque, iron- black crv'stals with a sub- 
metallic lustre from Arkansas have been 
E 4 


named by SKepard, Arkansite. Streak 3'el- 
lowish-white. Brittle. H. 6 to 6-5. S.G. 
4-12 to 4-17. 

Fig. 67. 

Comp. Ti or pure titanic acid, like Ana- 

Analysis, from the Urals, by Hermann : 
Titanic acid . . . 9409 
Peroxide of iron . . . 4-50 
Alumina .... trace 
Loss 1-41 


BB alone on charcoal infusible, but with 
salt of phosphorus is entirely soluble and 
forms a brownish-yellow glass. 

Insoluble in all acids except boiling oil of 

Localities. — British. Fine crystals have 
been found near Tremadoc, in Caernarvon- 
shire, in a vein of white Quartz at 
Fronlen; in microscopic crystal's imbedded 
in Siderite at Virtuous Lady mine, Tavi- 
stock ; and rarely in small crystals on tita- 
nic iron, at Craig Cailleach, in Perthshire. 
Foreign. Bourg d'Oisans in Dauphiny, 
with Anatase and Crichtonite ; the Tete-noir 
in Savoy ; the Urals, district of Slatoust, 
and near Miask ; and in extremely minute 
crystals at the Val del Bove, Etna, with 
Rutile. This mineral was first observed by 
Soret sof Geneva, accompanying Anatase 
from Dauphiny, and described by Levy who 
named it after Brooke, the crystallographer. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

Brossite. a name given to the Dolomite 
of Traversella. 

Bkoavn Coal is of more recent formation 
than that associated with the true carboni- 
ferous rocks, and is found in Miocene 
tertiary strata. It generally occurs in 
beds of comparatively small extent, but 
often of great thickness, and is usually less 
free from Pj'rites than true Coal. Some- 
times it retains much of the appearance of 
the plants from which it is derived, and not 
only shows distinctly the structure of the 
Avood, but retains its outward form ali^o ; 
while sometimes it can scarcely be distin- 
guished from ordinary coal, breaking with 
a conchoidal fracture. See Lignite, Sur- 



Brit. Mus., Case 60. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 40, 
(Jamaica) ; Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 84 to 87. 

Brown Hematite, the name given to 
compact mammillary and stalactitic varie- 
ties of Limonite. See Limonite. 

Brown Iron-cinder. See Pitticite. 

Brown Iron- ore. See Limonite. 

Brown Lead-ore, Jameson, Kirwan. 
See Pyromorphite. 

Brown Ochre includes the soft . and 
earthy, decomposed varieties of Limonite, or 
Brown Iron-ore. 

Broavn Quartz, Phillips. See Smoky 

Brown Spar. This name has been given 
both to the brown crystallized varieties of 
Dolomite, and especially to those varie- 
ties which contain a percentage of carbon- 
ate of iron. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, WaU-case 
50 (British). 

Brucite. The name given by Cleaveland 
to Chondodrite, in honour of Professor Bruce, 
of New York. 

Brucite. Hexagonal. Usually foliated, 
massive, or in fibres which are separable 
and elastic (Nemalite). Colour white, in- 
clining to grey, blue, or green. Lustre 
pearly. Translucent, subtranslucent. Streak 
white. Sectil^, thin lamime flexible. H. 
1-5. S.G.2-35. 

Fig. 68. 

Comp. Hvdrate of magnesia, or Mg H = 
magnesia 68'97, water 31-03 = 100. 

Analysis from Swinaness, by Thomson ; 
Magnesia .... 66*67 
Protoxide of manganese . 1'57 
Protoxide of iron . . . I'lS 

Lime 0-19 

Water 30-39 


BB becomes opaque and friable, but does 
not fuse. 

Entirely soluble in acids without efferves- 

Brucite accompanies other magnesian 
minerals in Serpentine. 

Localities. Pj'schminsk in the Urals; 
Goujot in France ; Hoboken, N. J., opposite 
the city of New York, in veins which are 
sometimes an inch in width, rarely in minute 
polished crystals as vo-fig. 68 ; Wood's mine. 


Chester Co., Pennsylvania, in Serpentine, in 
veins from one to four inches in width, 
which are coated on the outside with a lay 
er of a greenish mineral resembling Chlo- 
rite. The mineral is broad-foliated; folia 
several inches square being easily obtain- 
able, and either opaque silvery white, or 
translucent to transparent. Occasionally 
it has a fine roseate tint. Brucite, also, 
forms veins in Serpentine at Swinaness, in 
Unst, one of the Shetlands, where it is found 
in aggregated, foliated plates of silvery 
white colour, and translucent. On expo- 
sure it absorbs carbonic acid from the air 
and becomes white. 

This mineral was discovered and de- 
scribed by Dr. Bruce of New York. 

Brit. Mus., Case 58a. 

BucHOLZiTE, Brandes. A variety of Sil- 
limanite of a whitish, greyish, or pale brown 
colour, and with a lustre approaching to 
adamantine. Both Bucholzite and the Fi- 
brolite of Bournon are generally' in fibrous 
masses, sometimes approaching distinct 
prisms, like those of Sillimanite. H. 6 to 
7-25. S.G. 3-24. 





Comp. Sesquisilicate of alumina, or iAl 

a si = silica 37, alumina 63 = 100. 

Analysis from Faltigl, by Brandes : 
Alumina .... 50*0 

Silica 46-0 

Peroxide of iron . . . 2-5 
Potash 1-5 


Localities. Bucholzite was originally ob- 
tained from the Fassa-thal, in the T\'rol, and 
described by Dr Brandes. It is also found 
near the Queensbury forge at Chester on the 
Delaware, and at other places in the United 

Name. After Bucholz, the German chemist. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

BucKLANDiTE, Dufrinoy. A variety of 
Pistacite or Epidote-proper, with much 
general resemblance to Augite, Primary 
form an oblique rhombic prism. Colour, 
dark brown, nearly black. Lustre vitre- 
ous. Opaque. Fracture uneven. Harder 
than Augite. S.G. 3-51. 


Analysis by Hermann : 

Silica 36'97 

Alumina .... 21-84 
Peroxide of iron v . . 10"19 
Protoxide of iron . . 919 

Lime 21-14 

Carbonate of lime . ,0-32 
Water 0-68 

Localities. Arendal, in Norwa}', with 
black Hornblende, Felspar, and Apatite; 
and differing from Thallite only in colour, 
higher specific gravity 3'5 to 3-9, and by 
dissolving in muriatic acid ; in minute but 
very brillant crystals in the lavas of the 
Laacher-See on the Ehine ; Achmatowsk. 

This rare mineral was distinguished and 
described by Levy, who named it after Dr. 
Brit. Mus., Case 36. 
BuNTBLEiEKz. See Pyromorphite. 
BuNTER KuPFERKiES, Hausmann. See 

BuNTKUPFERERZ, Werner. See Erubes- 

BuRATiTE, jBrow_9«?ar?. A mineral close- 
ly allied to, if not "identical with, Aurichal- 
cite : perhaps a mechanical mixture. Oc- 
curs in radiated acicular crystals, or plumose 
aggregations of a verdigris -green colour. 
G. 3-32. 

Analysis by Delesse : 

Carbonic acid . . . 21 '45 
Oxide of zinc . . . .^2-02 
Oxide of copper . . . 29*46 

Lime 862 

Water 8-45 

Localities. Lining small cavities in Cala- 
mine, at Loktefskoi, in the Altai mountains ; 
Chessy near Lyons; the copper mine of 
Temperino in Tuscany; Fraraont in the 

Name. Named by Delesse after M. Burat. 
Brit. Mus., Case 49. 

Burning Galena. See Johnstonite. 
BusTAMiTE, Brongniart. A greyish-red. 
variety of Rhodonite, occurring in irregu-^ 
larly disposed prismatic crystals, having at 
times a somewhat fibrous structure ; almost 
opaque. H. 7. S.G. 3-1 to 3-35. 
■ Analysis by Dumas : 

Silica 48-90 

Protoxide of manganese .36-06 
Lime . . . . . 14-57 
Protoxide of iron. . . 0-81 




Localities. Real de Minas de Tetala, de 
Jonotla, in the intendance of Puebla, in 
Mexico, associated with Iron Pyrites. 

VER. An earthy variety of Horn Silver 
(Kerargp'ite), met with at Andreasberg in 
the Harz. According to Klaproth it is 
composed of silver 24-64, muriatic acid 
8-28, alumina 67-08 = 100. 

Name. After Mons. Bustamente, the dis- 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

BuTYRiTE, Glocker. See Bogbutter. 

Byssolite or Byssolith, Hausmann. A 
variety of Actinolite, composed of fibres, 
which are as many small elongated prisms, 
terminating at their fine extremity in a 
point. Colour azure-blue. Transparent. 
Lustre pearly. S.G. 3-32. 

Analysis by Dufrenoy : 

Oxide of zinc . . . 26-98 

Oxide of copper . . . 4-17 

Lime . . . . . 29-69 

Water and carbonic acid . 39-16 


BB on charcoal gives the reaction of zinc. 
Effervesces briskly in acids. 

Name. From ^u(r(ro;, flax, and x/fo?, stone. 

Cabocle. The name in Brazil for a com- 
pact brick-red mineral found in the diamond- 
sand of the province of Bahia. It resembles 
Jasper, but contains phosphoric acid, alu- 
mina, lime, and water. Slightly scratches 
glass. S.G. 3-194. 

BB whitens but does not fuse. 
Dissolves in concentrated warm sulphuric 
acid, leaving a white earthy residue, which 
is soluble in excess of boiling acid, and pre- 
cipitated by the addition cf water. 

Cacholong. a variety of Opal, closely 
allied to Hydrophane, with which it is often 
associated. It is nearly opaque, of a milk- 
er bluish- white colour, dull externally, but 
■with a somewhat pearly lustre within. Ad- 
heres to the tongue. S.G. 2-2. 

Analysis by Forchammer, from Faroe : 

Silica 95-32 

Potash 0-07 

Soda 0-06 

Lime 0-06 

Alumina . . . . 20 
Magnesia .... 0-40 
Water . . , . . 3-47 

BB infusible. 

It occurs in loose masses on the banks of 
the river Cach, in Bucharia, whence the 
name Cacholong is said to be derived ; also 
in the trap rocks of Iceland ; in the Faroe 
Islandsy and in Greenland. It is also found 
in Ireland, at Smulgedon, in Ulster; in 
felspathic porphyry in the parish of Clog- 
her, Tyrone co. ; and at Barrack Mountain, 
in the parish of Pomeroy. 

Cacoxene. See Kakoxene. Occurs in 
extremely minute fibrous tufts, radiating 
from a point. Colour yellow or brownish - 
yellow. Lustre silky. Adheres to the 
tongue, has an astringent taste, and an 
argillaceous odour. H. 3 to 4. S.G. 3-38. 
It is supposed to be an Iron-Wavellite. 
by Steinmann, from Zbirow : 


Peroxide of iron 

Phosphoric acid 

Lime . 

Silica . 

Water and fluoric acid 


BB acts like Wavellite, except that it 
yields an iron reaction. 

Localities. On brown Iron-ore in the 
iron mines of Hrbeck, near Zbirow, in Bo- 
hemia, and may be distinguished from Kar- 
pholite, which is found under similar cir- . ^ 
cumstances, by its deeper tint. 'wh 

Name. The name is derived from »«»«?, S 
bad, |svo?, guest, in allusion to the inju- 
rious influence exercised bj'' the phosphoric 
acid it contains upon the iron extracted 
from the ore with which it is found. 

Cadmium Sulfure, Dufrtnoy. See 

Cahoutchou Fossile, La Metherie. See 

Cailloux du Rhin — de Medoc. PO' 
lished rolled pebbles of Ro(;k Crystal. 

Cairngorm or Cairngorum. The pel- 
lucid wine-j'-ellow varieties of smoky Quartz 
are called Cairngorm, or Cairngorum-stone, 
after the name of the mountain in Inverness- 
shire,where they are found. It is also common 
throughout the central group of the Gram- 
pian Hills ; the crystals met with on the east 
side of Loch Aven being pale and very clear, 
while those from the west side are of a dark 
brown colour. 


TheCairngorm is frequently maniifactured 
into jewelry, and is the stone gen ei'ally used 
for ornamenting the handles of dirks, pow- 
der-horns, snuflf-mulls, and other articles of 
a similar kind which form part of the High- 
land costume. (See Smoky Quaktz.) 

Brit. Mus., Case 20. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 507. 
_ Caking Coal. The name given to those 
kinds of bituminous coals which bum 
readily with a yellow flame and have a ten- 
dency to cake, or to run together, in the 
lire. The Newcastle coals are of this de- 

Calamine, Dana. See Smithsonite. 

Calamine, Jameson, Nicol. Hexagonal. 
It is found in obtuse rhombohedrons, and 
in long quadrilateral tables, which are some- 
times modified ; also compact, mammillated, 
fibrous, and incrusting other minerals, and 
occasionally earthy and friable. Colour 
greyish -white, or yellowish-grey, some- 
times inclining to various shades of green 
and brown. Lustre vitreous, inclining to 
pearly. Translucent or opaque. Streak 
white. Yields easily to the knife. Brittle. 
Fracture uneven. H. 5. S.G. 4 to 4-5. 

Fig. 70. 

Comp. Zn C = carbonic acid 35*19, oxide 
of zinc 64-81 ==100, but frequently contain- 
ing carbonates of iron, manganese, or lime. 

BB flies to pieces and becomes white, but 
is infusible either alone or with borax. 
Dissolves with effervescence in nitric acid. 

Localities. — English. Huel Mary, Corn- 
wall ; botryoidal at Eoughten Gill, in Cum- 
berland; mammillated and in crusts at 
Alston Moor; radiated, of a bluish-green 
colour, near Matlock, in Derbyshire; the 
Mendip Hills, in Somersetshire, sometimes 
in large pseudomorphous crystals after Cal- 
cite; crystallized in obtuse' rhombohedrons 
near Holywell, in Flintshire Scotch. Lead- 
hills. — Irish. Donegal and Galway. — 
Foreign. A dark brown variety, containing 
Cadmium, and another of a beautiful bright 
green, are found at Nertschinsk, in Siberia. 
Other localities are Dognatzka, in the Ban- 
nat of Temeswar, in Hungary ; Raibel and 
Bleiberg, in Carinthia; Tarnowitz, in Si- 
lesia; Altenberg, near Aix-la-Chapelle ; 
near Santander in Spain ; &c. 

Name. The name is derived from cala- 
mus, a reed, because during the process of 



smelting it adheres to the bottom of the 
furnace in the form of reeds. 

This ore of Zinc is the Smithsonite of 
Haidinger and Von Kobell. It does not 
occur crystallized so often as the silicious 
oxide (see Smithsonite), being more fre- 
quently stalactitic, reniform, mammillated, 
cellular, and amorphous, and frequently as- 
suming the aspect of Chalcedony. 

Brit. Mus., Case 49. 

M.F G. A 33 in Hall ; large cube, from 
the Vieille Montague Mines. Principal 
floor, Wall-cases 12 and 33 (British), 21 

Calamite (from calamus, a reed). A soft, 
asparagus-green, translucent variety of Tre- 
molite, from Normarken, in Sweden, where 
it occurs in longitudinally striated rhombic 
prisms imbedded in Serpentine. 

Calc Tuff, Jameson. See Calcareous 

Calcareous Epidote. See Zoisite. 

Calcareous Iron- Ore, Kirwan. See 

Calcareous Mesotype. See Scole- 


Calcareous Ophiolite. The name pro- 
posed by T. Sterry Hunt for the varieties 
of Serpentine containing intimate admix- 
tures of Calcite. 

Calcareous Spar. See Calcite. 

Calcareous Tufa. A loose and friable 
variety of carbonate of lime, deposited in 
and about waters which are charged with 
lime. These sometimes form extensive beds, 
and are well adapted for building purposes, 
from their softness when first quarried and 
the hardness they subsequently acquire on 
exposure to the atmosphere. Some of the 
beds at the base of the Purbeck formation 
appear to have been formed after the man- 
ner of Tufas, and the tertiary fluvio-marine 
Limestones of the Isle of Wight also afford 
other examples of Calcareous Tufas, having 
evidently been deposited at the bottom of 
lakes impregnated with lime, or, in some 
cases, subaerially. Calcareous Tufa is fre- 
quently formed on the leaves and stems of 
plants, which are then said to be petrified or 
converted into stone, and the waters which 
possess this property are called petrifying 
springs. At Matlock there are springs of 
this description, where objects speedily be- 
come incrusted with carbonate of lime ; but 
in Italy there are very extensive deposits of 
Calcareous Tufa, as at Terni, and on the 
banks of the river Anio, near Tivoli. (See 
Travertine.) The temples of Paestum are 
built of Tufa, which has become hardened 
by time and exposure; to which circum- 


stance their preservation is probably owing, 
as it was found to be less laborious to go to 
the quarries in the neighbourhood from 
which the stone was originally raised, and 
procure the soft stone there, than to break 
up those of which the temples are con- 

Brit. Mus., Case 46. 

M.P.G. Upper Gallery, Wall-case 40, 
Table-case B, in recess 6, Nos. 207 to 223. 

Calcareous Uran-mica, or Calcare- 
ous Uranite. See Uranite. 

Calcedony. See Chalcedony. 

Calcedonyx. The name given to those 
varieties of Agates in which opaque white 
Chalcedony or Cacholong alternates with 
translucent greyish Chalcedony. 

Calciferrite, J. R. Blum. A mineral 
related to Vivianite. Occurs crystalline foli- 
ated. Colour sul phur-yellow to siskin • green 
and vellowish -white. Translucent in thin 
lamella. H. 2-5. S.G. 2-523 to 2-529. 


Fig. 72. 

Analysis by Reissig : 
Phosphoric acid . 

Peroxide of iron . 
Lime . 






Water 20-56 


BB yields a black shining magnetic 

Easily decomposed by muriatic acid. 

Locality. Battenberg, in Rhenish Bavaria, 
forming nodules in clay. The exterior of the 
nodules is massive, and consists of impure 
or altered Calciferrite of a yellowish-brown 
or reddish-brown colour. 

Calciform Copper Ore. The name 
under which Kirwan comprised the different 
varieties of carbonate of copper. 

Calcite. Hexagonal, rhombohedral : oc- 
curs crystallized in upwards of 800 varieties 
of form, nearly 700 of which have been figur- 
ed by Count Bournon, in his treatise on Car- 
bonate of Lime. The primary form is an ob- 
tuse rhombohedron, which may readily be 
obtained by cleavage, and may itself be occa- 
sionally cleaved parallel to a plane passing 
through the greater diagonals in one direc- 
tion. Colour usually white, but sometimes 
of various shades of grey, red, green, or 
yellow, owing to the presence of iron, mag- 
nesia, bitumen, or other impurities. Lustre 
vitreous to earthy. Transparent to opaque. 
Streak white or greyish. Cross fracture 
conchoidal, but not easily obtained ■where 

the specimen is crystallized. 
S.G. 2-5 to 2-7. 

H. 2-5 to 3-5. 


Comp. CaC=carbonic acid 44, and lime 
56 = 100 ; often with some carbonate of 
magnesia or iron. 

BB infusible ; alone on charcoal it shines 
■with intense brightness when all the car- 
bonic acid is expelled, and becomes con- 
verted into pure lime or quicklime. With 
fluxes behaves like Aragonite. Some varie- 
ties, as that accompanying Garnet in Werme- 
land, Laumonite in Brittany, shine with a 
yellow phosphorescent light when laid on a 
hot coal, or struck in the dark. 

Effervesces violently with acids. 

The purest form of Calcite is Iceland Spar, 
which in common with other transparent 
varieties is doubly refractive in a high de- 
gree. The different species will be describ- 
ed under their proper names. 

Localities. This mineral is so universally 
distributed, that it is only possible to give 
a list of its most remarkable localities. Six- 
sided prisms of great beauty have been found 
at Andreasberg in the Harz. In England 
fine specimens are chiefly found in Cornwall, 
Devonshire and Derbyshire; in Wales, in 
Flintshire; in Scotland, at Strontian, Ar- 
gyleshire ; and in Ireland, at Kingston Cave, 
near Cahir, co. Clare. In Cornwall low 
hexagonal prisms and tabular forms pre- 
vail, like Jigs. 74 and 76. Fig. 82, repre- 
sents the crystals from the Breakwater quar- 
ries at Plymouth. This fig. and figs. 79, 
80, and 83, are the forms most common in 
Derbyshire, and at Alston Moor; fig. 79, 
being that called by the Derbyshire miner 
"Dog's-tooth Spar." In the neighbour- 
hood of Alston, and at Garrigill in Cum- 
berland, the crj'stals have commonly a 
hexagonal character, as represented in figs. 
71, 73, 74, 77, 78, and 81. Fig. 77 repre- 
sents a form met with at Dufton and Pat- 
terdale in Westmoreland. 

Name. From the Latin calx, lime. 

Brit. Mus., Cases 42 to 47. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases 27, 
28, and 30 : Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 867 to 

Calderite. a massive variety of Gar- 
net from Nepal. 

Caledonite, Beudant, Greg §• Lettsom. 

Fig. 84. 

Fig. 85. 


Rhombic. Primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Colour bluish-green, inclining to 


mountain-green if the crystals are delicate. 
Lustre resinous. Translucent. Streak green- 
ish-white. Rather brittle. Fractijre uneven. 
H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 6-4. 

Comp. Cupreous sulphato-carbonate of 

Lead, or 6 Pb S +4 PbC + 3 CuC. 
Analysis by Brooke : 

Sulphate of lead . . . 55-8 
Carbonate of lead . . . 32-8 
Carbonate of copper . . 1]'4 


BB on charcoal, easily reduced. 

Partially soluble, with slight efferves- 
cence, in nitric acid. 

Localities. Found in flattish crystals 
accompanied by other ores of lead, at Lead- 
hills in Lanarkshire, and with Cerussite 
and Leadhillite at Roughten Gill in Cum- 
berland : also said to occur at Tanne in the 
Harz, and at Mine la Motte in Missouri. 
The crystals are generallv very minute, and 
appear sometimes in small bunches radiating 
from their common point of attachment to 
the matrix. 

Brit Mus., Case 55. 

Callats. See Turqitois. 

Callaite, Allan, Fischer, Phillips, Nicol. 
See TuRQUois. 

Callimus, J. Woodward. The name 
given to the stony matter contained in the 
cavities of ^tites, when it is loose and 

Calomel, Beudant. Pyramidal. Some- 
times occurs crj^stallized in distinct quad- 
rangular prisms terminated by pyramids: 
also in tubercular crusts ; sometimes fibrous, 
rarely compact. Colour greyish -white 
grey, yellowish, greenish-gre}^, brown : oc- 
casionally translucent, with an adaman- 
tine lustre. Sectile. Fracture conchoidal. 
H. 1 to 2. S.G. 6-48. 

Fig. 86. 

Comp. Hg2 CI = chlorine 15-1, mercury 
84-9 = 100. 

BB on charcoal, it is entirely volatilized if 

Localities. Large and well-defined crys- 
tals of this rare mineral are found at Mos- 
chellandsberg in Deux Fonts (Bavaria), 
coating the cavities of a ferruginous gangue, 
and associated with Cinnabar; it is also 
met with at the quicksilver mines of Idria 


in Carniola, at Almaden in Spain, and 
Horzowitz in Bohemia. 

Calstronbaryte, Shepard. This min- 
eral, found at Sohoharie, New York, has 
been proved by Shepard to be merely a 
mechanical mixture of Heavy Spar, Stron- 
tianite, and Calcite, and not a distinct spe- 
cies. The trivial name alludes to the three 
bases which enter into its composition. 

Calyptolite, Shepard. A Zircon, pro- 
bably somewhat altered, occurring in minute 
short, square prisms of a dark brown or 
greenish -brown colour, at Haddam in Con- 
necticut, U.S., with Chrysoberyl. H. 6-5. 
S.G. 4-34. 

Canaanite, S. L Dana. A greyish sea- 
politic rock from Canaan, Connecticut. 

It is composed of 

Silica .... 53-36 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 4-09 


. 10-38 

Lime . . . 

. 25-80 

Magnesia . 

. 1-62 

Carbonic acid 

. ■ . 4-00 


Cancrinite. Hexagonal, Occurs in six 
and twelve-sided prisms, sometimes with 
the basal edges replaced : also thin columnar 
and massive. Colour white, yellow, green, 
blue, grey, reddish. Lustre vitreous at the 
fractured surfaces, greasj^ in other ^parts. 
Transparent or translucent. H. 5*5 to 6. 
S.G. 2-42 to 2-62. 

Comp. According to Breithaupt, this 
mineral is identical with Davyne. 2 [Na^ 

Si + 2 Al si + (Na Ca) C] +3H. P. v. Pu- 

Analysis, bv Whitney, from Litchfield, 

U.S. : 

Yellow. Green. 

Potash . . . 0-67 50 

Soda . . . 20-98 20-46 

Alumina . . 27-70 27-56 

Peroxide of iron . trace "j 

Peroxide of man- > 0-27 

ganese . . 0-86 J 

Silica . . . 37-42 37-20 

Lime . . . 3-91 5 26 

Carbonic acid . 5-95 5 92 

Water • . . 2-82 3-28 

Chlorine . . trace trace 

100-31 100-45 

BB loses colour and fuses easily to a trans- 
parent, colourless, blistered glass. 

Dissolves in muriatic acid with violent 

effervescence, and forms a jelly on heating 
but not before. 

Localities. Of a light rose- red colour 
in the Umen mountains (S.G. 2-489) ; of a 
citron-yellow colour at Mariinskaja, in the 
Tunkinsk mountains, 400 wersts from Ir- 
kutsk, in coarse granite (S.G. 2-454) ; and 
crystallized and massive in the United States 
at Litchfield, in the State of Maine. 

Name. After Cancrin, a Eussian minister 
of finance. 

Candite, Bournon. Pleonaste found as- 
sociated with Tourmaline, &c., loose in the 
rivers and alluvial district around Kandy, 
(whence the name Candite,) in Ce^don. 

Cahehlstein, from Cannel (Dutch).. See 
Cinnamon Stone. 

Cannel Coal. Cannel is a corruption of 
the word Candle, which has been applied to a 
particular description of Coal, either because 
in burning it gives out a bright flame like 
that of a candle, or because, in some places, 
poor people use it instead of lights. 

It is a bituminous substance, and is sup- 
posed to have been formed from decomposed 
vegetable matter in water, in the finest state 
of division. It differs from the purer kinds of 
ordinary Coal and Jet, in containing extra- 
neous earthy matters, which render it 
specifically heavier than water ; Jet, on the 
contrary, being lighter. It is hard enough 
to take a fine polish, and is made into ink- 
stands, snuff-boxes, beads, and other orna- 
mental articles. (See also Parrot Coal.) 
S.G. 1-23. Cannel Coal has a resinous glis- 
tening lustre, and a dark greyish- black 
colour. It is very compact, breaking with 
a conchoidal fracture, into irregular or cubi- 
cal fragments. The Cannel Coal of Lesmaha- 
gow on distillation yields 40 gallons of crude 
oil, and 30 gallons of rectified oil per ton. 

It is found in England near Whitehaven, 
at Wigan in Lancashire, Brosely in Shrop- 
shire, and Athercliff, near Sheffield ; and in 
Scotland at Lesmahagow in Lanarkshire, 
Boghead in Linlithgowshire, Gilmerton 
near Edinburgh, West Wemyss in Fife, and 
Muirkirk in Clydesdale. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 70 and 78. 
Upper Gallerv, Wall-cases 41, No. 161, and 
43, Nos 149, '150. 

Canoxinite, Bischof. A mineral consist- 
ing of the silicates of soda and alumina, 
and carbonate of lime, from the Miasget in 
the Ural. There are three varieties found 
in the granite of Litchfield (Maine, U.S.), 
consisting of the silicates of soda and alu- 
mina, with carbonates of lime and soda. 

Cantalite. a variety of Pitchstone con- 
taining crystals of Glassy Felspar. Colour 



green. Lustre resinous inclining to vitreous. 
Slightly translucent (most Pitchstones be- 
ing opaque). Fracture tending to conchoi- 
dal. S.G. 2-36. 

Comp. BM si + K SiS + 3H. 

Analysis by Berthier : 

Silica 64-45 

Alumina .... 15-64 

Lime 1-20 

Oxide of iron . . . 4-30 
Magnesia . . . . 1*20 
Potash . . . 5-40 
Water 7-10 

BB fuses to a white enamel. 

Locality. Cantal. 

Cantonite, N. a, Pratt, Jun. Is met 
with crystallized in well-formed cubes dif- 
fused through large masses of rock made up 
of small cubic Pyrites, and in an impalpable 
state disseminated through a veinstone of 
granular Quartz and Staurotide. Colour 
and streak bluish-black. Lustre sub-metal- 
lic and shining. H. 1-5 to 2. S.G. 4-18. 

In physical properties (except in streak) 
and in composition, Cantonite is identical 
with Covelline ; being, however, cubical 
instead of hexagonal, and exactly simi- 
lar to Harrisite and Galena,. 

It is named after the locality where it oc- 
curs, the Canton mine, Georgia, U.S. 

Capillary Obsidian. See Pele's 

Capiliary Pyrites, Jameson, Kirwan. 


Capillary Red Oxide op Copper, 
Phillips. See Chalootrichite. 

Caporcianite. Oblique. A flesh-red 
coloured mineral, with a pearly lustre, pro- 
bably related to Laumonite. 

Comp. Ca, M, 4Si, 3H=lime 12-15, 
alumina 22-31, silica 5382, water 11-72 = 100. 

Analysis by Anderson : 

Silica . . . . . 52-8 
Alumina . . . .21-7 

Lime 11-3 

Magnesia . . . .0-4 

Soda 0-2 

Potash 1-1 

Peroxide of iron . . .0-1 
Water 13-1 

BB swells up slightly and fuses immediate- 
ly to a white enamel. 

Dissolves easily in acids. 

Localities. In geodes in the Gabbro rosso 


of Monte de Caporciano, at L'Impruneta and 
other places in Tuscany ; with Calcite, and 
sometimes with Native Copper. 

Brit. Mus., Case 28. 

Capped Quartz. A variety of Quartz 
Crystal, found in Cornwall, imbedded in 
compact Quartz. When the investing ma- 
trix is broken the crystals are revealed, and 
at the same time a cast or impression in 
intaglio of their pyramidal terminations is 
obtained, forming the capping from which 
this variety of Quartz derives its name. 

In this instance the crystals were formed 
first and then a deposit of compact Quartz 
has been deposited over them subsequently, 
a slight film intervening between the cry- 
stals and the Quartz which invests them. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 478. From 
Tintagel Slate Quarries. 

Carbocekine, Beudant. See Lanthan- 


Carbonate of Barytes, Phillips. See 


Carbonate of Bismuth. See Bismu- 


Carbonate of Cerium, Phillips. See 

Carbonate of Copper. See Mala- 
chite: also Mysorin, Lime-Malachite, 


Carbonate of Iron. Phillips. See 
Chaltbite; also Clay-ironstone, Jun- 
kerite, Sph^rosiderite. 

Carbonate of Lead, Phillips. See 

Carbonate of Lime, Phillips. See Cal- 
cite: also Schiefer-spar, Stalactite, 
Stalagmite, Oriental Alabaster, Ag- 
aric-mineral, Aphrite, Stinkstone, 
Travertine, Tufa, Aragonite, &c. 

Carbonate of Magnesia, Phillips. See 

Carbonate of Magnesia and Iron. 
See Breunnerite. 

Carbonate of Manganese, Phillips. 
See DiALLOGiTE : also Manganocalcite. 

Carbonate of Natron, La Metherie. 
See Trona. 

Carbonate of Silver, Phillips. See 

Carbonate of Soda, Phillip's. See 

Carbonate de Soude, Brochant. See 

Carbonate of Strontian. See Stkon- 


Carbonate of Uranium. See Vog- 


Carbonate of Zinc, Phillips. See Ca • 



Caebunclk. The name given by jew- 
ellers to the variety of precious Garnet (Py- 
rope) which is cut en cnbochon. It is also 
one of the stones to which the ancients gave 
the same name, the Carbunculus Garaman- 
ticus, or Carthaginian Carbuncle, being the 
Garnet of the moderns. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 894 to 

Carburet of Iron. See Graphite. 

Carinthine. a ferruginous and alumin- 
ous Hornblende from Carinthia. S.G. 

Brit. Mus., Case 33. 

Carinthite. See Wulfenite. 

Carmine Spar, Carminite, Carmin- 
spath, Sandberger. An anhydrous arsenate 
of Lead and Iron, occuring in fine needles, 
and in spheroidal forms with a columnar 
structure. Colour carmine to tile-red, trans- 
lucent, with a vitreous lustre, which is pear- 
ly on the planes of cleavage. Brittle. 
Affords a reddish-yellow powder. S.G. 4-1. 

Analysis by Sandberger : 

Arsenic acid . . . 49'11 

Peroxide of iron . . . 30-29 
Oxide of lead . . . 24-55 

SB on charcoal fuses readily to a steel-grey 
globule, giving off arsenical fumes; with 
soda yields a globule of lead ; and an iron 
reaction with borax. 

Locality. Horhausen in Saxony, in 
Quartz and Brown Iron-ore. 

Carnallite, H. Rose. A salt more so- 
luble than common salt, found crj^stallized 
in the mother- water of salt-works at Stass- 
furth, in Prussia. It occurs in coarsely gra- 
nular masses, slightly coloured red by oxide 
of iron. Deliquescent. Lustre very greasy. 
Fracture conchoidal. 

Camp. 2Mg CI + K CI + 12H. 
Analysis by Klaproth : 

Silica 45-25 

Alumina .... 36-50 
Peroxide of iron . . . 2-75 
Potash .... trace 

Water . . . . 14-00 


Locality. Eochlitz in Saxony. 

Name. From Caro (carnis) j?esA. 

Carnat, Breithaupt. A red variety of 
Lithomarge. : 

Carnelian. a variety of Chalcedony, 
generally of a clear bright red tint, and 
passing 'into common Chalcedony through 
greyish -red gradations. The colour is due 


to the presence of iron, Heintz having found, 

by analysis, Carnelian to contain per cent 

Peroxide of iron . . . 050 

Alumina . . . . 0*081 

Magnesia .... 0-028 

Potash 0-0043 

Soda 0-075 

The gradation from red to white Carne- 
lian is, insensibly, through flesh-red and 
blood-red more or less mixed with brown 
to orange and various tints of yellow. The 
best specimens are of a perfectly uniform 
colour, free from undulations and the muddi- 
ness to which European specimens are liable. 
Carnelian is susceptible of a high polish, 
and, for that reason, and the brightness of 
its colour, it has always been a favourite 
substance, much used for seals, brooches, 
rings, necklaces, &c., both in ancient and 
modern times. 

" Generally, all Rubies be verie hard for 
to be cut, & this ill qualitie they have. 
That they never doe seale cleane, but ordi- 
narily plucke some of the wax away with 
the signet : contrariwise, the Cornalline or 
Sarda, signeth verie faire without dcay of 
the wax sticking to it. 

"In old time, there was not a pretious 
stone in greater request, than the Cornal- 
line : and in truth, Menander and Philemon 
have named this stone in their Comoedies, 
for a brave and proud gem : neither can we 
find a pretious stone that maintaineth the 
lustre longer than it, against any humour 
wherein it is drenched ; and yet oile is more 
contrarie unto it than any other liquor. To 
conclude, those that the of the colour of 
honey are, rejected for nought; howbeit, if 
they resemble the colour of earthen pots, 
they be worse than those." — Pliny, book 
xxxviii. chap, 7, 

Forbes states that Carnelians, Agates, and 
the beautifully variegated stones impro- 
perly called Mocha-stones, form a valuable 
part of the trade of Cambay, to which place 
the art of cutting and polishing these stones 
seems to be exclusively confined. 

" The best Agates and Carnelians," he 
adds, " are found in peculiar strata, thirty 
feet under the surface of the earth, in a small 
tract among the Rajpipla hills, on the banks 
of the Nerbudda : they are not to be met 
with in any other part of Guzerat, and are 
generally cut and polished in Cambay.* 
On being taken from their native bed, they 
are exposed to the h'eat of the sun for two 
years : the longer they remain in that situa- 

* The revenue derived from these mines has 
greatly fallen off of late years, and t+iey scarcely 
yield now 1000 rupees per annum. 


tion the brighter and deeper will be the 
colour of the stone ; fire is sometimes sub- 
stituted for the solar ray, but with less 
effect, as the stones frequently crack and 
seldom acquire a biilliant lustre. After 
having undergone this process, they are 
boiled for two days and sent to the manu- 
facturers at Cambay. The Agates are of 
different hues:, those generally called Car- 
nelians are black, white, and red, in shades 
from the palest yellow to the deepest scar- 
let." — Oriental Mems., vol. ii. p. 20. 

From the circumstance of the lustre of 
the stones being inferior when artificial heat 
has been substituted for that of the solar 
rays, it may be inferred that the change of 
colour is not produced by the sun's heat alone, 
but that light, or the actinic rays, exercise 
considerable influence in producing the 
effect described. It may here be observed 
that the chalk-flints, which form the super- 
ficial gravel in many parts of this country, 
are very frequently of a bright red and yel- 
lowish-brown colour, in fact, converted into 
Agates and imperfect Carnelians by long 
exposure to the sun's heat and light, and 
the consequent peroxidation of the iron con- 
tained in them. 

Localities. The finest specimens of Car- 
nelian are procured from Arabia, and from 
Cambay and Surat in India ; it is also found 
in the province of Auckland, in New Zea- 
land, in trachy tic rocks, in numerous places 
on the shores of Coromandel ; in Saxony, 
Scotland, &c. 

Name. The name is derived from carneus 
(from caro, flesh), in allusion to its colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 23. 

3I.F. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 609, 610, 
619, 621. 

Carolathine, Sonnenschein. A mineral 
somewhat resembling Mellite, found in 
rounded balls or massive, of a honey-yel- 
low to wine-yellow colour. Subtranslucent. 
Fracture conchoidal. H. 25. S.G. I'o. 

Analysis afforded a volatile part, the com- 
position of which (including water) was 
Hydrogen . . . .2-41 
Oxygen . . , . 19 39 
Carbon . . . .1-33 
And a fixed mass composed 

Alumina .... 47-25 
Silica 29-62 


Locality. Near Gleiwitz in Upper Sile- 
sia, in a bed of Mineral Coal. 



Named after the Prince of Carolath. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Carpholite, Werner. Occurs in tufts of 
minute, fibrous, imperfectly formed crystals ; 
also massive, with a fibrous and frequently 
radiated structure, which is rather incohe- 
rent ; also in an earthy state. Colour pure 
straw-yellow, sometimes approaching to 
wax-yellow. Opaque," with a silky lustre, 
Yery "brittle. H. 5 to 5-5. S. G. 2-93. 

Comp. Hydrated silicate of alumina and 

protoxide of manganese, or (Fe Mn)3 Si + 

:^isi + 2H. 

Analysis by Steinmann ; 
Silica .... 

Oxide of manganese 
Peroxide of iron . 





Water 11-36 

BB on charcoal intumesces, whitens, and 
fuses slowly to a turbid brownish glass, 
Avhich becomes darker in the outer flame. 
Scarcely attacked by muriatic acid. 

Localities. In the tin mines of Schlacken- 
wald in Bohemia, on granite, with Fluor and 

Named by Werner from ««§<?«?, straw, and 
>.id6i, stone, in allusion to its colour. 

Carphosiderite. a straw - coloured 
mineral, resembling oxalate of iron, from 
Labrador, where it occurs in reniform masses 
and incrustations, in fissures in mica-slate. 
It has a resinous lustre and a greasv feel. 
Streak yellowish. H. 4 to 4-5. S.G. 2-49 
to 5. 

Comp. It is composed of oxide of iron, 
phosphoric acid, and water, with small 
quantities of manganese and zinc. 

BB turns red, and yields a magnetic 

Name. From xa^ipos, straw, and o-/J>j?«j, 

Carphostilbite. a straw-yellow and 
columnar variety ofThomsonite, from Beru- 
fiord, in Iceland. 

Analysis by Waltershausen : 

Silica 39-28 

Alumina .... 29-50 

Lime 12-38 

Soda 4-09 

Potash 0-38 

Magnesia .... O'lB 
Peroxide of iron . . .1-49 
Water 1323 



Xame. From xti-^foc^ straw, in allusion to 
its colour. 

Cakrolmte, Faber. A copper-Linnseite, 
composed of -€-u S + Co2 S^. Colour tiu- 
•vvhite, inclining to steel-grey. Lustre me- 
tallic, tarnished in some places. Streak iron- 
black. Brittle. Fracture uneven ; subcon- 
choidal in small fragments. H. 5o. S.G. 4-58. 
Analysis by Smith iSr Brush : 

Sulphur . . . . 40-94 

Cobalt 38-21 

Copper 17*79 

Iron I'oo 

Nickel l-o4 

Arsenic . . . .a trace 


BB on charcoal emits strong odours of 
sulphurous acid and arsenic, intumesces and 
swells to a white, brittle, and magnetic 

Locality. Finksburg, Carroll Co., Mary- 
land, U.S., in a vein ef Copper Pyrites. 

Name. After the localit}^ Carroll Co. 

Carton de Montagne, or Mou>'tain 
Pasteboard. A kind of Mountain Leather. 

Cartat. a synonym for Chalcedony. 

Cascholong, "^Brooke §• Miller. See Ca- 


Cassiterite, Beudant, Dana. Oxide of 
Tin. Pyramidal : primary form an obtuse 
pyramid with a square base. It is found 
in quadrangular prisms, terminated by four- 
sided pyramids, and in many more complex 
forms. Colour most commonly blackish- 
brown, passing into black ; also hair-brown 
or reddish-brown, yellowish-green, yellowish 
or greenish-white", and colourless. It varies 

Fig. 87. 

fig. 88. 

Fig. 89. 


from semi-transparent to opaque, the darker 
varieties being opaque, while the lighter 


are translucent and semi-transparent. Oc- 
curs massive, disseminated, in rolled pieces, 
in grains as sand, but most frequently in 
crystals, which are generally very indis- 
tinct. Externall}'' they are splendent. 
Brittle. Fracture uneven or imperfect con- 
choidal, with a shining resinous lustre. 
Structure lamellar. Streak greyish-white. 
H. 6to7. S.G. 6-8to7. 

Comp. Sn=tin 78*o8, oxygen 21*62 = 

Sometimes with small quantities of iron, 
oxide of manganese, and tantalic acid. 
Analysis from Finbo, by Berzelius : 
Oxide of tin . . . . 93-6 
Tantalic acid . . . .2-4 
Peroxide of iron .' . .1-4 
Peroxide of manganese . . 0*8 


BB decrepitates, becomes pale, and is re- 
duced where it rests on the charcoal. When 
roasted it is converted into a grey oxide. 
Insoluble in acids. 

Localities. — English. This ore is princi- 
pally found in Cornwall, wliere it has been 
worked from a very remote period. In 
general, the Cornish crystals, though ex- 
tremely perfect in form, are not of large 
size, neither are they so ©ften macled as 
those of Bohemia. Verj' fine crystals have 
been found in the parish of St. Agnes, at 
Trevaunance (Jigs. 87 and 88), at Polberro 
Consols, and Huel Pye ; fine twinned crys- 
tals at Beam, and other mines near St. 
Austell; and in large macled crystals at 
Huel Gwinear. Beautiful crystals were met 
with some years ago at the Wherry Mine, 
near Penzance, and at St. Just. Foreign. 
Galicia, in Spain : the Granite-hill of Puy 
les Yignes, Haute Vienne, in France, and 
near Roc St. Andre, in Brittany; Pitka- 
ranta, in Finland, in fine crystals ; Green- 
land, at Evigtok, near Arksut, associated 
with Cryolite and Tantalite ; Sweden; 
United States; Asia, on the east coast of 
Sumatra; in the island of Banca, and on 
the peninsula of Malacca ; Chili ; Xeres, in 
Mexico; Los Angelos, in California; Austra- 
lia, in the form of black sand. The com- 
pound crystals come mostly from Bohemia 
and Saxony. Some of the twin forms from 
Zinnwald and Schlackenwald often w-eigh 
several pounds. Splendid crystals are pro- 
cured from liimoges. 

Name. From %.oc,ira-iTieo;, tin. 

Most of the tin of commerce is obtained 
from this ore. 

Brit. Mus., Case 18. 


3I.P.G. Principal floor, Wall-cases, 8 
and 25 to 27 (British) ; 20 (Foreign) ; 
39 (E. Indies) ; 37 (Victoria and Austra- 

Cassiterite may be^ distinguished from 
Wolfram by its greater hardness, by its 
giving sparks with steel and by its streak, 
which is greyish - white, but reddish- 
brown in Wolfram. From Blende it may 
be known by its greater hardness and un- 
even fracture. 

Tin Ore is met with in veins traversing 
granite, gneiss, mica- or clay-slate and por- 

variety of Tantalite from Finbo and Broddbo, 
in Sweden, containing much oxide of tin, as 
a mechanical mixture. S.G. 6-2 to 6-5. 
Analysis from Broddbo, by Berzelius ; 
Tantalic acid . . .66-35 
Peroxide of iron . . . 11*07 
Peroxide of manganese . 6*60 
Oxide of tin. . . . 8-40 
Tungstic acid . . . 6-12 
Lime 1-50 

Castelnaudite, B amour. A variety of 
Xenotime, found in imperfect crystals, and 
irregular grains, in the diamond-sands of 
Bahia, in the Brazils. It varies in colour 
from greyish- white to pale yellow, and has 
a greasy adamantine lustre. Hardness 
greater than Fluor, but scratched by a steel 

Castor. A mineral discovered by Breit- 
haupt; probably a variety of Petalite, 
which it resembles in hardness, density, and 
the direction of its two planes of cleavage. 
Primary form a modified rhombic prism. 
Colourless, and transparent, with a high 
glossy lustre. H. 8-25 to 8-5. S.G. 2-39. 

Comp. Li Si + 2(A1 2Si). 

Analysis by Plattner : 
Silica . . . . 

Lithia . . . . 
Peroxide of iron . 





BB in thin laminae, fuses with difficulty 

to a transparent, colourless globule ; imparts 

an intense carmine colour to the outer 


Locality. Elba, in attached crystals in 

granite with an allied mineral, which has 

been named Pollux. 
Brit. Mus., Case 30. 

CAT'S EYE. 67 

Cat Sapphire. Blackish or greenish- 
blue varieties of Oriental Sapphire ; often not 

Cat Silver. An old German mining 
term for Mica. 

Catapleiite. a mineral of a pale yel- 
lowish-brown colou^r, occurring in imper- 
fect hexagonal crystals, with a perfect basal 
cleavage. Lustre nearly dull. Slightly 
vitreous on fractured surfaces. Opaque.. 
Streak Isabella-yellow. H. near 6, S.G. 2-8. 

Comp. R2 Si2 + 2^r Si2 + 6H. 

Analysis by Sjogren : 

Silica .... 46-83 

Zirccnia .... 29-81 
Alumina . . . .0-45 

Soda 10-83 

Lime 3-61 

Peroxide of iron . . .0-63 
Water 8-86 


BB in the platinum forceps, fuses easily 
to a white enamel ; with borax forms a 
clear colourless glass. 

Locality. The island of Lamo, near Bre- 
vig, in Norway. 

Cat's Eye. A variety of Chalcedonic 
Quartz, usually of a yellowish, greenish, 
ash-grey, or yellowish- brown colour; also, 
hair-brown and hyacinth-red; sometimes 
olive-green and blackish. It occurs mas- 
sive and in roundish pieces, rarely exceed- 
ing a hazel-nut in size, generally much 
smaller. Commonly more or less translucent, 
but sometimes perfectly transparent. Easily 
broken. Fi-acture small, and imperfectly 
conchoidal, with a shining lustre between 
vitreous and resinous. 

BB it loses lustre and transparency on 
exposure to a strong heat, and in small 
fragments is fusible, though with difficulty. 

Localities. Ceylon ; the coast of Malabar ; 
the Harz ; Bavaria ; Sanzawa, in Bohemia. 
A pale green variety occurs with Epidote in 
the vale of Llanberis, Caernarvonshire ; also 
in Scotland. 

Brit. Mus., Case 22. 

M.P.G. iSorse-shoe Case, No. 514. 

When cut in high cabochon, in which state 
it is generally brought to this country, it 
displays a peculiar opalescence or floating 
lustre (resembling the contracted pupil of a 
cat's eye when held towards, the light), 
which is supposed to be caused by the pre- 
sence of small parallel fibres of Asbestos. 
It is mostly used as a ring-stone. Of the 
opaque varieties the red and almost white 


are preferred, but the value of the stone 
depends more upon its play of colour than 
upon the greater or less amount of its trans- 

Catlinite. a reddish variety of clay- 
stone from the Coteau des Prairies, west of 
theMississippi,which is carved into tobacco- 
pipes by the North American Indians. It 
is named by Dr. Jackson after Catlin, the 
American traveller, who was the first white 
man allowed by the Indians to visit the 
quarry where it is found. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 4. 

Cauliflower. The name given by the 
quarrymen in the Isle of Portland to stalag • 
mitic carbonate of lime, found in the joints 
of Portland Stone. 

Cavolinite, Monlicelli. See Nepheline. 

Cawk. An opaque, massive, earthy- 
looking variety of Barytes, of a diity-white 
or reddish colour, ver}' common in Derby- 
shire with Galena. It is also found at 
Grassington, in Yorkshire, and in Stafford- 

Brit. Mus., Case 52, 

Celestin, Werner. Celestine, Jame- 
son, Werner. Ehombic. It occurs massive, 
fibrous, stellated, and crystallized ; the pri- 
mary form being a right rhombic prism. 
Colour white, grey, seldom yellow or red- 
dish, but sometimes of a delicate blue, 
sometimes approaching to sky-blue, whence 
the name Celestine. Lustre shining. Trans- 
parent to subtranslucent. Streai^ white. 
Verv brittle. H. 3 to 3-5. S.G. 3-S5. 

Fig. 91 

Fig. 93. 

Fig. 94. 

Comp. Sr S = sulphuric acid43'6, strontia 
5G-4 = 100, often mixed with carbonate of 
lime, barytes, or oxide of iron. 

BB decrepitates and melts into a white, 
opaque, friable enamel. When reduced to 
powder, it phosphoresces on red-hot iron. 


Localities. Fine transparent prismatic 
crystals are found associated with Sulphur 
and Gypsum in the sulphur mines of Sicily ; 
it is also met with at Bex, in Switzerland ; 
in the Green Marls of Montmartre and Beau- 
mont (Dordogne), and in Chalk Flints at 
Meudon, in France ; Conil,inSpain ; Pschow, 
in Upper Silesia; and in straight fibrous 
concretions, of a blue colour, imbedded in 
clay at Dornberg near Jena ; and at Franks- 
town, in Pennsylvania. It occurs in consi- 
derable quantities in New Eed Marl, in the 
neighbourhood of Bristol, where it is made 
into Nitrate of Strontia, which forms the 
basis of the red fire used in pvrotechny. 

Brit. Mus., Case 53.. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 266 to 
280 ; also No. 147. Upper Gallery, Wall- 
case 40, No. 45. 

Cellular Pyrites. Iron Pyrites (Mar- 
casite) which has been deposited in thin 
films between layers of Galena, on the re- 
moval of which a honeycomb appearance 
is produced. 

Locality. Johanngeorgenstadt, in Saxony. 

Cellular Quartz. A cellular variety 
of Quartz, which is sometimes so porous as 
to float in v»'ater till the air contained in its 
pores escapes. (See Float Stone.) 

It is found in Cornwall, at Relistian mine, 
Cardrew mine, Huel Alfred, Pednandrea, 
&c. The curious brownish-grey varietj'- 
met with at Alston Moor, in Cumberland, 
is probably the skeleton or the divisions of 
Septaria which have been left after the re- 
moval of the other portions of the stone. 

Cement Copper, A'/m-an. Metallic Cop- 
per, produced by the precipitation of copper 
by iron, from waters which held it in 

Cendres Noires. Friable and pulveru- 
lent Lignite, from alluvial beds, containing 
a considerable quantity of Sperkise, or Iron 
Pyrites, and used by the agriculturalists of 
Picardy as a manure. 

After being burnt, either by spontaneous 
combustion or calcination, it is called Cen- 
dres rouges. 

Centralassite, H. How. A mineral oc- 
curring between the external coating and the 
central portion of a reniform nodule, partly 
imbedded in crystalline trap. Structure 
lamellar. Consists of plates radiating from 
a centre, and forming truly spherical con- 
cretions. Colour white, sometimes yellow- 
ish. Translucent ; perfectly transparent in 
thin plates, which are easily obtained and 
readily broken across. Lustre subresinous ; 
highlv pearly on cleavage planes. H. 3"5. 
S.G. 2-45 to 2-46. 


Comp. Ca4 'iSiS + 5H = liuae 29-20, silica 
50-06, water 11-74=100. 

Analysis : 

Silica 58-86 

Alumina .... 1-14 

Lime 27-91 

Magnesia . . . . 16 
Potash .... 0-59 
Water 11-41 


In matrass yields water, becoming opaque 
and silvery-white. 

BB alone fuses readily, with continued 
spirting, to an opaque glassy bead. 

Decomposed by muriatic acid without 

Locality. The Bay of Fundy, on the 
shore of Annapohs Co., two miles E. of 
Black Rock. 

Name. From yAvrpov, a centre, and ccXa-irora^ 
to change, in allusion to the passage of the into opaque white, a change of con- 
dition which commences uniformly at the 

Centralasite differs from Cyanolite, in 
having 5 equivalents less Silica. See Cy- 
anolite and Ckrinite. 

Cerasine or Cerasite ; names given by 
Beudant, both to Mendipite and Cromfor- 

Cerasite, Dana. See Mendipite. 

Ceraunian Sinter, from y,i^a.vvto;, struck 
with lightning. See Fulgurite. 

Cererit, Haidinger, Hausmann. Cere- 
rite, Brooke §' Miller. Cerinstein, Werner. 
Hexagonal. Occurs in short six-sided prisms, 
also massive and granular. Colour between 
dark peach-red and clove-brown, passing 
into grey. Slightly translucent at the edges. 
Lustre dull adamantine or resinous. Streak 
gre\'ish white. Scratches glass, and gives 
sparks with steel. Fracture splintery and 
more or less shining. H. 5-5. S.G. 4-93. 

Comp. Disilicate of Cerous Oxide, or 

2 (Ce, La i)i, Ca, Fe) Si + 2H. 
Analysis (mean) by Rammelsherg : 

Silica 19-18 

Protoxide of cerium . . 64-55 
Protoxides of lanthanum and 

didymium . . .7-28 

Protoxide of iron . . 1-54 

Lime 1"35 

Water 5*71 

BB on charcoal it splits, but does not fuse : 
dissolves slowly with borax in the outer 



flame, forming a dark yellow glass, which 
becomes colourless as it cools ; in the inner 
flame gives a feeble tint of iron. 

Partially decomposed by muriatic acid, 
leaving an insoluble residue of a different 
composition from that contained in the 

Localities. The Copper mine of Bastnas, 
near Eiddarhyttan in Sweden, where it 
forms a bed in gneiss, and is associated with 
Copper, Molybdena, Bismuth, Mica and 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Cerine, Hisinger ^ Berzelius. A variety of 
Allanite, The Cerine of Berzelius is found 
associated with Cerite, Hornblende and 
Copper Pyrites, at Bastnas, near Eiddar- 
hyttan, in Sweden. It occurs both in crys- 
tals and in crystalline masses, of a brownish- ' 
black colour, with a weak greasy lustre. 
Subtranslucent in thin splinters. 

H. 6. S.G. 3-77 to 3-8. 

Analysis from Bastnas, by Hisinger : 

Silica .... 

. 30-17 


. 11-31 

Protoxide of iron 

. 2072 

Protoxide of cerium . 

. 28-19 

Lime .... 

. 9-12 

Oxide of copper . 

. 0-87 


Brit. Mus., Case 38. 

Cerinite, H. How. A mineral forming 
the coating or exterior portion of a reniform 
nodule, about half the size of a fist, partly 
imbedded in crystalline trap. Amorphous, 
looking very like white or yellowish-white 
wax. Lustre subresinous. Subtranslucent^ 
in very thin fragments. H. 3-5. 

Comp. 3Ca Si + 2 AI si^ + 1 2H. 

Analysis : 

Silica . . . ... 57-57 

Alumina .... 12-65 

Peroxide of iron . . . 1-14 

Lime 9-82 

Magnesia . . . .1-87 
Potash . . . .0-37 

Water .... 15-69 


BB fuses readily without intumescence. 

Locality. The Bay of Fundy, on the shore 
of Annapolis Co., N. S. ; a couple of miles E. 
of a headland called Black Rock. 

Name. From Ji^jg/vo?, waxy ; from its wax- 
like appearance. See also Centralassite 
and Cyanolite. 

Cerite, Phillips. See Cererite. 


Cerium Oxide Silicifere, Haiiy. See 

Cerium Oxide Yttrifere, Beudant. 
See Yttrocerite. 

Cerium Phosphate, Dufrmoy. See 
Edwards iTE. 

Cerolitk. See Kerolite. 

Ceroxydul-kohlensaurks, Berzelius, 
Rammehherg. See Lanthanite. 

Ceruse, Beudant. Cerusite, Haidinger. 
Cerussit, v. KobelL. Cerussite, Brooke §■ 
Miller. Rhombic: primary form a right 
rhombic prism. It occurs in tabular crystals, 
in six-sided prisms variously terminated, 
and in other macled crystals of different 

Fig. 95. 

forms : also massive and compact, rarely 
fibrous. Colour white, passing into grey and 
greyish-black ; sometimes tinged green or 
blue by some of the salts of Copper. Lustre 
resinous on fractured surfaces, adamantine 
on planes of cleavage. Transparent to trans- 
lucent : when transparent, it is doiibly re- 
fractive in a high degree. Streak white. 
Brittle: fracture commonlv small con- 
choidal. II. 3 to 3-5. S.G. 6-4C to 6-iS. 

Fig. 96. 

Mono carbon ate of lead or Pb, C 
= carbonic acid 16-42, oxide of lead 83-58. 

Analysis from Leadhills, by Klaproth : 
Carbonic acid . . . .16 

Oxygen 5 

Lead 77 

Water 2 


BB decrepitates, becomes first red, then 
yellow, and lastly melts into a globule of 
metallic lead, the charcoal being covered 
with yellow fumes. It dissolves readily and 
•with effervescence, in dilute nitric acid. Its 
powder thrown on hot coals emits a phos- 
phorescent light. 

Localities.— British, Leadhills in Lanark- 


shire 9{ 

nrve- " 


shire, and Wanlock Head in Dumfriesshire 
{fig. 95) : also in magnificent tabular crys 
tals at Logylas, near Aberystwith, in Cardi- 
ganshire. Cornwall, in exceedingly delicate 
snow-white acicular crystals, at Pentire 
Glaze and St. Minver Consols. Derbyshire, 
principallv in mines in the neighbourhood 
of Matlock {fig. 96) and Wirksworth. Cum- 
berland, Devonshire, Durham, Shropshire, 
Northumberland, Yorkshire, Westmoreland, 
and at the Sark mine in the Channel Islands. 
Ireland, in heart-shaped macles at Seven - 
churches, Wicklow co. — Foreign. Very 
beautiful crystals are found in the mining 
districts of ' Saxony, especially at Johann- 
georgenstadt ; Nertschinsk, and Beresof in 
Siberia ; near Bonn on the Rhine, Clausthal 
in the Harz ; Tarnowitz and Janowitz in 
Silesia; Bleiberg in Carinthia ; Alsace 
and Croix-aux- Mines (Vosges) in France ; 
the Crimea; Gazimour in Daouria, &c. In 
the United States, at Phenixville, in Penn- 
sylvania; Perkiomen lead mines, near 
Philadelphia; Austin's Mines, Wythe co., 
Virginia, and especially at King's Mine in 
Davidson co., N. C. 

Brit. Mus., Case 49. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 
45, and Case 15 (British). Wall case 21 

Next to Galena, Cerusite is the most 
common ore of lead, but it does not occur so 
abundantly or in such quantity as often to be 
an object of consequence to the metallur- 
gist. It may be distinguished from Bary tes 
by the blackening of its surface when ex- 
posed to the vapour of sulphide of ammonia. 

Cervantite, occurs in acicular crystals ; 
also massive, and as a crust or a powder. 
Colour nearly white, Isabella-yellow, or 
sulphur~yellow, with a greasy, bright or 
earthy lustre. 

Comp. Sb + Sb = oxygen 

19-9, antin 


Analysis by Dufrenoy : 


. 16-85 

Antimony . 

. 67-50 

Carbonate of lime 

. 11-45 

Peroxide of iron 

. 1-50 

Loss . . . . 

. 2-70 


BB infusible, but on charcoal easily re- 

Soluble in muriatic acid. 

Localities. Chazelles in Auvergne ; Fel- 
sobanya, and elsewhere in Hungarj'. 

Cervantite results from the alteration of 
Grey Antimony (with which it is associated) 


at Cervantes in Spain: whence the name 

Ceylanite, Jameson, An iron-and-mag- 
nesia Spinel, named after the locality Cey- 
lon. See Pleonaste, 

Ceylon Tourmaline. The name given 
by lapidaries to Chrysolite from Ceylon. 

Ceylonese Garnet. See Bohemlvn 

Ceylonian Zircon. The name given by 
jewellers to the fire-red, yellow, yellowish- 
green and grey varieties. 

Chabacit, Hausmann, Haidinger. Cha- 
BASIE, Haiiy, Phillips, Brooke §- 3Iiller. 
Chabasin, Haidinger. Chabasit, Nau- 
mann, v. Kobell, Rose. Chabasite, Base 
d' Antic, Jameson, Nicol. Chabazite, Dana. 
Hexagonal. Found crystallized in the form 
of an obtuse rhombohedron. Colour white 
or greyish, sometimes pale red superficially. 
Lustre vitreous. Transparent, translucent. 
Brittle ; fracture uneven. H. 4 to 4-5. S.G. 
2-08 to 2-17. 

Fig. 97. 

Fig. 98. 

Fig. 99. 

Fig. 100, 

Comp. (Ca, Na, K) Si + SAl Si2 + 6H. 

Analysis from Faroe, by Berzelius; 
Potash . . . .0-4-1 
Soda . . . . . 2-75 

Lime 8-85 

Magnesia . . . .0 40 
Alumina .... 2000 

Silica 48-00 

Water 19-30 

BB shrinks up and fuses easily to a blis- 
tered slightly translucent white enamel. 
Soluble in the state of powder in muriatic 

Chabazite is met with in fissures and 
cavities of some basaltic rocks, or within 
geodes of Quartz and Agate disseminated in 
those rocks. 


Localities. In large and very beautiful 
crj'stals in the amygdaloids of Faroe, Ice- 
land and Greenland, often associated with 
Stilbite and Green Earth. The Giant's 
Causeway, in Basalt ; Portrush, in fine trans- 
parent crystals. — Scotch. In Trap at Kil- 
malcolm ; Grainger's Quarry, 2-h miles S.W. 
of Kilmalcolm ; Glen Farg in Fifeshire ; Eig 
on the coast of Argyleshire ; the Islands of 
Mull and Skye, &c. Splendid specimens 
occur in a kind of Greenstone (the Grau- 
stein of Werner) at Aussig in Bohemia ; 
Aunerode near Giessen, of a wine-yellow 
colour; in Nova Scotia, associated with 
Heulandite, Analcime, &c. Perfect and 
well-defined crystals are also found at Plom- 
bieres, deposited in cavities in the bricks 
composing the ancient Roman channel 
through which the thermal waters flow. 

Name. From x<^'°"'^'0'j the name of the 
last of the twenty stones celebrated for their 
virtues, and mentioned in the poem ^-s?/ >~i8aiv, 
ascribed to Orpheus. 

Brit. Mus., Case 27. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1144. 

Chalcanthil, Glocker. (From %«A;£«,-, 
copper, and avfo?, a Jlower). See Cyanosite. 

Chalcedony. A variety of Quartz oc- 
curring in mammillated and botryoidai 
forms, and as Stalactites in cavities lined 
or roofed with Chalcedony, but never in a 
crystallized state. According to Fuchs, 
Chalcedony is true Quartz with some Opal 
disseminated through it. It is usually milk- 
white, approaching more or less to smalt- 
blue ; the latter varieties are the rarest and 
most esteemed, and are called Sapphiriiie by 
French lapidaries. Many varieties, espe- 
cially; oriental ones, are of a yellowish, in- 
stead of a bluish colour, and are known in 
commerce as Avhite Carnelians: the red and 
brown varieties are called red Carnelians, 
and the brown approaching to orange or 
yellow are termed by the lapidaries Sard. 

Chalcedony is more or less semi-transpa- 
rent, and often exhibits parallel or con- 
centric bands or laminae of two or more 
colours, when it is called Agate. It equals 
Quartz in hardness, and is not very easily 
broken, but when broken it presents au 
even fracture passing into finely splintery 
and flat conchoidal, with little or no lustre. 

BB it becomes dead opaque white. 

Chalcedony from its hardness and tough- 
ness forms an excellent material for the 
engraver, by whom those varieties are pre- 
ferred which are of a perfectly uniform tint, 
unbroken by bands or stripes or other acci- 
dental markings ; the last are better adapted 
for small vases, brooches, &c. 
F 4 


Fine specimens are procured north of 
Monte Verdi, in Tuscany, and from the 
amygdaloids of Iceland, " and the Faroe 
Isles ; it is also found in Cornwall, Devon, 
Cumberland, in England ; at the Pentland 
Hills, in Fifeshire and other places in Scot- 
land ; and at Antrim, near the Giant's Cause- 
way, and in other parts of Ireland. 

Cubical crystals and very fine botryoidal 
and stalactitic specimens are found in flints 
at Houghton Chalk-pit, near Arundel in 
Sussex ; and beautiful specimens of sponges 
of the Cretaceous period, converted into Chal- 
cedony, may be picked up on the shore at 
Worthing, Littlehampton, Bognor, Selsev, 

Name. Chalcedony is named after Chal- 
cedon in Asia Minor, where it is said to 
have been originallv obtained. 

Brit. Mus., Case 22 and 23. 

J£ P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Kos. 661, 
662, 654, 666 to 671, 674. 

Chalcedonyx. a variety of Chalce- 
dony, with alternating stripes of white and 

Chalcodite. The name proposed in 
1851, by Professor C. U. Shepard, for a 
mineral which had previousl}'^ been referred 
to Cacoxene. It occurs in minute flexible 
scales, grouped into drusy concretionary 
crusts, coating Hematite. Colour greenish, 
bronze, and brass-yellow. H. 1 to 1-5. S.G. 

Comp. 2R Si+it Si + 2H (approaching 
Stilpnomelane, Brush). 
Analysis (mean) of green variety, by -BrusA; 

Silica . . . . 

. 40-29 


. 362 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 20-47 

Protoxide of iron . 

. 16-47 

Protoxide of manganese 

. trace 

Lime ..... 

. 0-28 


. 4-56 

Soda and potash . 

. traces 

Water .... 

. 9-22 

* 99-91 

Dissolves readily in hot muriatic acid. 

Locality. The Stirling iron mine, Ant- 
werp, Jetlerson co,, U.S. 

Name. From %a.X;!£ai5flj, like brass; from 
its bronze-like lustre. 

Brit. Mu3., Case 26. 

Chalcolite, Btudant. Chalcolith, 
Werner, Haidinger, Hausmann, v. Kobell. 
A variety of Uranite in which copper takes 
the place of lime. Pj-ramidal ; the crystals 
generally assuming a tabular form. Colour 
emerald-, and grass-green, sometimes leek-, 


and apple-, and verdigris-green, with a streak 
somewhat paler than the colour. H. 2 to 
2-5. S.G 3-5 to 3-6. 

Comp. (fin, 2#) P + 8H = phosphoric 
acid 15-1, oxide of uranium 61-2, oxide of 
copper 8-4, water 15-3 = 100. 

Analysis by Phillips : 

Oxide of uranium . 

. 60-0 

Phosphoric acid 

. 16-0 

Oxide of copper 

. 9-0 

Water . . 

. 150 

• 100 

BB fuses to a black mass, colouring the 
flame bluish-green. 

In nitric acid gives a yellowish-green so- 
lution ; in ammonia a blue solution. 

Localities. — English. Magnificent speci- 
mens have been found at Gunnis Lake, near 
Callington in Cornwall: other Cornish lo- 
calities are HuelBuller, and South Huel Bas- 
set, Redruth: Tin-croft mine, Illogan ; tluel 
James, Withiel; Stenna Gwynn, near St. 
Austell ; Devonshire, at Bedford United 
mines near Tavistock. — Foreign. Johann- 
georgenstadt, Eibenstocl* and Schneeberg 
in Saxony; Joachimstahl and Zinnwald 
in Bohemia ; Vielsalm in Belgium, &c. 

Name. From x;<«'^«o?, copper, and xi6o;, 

Brit. Mus., Case 57. 

This species may be distinguished from 
Green Mica by the brittleness of its laminae, 
which do not bend, and are not flexible and 
elastic like those of Mica. Mica, also, is 
not soluble in nitric acid. 

M. P. G. Wall-case 13 on Principal 
Floor (British). 

Chalcophacite, Glocker. See Liro- 


Chalcophyllite. Hexagonal. Occurs 
in six-sided tabular crystals, of which the 
lateral planes are trapeziums, inclining 
alternately in contrary directions ; also in 
foliated masses and druses. Colour emerald-, 
grass-, or verdigris-green, with a vitreous 
lustre except on the cleavage planes, where 
it is pearly. Transparent, or translucent. 
Streak rather paler than the colour. Sec- 
tile. H.2. S.G. 2-4 to 2 -66. 

Co7np. As, 6Cu + 12H = arsenic acid 24-9, 
oxide of copper 51-7, water 23'4 {L>amour). 
Analysis from Cornwall, by Damour: 
Arsenic acid . . . 21*27 

Oxide of copper . , , 52-30 
Alumina .... 2*13 
Phosphoric acid , . ,1-56 


Water . . . . . 22-58 


BB decrepitates strongly, the flame be- 
ing coloured green hy the detached parti- 
cles ; in powder emits arsenical fumes, and 
passes into a spongy slag, after which it 
melts quietly into a black, brittle, slightly 
vitreous globule ; which, by a second fusion 
with soda, affords a globule of metallic cop- 

Soluble in acids and ammonia. 

Localities. — English. Associated with Cu- 
prite, Copper Pyrites, and Malachite, at 
Ting-Tang and at Huels Gorland, Muttrell 
and Unity, iuGwennap; Huel Tamar, and 
Gunnis Lake near Callington. — Foreign. 
Crystallized in Iron-ore at Saydain Saxony ; 
in minute crystals at Herrengrund in Hun- 
gary ; Moldawa in the Bannat. 

Name. From x,<^kz.h, copper, and <pC\Xov^ 
a leaf, in allusion to the ease with which the 
crystals may be separated into laminas like 

Brit. Mus., Case 56. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 2 

Chalcopyrite, Beudant, Greg 8j- Lettsom. 
Copper Pyrites. Pyramidal; tetrahedral. 
The crystals present the general form of 
the tetrahedron or spheroid, having the 
solid angles alwaj's replaced. Their struc- 
ture is perfectly lamellar, affording brilliant 
surfaces parallel to the planes of a some- 
what acute octahedron with a square base. 
It also occurs stalactitic, botryoidal, mam- 
niillated, and amorphous ; these are all 
harder than the crystallized varieties. Colour 
brass-yellow, often with a variegated tar- 
nish. Lustre metallic. Streak greenish - 
black. Fracture most commonlv uneven. 
Opaque. H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 41 to 4-3. 

Fig. loi. 

Fig. 102. 

Comp. CuS FeS = copper 34-78, iron 30-47, 
sulphur 34-78 = 100. 

Analysis from Ramberg, in Sayn, by H. 
Rose ; 

Sulphur . . . . . 35-87 

Copper 34-40 

Iron 30-47 

Quartz matrix . . . 0*27 



BB on charcoal emits sulphurous fumes, 
and melts in a brittle, black globule, which 
is magnetic. With borax yields pure cop- 

Forms a green solution in nitric acid, 
leaving a residue of sulphur. 

Localities. British. — Cornwall, associated 
Avith Erubescite, Grey Copper, Galena, and 
Blende ; Devonshire, at Huel Friendship, 
near Tavistock; Staffordshire, at the Ec- 
ton mine ; Lancashire, at Bole Gap and 
Coniston tinited mines {Jig. 101); Alston 
Moor, in Cumberland {fy. 102) ; in many 
places in Wales and Scotland, and in several 
counties in Ireland. Auriferous Copper Py- 
rites has been met with at Goldscope mine, 
near Keswick, in Cumberland, and argen- 
tiferous, containing 27 ounces of silver to the 

ton, at Gurtnadyne mines, in Tipperary 

Foreign. Pyrenees ; Canada, south side of 
Echo Lake, and north of the mouth of the 
Poot River. 

Name. From x'^^''^^^, copper, SluA pyrites. 
Brit. Mus., Case 7; 

3LP.G. Principal Floor, Case 15, Wall- 
cases 8 to 7, and 25 to 27 (British) ; 16 and 
17 (Foreign) ; 40 (Jamaica). 

Chalcopyrite may be distinguished from 
gold by its brittleness and Avant of mal- 
leability, as well as by its fracture, which is 
uneven or imperfectly foliated, whereas gold 
has a hackly fracture. It differs from Iron 
Pyrites, which it often greatly resembles, 
by inferior hardness, and by yielding to the 
knife, whereas Iron Pyrites gives lire with 
steel; its colour is also generally of a 
deeper yellow than that of Iron Pyrites, 
which is more like brass in appearance; 
hence its richness may be judged of by the 
colour. The softer varieties, of a fine yellow 
colour, which yield readily to the hammer, 
contain the largest quantity of copper ; while 
the harder and paler varieties are poor, from 
the admixture of Iron Pyrites. 

Though a poor ore, it is th'e most "abun- 
dant, nearly one- third of all the copper ob- 
tained by metallurgical operations being 
extracted from it. 

Chalcosine, Greg §• Lettsom ; Chalko- 
SINE, Beudant, v. Kobell. From %«A,«e?, cop- 
per. See Copper Glance. 

Chalcostibite, Glocher. See Wolfs- 


Chalcotrichite, Glocher. A fibrous 
variety of Cuprite, or Red Copper, which 
generally occurs in grouped or reticulated, 
fine capillary crystals. These have been 
referred by Brooke to the cubical sys- 
tem, the slender fibres being elongated 
cubes; while Kengott attributes them to 


the rhombic system, the fibres, in his 
opinion, being rhombic prisms, with the 
obtuse and acute edges truncated. Tlie 
colour of this mineral is cochineal- and crim - 
son-red. S,G. 5-8. 

Comp. Identical with Cuprite. 

Localities. English. — It is known by the 
name of plush copper in Cornwall, and has 
been found at Huel Gorland, the Consoli- 
dated mines, Carharrack, Huel Prosper, and 
Owen Vean ; also at the Bedford United 
mines, near Tavistock. The present loca- 
lities are South Huel Francis, and the 
Phoenix mines. Irish. — Coosheen mine, 
Skull, Cork. Foreign. — 'Rheinbreitenbach, 
on the Rhine; Moldawa; and N. Tagilsk, 
in Siberia. 

Name. From %«>i«»?, copper, and 6ji|, hair. 

Brit. Mus., Case 17. 

Chalcotrichite is distinguished from Red 
Silver-ore by its crystallization and accom- 
panying minerals; from Cinnabar by its 
colour, weight, and accompan3'ing mine- 
rals ; from Red Antimony by its colour, that 
of the latter being cherry -red. 

Chalilite, Thomson. Probably an im- 
pure massive Thomsonite. According to 
Kengott tfiere are two species of Chalilite, one 
of a deep reddish-brown, the other flesh-red, 
and fusing BB with more difficulty than 
the pi'eceding to a white blebby glass. The 
first is compact, with a slightly resinous 
lustre, and a splintery fracture, feubtranslu- 
cent to opaque. Streak yellowish, and a 
little greasy. H. 4-5. S.G. 2-252. 

Analysis by Thomson : 

Silica 36-56 

Alumina .... 26-20 
Peroxide of iron . . . 9-28 

Lime 10-28 

Soda 2-72 

Water . . ' . . . 16-66 


BB fuses with intumescence. 

Localities. In irregular veins passing 
through trap, where it rests on the por- 
phyry of the Sandy Brae district, in Antrim ; 
also at Tudree Hill. 

Name. From x^^'^> a flint, from its great 
resemblance in appearance to flint. 

Chalk. An earthy variety of carbonate 
of lime, generally white, soft, and pulveru- 
lent, but varying much in hardness. 

Chalkanthit, v. Kobell. See Cyano- 


Chalkolite. See Chalcolite. 
Chalkosine, Beudant. See Copper 

Fig. 103 

Fig. 104, 

Chalybite, Glocker. SpaPvRY or Spa- 
those Iron, Carbonate of Iron, or Si- 
derite. Hexagonal; occurs in obtuse 
rhombohedrons (whose faces are occasion- 
ally curvilinear) ; in acute rhombohedrons, 
sometimes perfect, or having the terminal 
angles replaced ; in six-sided prisms, in 
octahedrons, and in lenticular crystals ; 
also striated and massive. Colour various 
shades of yellow, passing into brown and i 
brownish-black on exposure to the atmo- j 
sphere or to heat. Externally shining, in- j 
ternally with a brilliant or pearly lustre. 
Transparent, translucent, or opaque. Streak 
yellowish-brown. Structure lamellar. Brit- 
tle. Fracture uneven. Affects the magnetic 
needle. H. 3-5 to 4-5. S.G. 3-7 to 3-9. 

Coinp. FeC = carbonic acid 37-93, prot- 
oxide of iron 6207, = 100. As however it 
often contains oxide of manganese, magne- 
sia, and lime, its composition is better ex - 

pressed by the formula (Fe Mn Mg Ca) C. 

Analysis from Durham, by Thomson : 

Carbonic acid . . . 35-90 

Protoxide of iron . . . 54*57 

Protoxide of manganese . 1-15 

Lime 3-18 

Water 2-63 

BB alone infusible; blackens, becomes 
more magnetic. Colours borax bottle-green 
in the reducing flame, and in the oxidating 
flame yellow. Soluble with difficulty in 
nitric acid, and scarcely effervesces, unless 
previously pulverised. 

Localities. Nearly all the Styrian and Carin- 
thian Iron is manufactured from Chalybite. 
In those and the adjoining countries it forms 
extensive tracts, traversing gneiss, extend- 


ing along the chain of the Alps on one side 
into Austria, and on the other into Saltzburg. 
The Erzberg, between Eiseuerz and Vordern- 
berg, in Stvria, is composed of gneiss, upon 
which rests, on the north and west sides, 
an immense bed of Sparry Iron. This is the 
great depot of the ore which is used in the 
manufacture of the Styrian steel. Fine 
crystals of Sparry Iron are met with m vems 
of considerable size, traversing Clay-slate, 
at Harzgerode, in the Harz. At Freiberg 
it is found in silver veins. At Somorostro, 
in the province of Biscay, in Spain, there is 
a whole hill composed of this ore, which has 
been worked for several thousand years. 
In the United Kingdom it occurs chiefly in 
Cornwall, and in the N. W. of Devonshire 
and Somersetshire, where considerable quan- 
tities are raised on Exmoor and the Bren- 
don Hills. Fig. 103 represents crystals 
found at Fowev Consols, and Jig. 104 the 
small brilliant crystals presenting the form 
of Dog's-tooth Spar, met with at- Buckler's 
Mine, near St. Austell. It affords an iron 
which is admirably suited for making steel. 
The black variety is said to afford the best 
kind of iron. 

Brit. Mus., Case 48. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 50 

Chamoisite. Probably a mixture of 
Magnetic Iron and a hydrous silicate of 
alumina. It has a dark greenish-grey 
earthy appearance, with a granular, uneven, 
or earthy fraeture. Magnetic. S-G. 3 
to 3-4. 

Comp. Near to Siderochisolite, 2 (5Fe, 
Si) + Al, SSi + lSH. 

Analysis from Chamoisin, by Berthier: 
Protoxide of iron . . . 60*5 
Alumina . . . . 7'8 
Silica . . . . . 14-3 
Water 17-4 


When heated, gives off water, becomes 
more strongly magnetic, and turns black, 
or, if the air has access to it, reddish. 

Locality. In beds, of small extent, in a 
limestone abounding in Ammonites, at Cha- 
moisin in the Valais. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Chajsttonnite, Shepard. A meteoric mine- 
ral, forming compact black veins and angu- 
lar-shaped masses. Fracture subconchoidal. 
H. 6-5 to 7. S.G. 3-48. 

BB fuses at the edges to a dark black slag. 


Named after the Chantonnay stone, in 
which it is found. 

Chath AMITE, Shepard. A variety of 
Chloanthite occurring in mica-slate, and 
generally associated with Mispickel, and 
sometimes with Copper Nickel, at Chatham, 
Connecticut, U.S. (See Saffloeite), 

Analysis by Genth : 

Arsenic .... 70-11 


Cobalt . 
Nickel . 





Brit. Mus., Case 4.^ 
Chaux Arseniatee, Haiiy. See Phar- 


Chaux Arseniatee Anhydre, Dufre- 
noy. See Kuhnite. 

Chaux Boratee Siliceuse, Ha'dy. See 

Chaux Carbonatee, Haiiy. See Cal- 


Chaux Carbon atee Concretionis^ee, 
Haiiy. See Stalagmite. 

Chaux Carbonatee Ferrifere, Haiiy. 
Bitter Spar coloured black by Bitumen, 
and found crystallized in acute rhombohe- 
drons in the Gypsum of Salzburg. 

Chaux Carbonatee Ferrifere Per- 
lee, Haiiy. See Pearl-spar. 

Chaux Carbonatee Fetide, Haiiy 
See Stinkstone. 

Chaux Carbonatee Magnesifere, 
Haiiy. See Dolomite. 

Chaux Carbonatee Nacree, Haiiy. 
See Slate-spar. 

Chaux Carbonatee Nacree Lamel- 
laire, Haiiy. See Aphrite. 

Chaux Carbonatee Saccharoide, 
Haiiy. See Granular Limestone. 

Chaux Carbonatee Spungieuse, Haiiy. 
See Agaric Minkral. 

Chaux Datolit, Brochant. See Da- 

Chaux Fluatee, Haiiy. See Fluor. 

Chaux Nitrate k, Haiiy. See Niteo- 


Chaux Phosphatee, Haiiy. See Apa^ 


Chaux Phosphates Verte, Haiiy. See 

Chaux Sulfatee, Haiiy. See Gyp- 

Chaux Sulfatee Anhydre, Haiiy. See 

Chaux Sulfatee Crystallisee, Haiiy. 
See Selenite.- 

Chenocoprolite. Formerly called Ganse- 

76 cherokine: 

kotliigerz, or Goose-dung-ore, has been 
shown to be an impure Iron Sinter (Pitti- 
cite), containing Silver and Arseniate of 
Cobalt. It is the result of decomposition, and 
not a distinct mineral. It occurs in irregular- 
ly mammiilated, translucent masses of a yel- 
lowish green or olive colour. Shining, with 
a resinous lustre, white streak and con- 
choidal fracture. H. 2 to 3. S.G. 2 3, 

Localities. Cornwall. Allemont in Dau- 
phine, chiefly at the mines of Clausthal in 
the Harz, where, when obtained in suffi- 
cient quantit}^, it is highly prized as an ore 
of Silver. 

Name. From ^jivoj^s't^o?, goosedung, and 
XiQo;, stone. 

Cherokine. The mineral so called by 
Professor Shepard has been proved by the 
analysis of T. Sterry Hunt, to be Phosphate 
of Lead (Pyromorphite ), containing less 
than 1 per cent, of a whitish precipitate, 
which may have been phosphate of lime or 

Cherry Coal. Resembles Caking Coal, 
but does not cake when burnt. 

Chert. The name frequently applied to 
Hornstone, and to any impure flinty rock, 
including the Jaspers. From its great tough- 
ness, which exceeds that of Flint, Chert forms 
a good road material, and it is used largely 
in the potteries. It occurs in the uppermost 
beds of the Upper Creensand of the south 
of England; also in the Purbeck and Port- 
land formations of Dorsetshire ; in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of Derb5-shire and 
Flintshire, and in Ireland. 

It diff"ers from Flint in breaking with a 
square splintery fracture, instead of a con- 
choidal fracture. 

Brit. Mus., Case 22. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, Xos. 733, 734: 
Upper Gallery, Wall-case, 42, Nos. 17 to 

Chessylite, Brooke §• Miller, Greg §• Lett- 
som. Oblique. Primary form an oblique 
rhombic prism. Colour azure-blue passing 
into Berlin-blue, in earthy varieties smalt- 
blue. Transparent to opaque. Lustre vi- 
treous. Yields easily to the knife. Streak 
paler than the colour. Structure lamellar. 
Brittle. Fracture conchoidal. H. 3-5 to 
4-0. S.G. 3-5 to 3-8. 

Conip. Carbonate of copper, or 2Cu C + 

Cu H = oxide of copper 69-37, carbonic acid 

25-43, water 5-20 =-100. 

Analysis from Chessy, by Phillips ; 
Carbonic acid . . . 25-45 
Oxide of copper . . . 69-08 
Water 5-46 

100 00 

BB decrepitates, turns black and yields 
a globule of copper. 

Dissolves with effervescence in nitric acid. 
Soluble in ammonia. 

Localities. — English. Cornwall, at Huel 
BuUer, fig. 108, and at many other mines. 
East Tamar mine, Devonshire. Matlock, 
&c., Derbyshire. Alston Moor, Cumber- 
land. — Scotch. Wanlock Head, Dumfries- 
shire. Leadhills, Lanarkshire. -^/ris/j. Aud- 
ley mines, Cork co. Killarney. — Foreign. 
Chessy near Lyons, in considerable abun- 
dance, and in very beautiful crystals.* Si- 
beria, Moldawa in the Bannat. Thur- 

Brit. Mus., Case 50. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases 2 
(British); 16 (Foreign) ; 38 (Australian) ; 
Case 11, (Burra Burra). 

Chessylite is probably a result of the de- 
composition of other ores of Copper. It 
generally occurs lining cavities in primary 
and secondary rocks, and associated with 
Malachite and Red Copper. Chessylite 
forms a valuable ore of copper when abun- 
dant. It is also used when pulverized, as a 
pigment under the name of Mineral-blue, or 
Mountain-blue ; but it is not of much value, 
from its liability to turn green. 

Chesterlite. a variet}^ of Felspar with 
the constitution of Orthoclase. 

Analysis by Smith ^ Brush : 

Silica . 

. 65-17 


. 17-70 

Peroxide of iron 

. 0-50 

Lime . 

. 0-56 

Potash . 

. 13-86 

Soda . 

. 1-64 


. 0-25 

Loss by ignition . 

. 0-65 

Locality. Chester, Delaware co., U.S. in 
crystals, often on Dolomite. 
Brit. Mus., Case 30. 

Cheveux de Venus. See Venus' Hair- 

* Hence the name Chessylite. 

Chiastot-tte, Phillips. Rhombic. A 
variety of Andalusite, occurring crystallized 
in white or grey right rhombic prisms, 
which present a black or bluish-black cross 
in their transverse section. Lustre vitre- 
ous. Translucent. Streak white. Frac- 
ture splinterv. H. 3 to 7-5. S.G. 2-94 to 

Fig. 109. 

Comp. Anhydrous silicate of alumina, or 
Al bi = alumina 63, silica 37 = 100. 
Analysis from Lancaster, by Bunsen : 
Alumina .... 58-56 

Silica 39-09 

Peroxide of manganese . 0-53 

Lime 0-21 

Loss by ignition . . . 0-99 


BB alone infusible, with borax difficultly 
fusible, forming a clear glass, and with still 
greater difficulty and less perfectly in mi- 
crocosmic salt. 

Localities. — English. Cumberland, at the 
top of Skiddaw, and at Carrock Fells, in 
Slate ; Saddleback ; Dacre Castle, near Ulls- 
water. Devonshire ; Ivy Bridge, and near 
Okehampton. Fig. 109. — Irish. Agnavanagh 
in Wicklow; in mica-slate, near Killiney 
Bay; Baltinglass Hill, on the borders of 
Carlow. — Foreign. Near Bareges in the 
Pyrenees ; St. Jago de Compostella in Spain ; 
near Santa Elena in the Sierra Morena ; 
St. Brieux in Basse Bretagne ; abundantly 
in the townships of Lancaster and Sterling, 
Massachusetts, U.S. 

Name. From z'«-frog, decussated. The 
name Chiastolite was given by Karsten, on 
account of the resemblance of the dark lines 
on the summits of the crystals to the Greek 
letter x- 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1005. 

Childremitk, Levy, Greg §• Lettsom. 
Rhombic. Primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Occurs in yellow or brownish-yel- 
low crystals or crystalline coats on Siderite, 
Pyrites or Quartz. Lustre vitreous inclin- 
ing to resinous. Translucent. Streak paler 
than the colour. Fracture uneven. H. 4*5 
to 5. S.G. 3-2. 

Comp. (R^ Al)5 P5 + 15H, or 2(Fe, Mn)4 

P + AlP+loH. 

Analysis bv Bamrnehberg : 

Phosphoric acid . . . 28-92 
Alumina . . . .1444 
Protoxide of iron . . . 30-68 
Protoxide of manganese . 9*07 
Magnesia .... 0-14 
Water 16-98 

BB colours the flame bluish-green ; with 
the fluxes afibrds reaction of iron and man- 

Localities. This mineral is nearly a Cor- 
nish species : it has been found at Crinnis 
Mine near St. Austell, and at the George 
and Charlotte Mine, and in the vicinity of 
Tavistock, at Huel Creboi-. 

Name. It was first distinguished by 
Levy, \>y whom it was named after Mr. 
Children of the British Museum. 
Brit. Mus., Case 57. 
M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1125. 
Childrenite may be distinguished from 
Siderite by the superior hardness and lustre 
of its crystals. 

Chileit. The name given by Breithaupt 
to a variety of Gothite from Chile. 
Analysis by Breithaupt : 

Peroxide of iron . . . 83-5 
Oxide of copper . . .1-9 
Silica . . . . .4-3 
Water 10-3 

Chileite, The name proposed by Ken- 
gott for a Vanadate of Lead and Copper de- ' 
scribed by Domeyko, and worked for Cop- 
per and Silver at the Silver mine, Mina 
Grande, or Mina de la Marqueza, in Chili, 


where it occurs in cavities in Arseno-phos- 
phate of Lead, with amorphous Carbonates 
of Lead and Copper. It has a dark-brown, 
or brownish-bhick colour, and an earthy 
appearance resembling that of a ferrugi- 
nous clay or earth. 

Comp. _Pb6V + CuP V. 

Analj/sis by Domeyko : 

Vanadic'acid . . . 13-33 
Arsenic acid .... 4-68 
Phosphoric acid . . . 0*68 
Oxide of copper . . . 16-97 
Oxide of lead . . .51-97 
Chloride of lead ,. . . 0-37 

Lime 0-58 

Peroxide of iron and alumina 3-4-2 

Silica 1-33 

Clav 1-52 

Water 2-70 

Chili Saltpetre. See ISTitratine. 
Chiltonite, Emmons. See Prehnite. 
Chimborazite. See Aragonite. 
Chiolite, Hermann 8r Auerbach. Pyra- 
midal; occurs crystallized, but generally 
compact like Cryolite, with a crystalline 
structure. Colour snow-white. Lustre vitre- 
ous, slightly resinous. Translucent. H. 4. 
S.G. 2-72. 

Comp. 3Ka F + 2 A12 F^. 
Analysis by Hermann : 

Sodium . . . . 23 78 
Aluminum .... 18-69 
Fluorine .... 57*53 

BB fuses easily, and affords the re-action 
of fluorine. 

Effervesces and gives off hydrofluoric acid 
in sulphuric acid. 

Locality. Miask, in the Topaz mine Xo. 5, 
forming a vein in graphic granite. 
Brit. Mus,, Case 58. 

Chivtalite, Rammelsberg. A mineral re- 
sembling Bismuth-glance, found accompany- 
ing Pyrites and Barytes at Chiviato, in Peru. 
Colour lead-grev. Lustre metallic. S.G. 6-92. 
Comp. (-C-U,"' Pb) S + i Bi2 S3, R. 
Analysis bv Rammelsberg : 

Sulphur" .... 18-00 
Bismuth .... 60-95 

Lead 16-73 

Copper 2-42 

Iron . . . . . 1-02 

Silver trace 

Insol 0-59 



BB like Aikenite, to which it is near in 

Chladnite, Shepard. A meteoric mine- 
ral, forming more than two-thirds (90 per 
cent.) of the Bishopville stone, in which it 
occurs in imperfect crystals, very closely 
approaching, in external form, some of tbe 
most common forms of Felspar and Albite. 
These crystals, whose primary form is a 
doubly oblique prism, are sometimes nearly 
an inch in diameter. Colour snow-white, 
rarely with a tinge of grey. Translucent 
(in undecomposed fragments semi-trans- 
parent). Lustre pearly to vitreous. Very 
brittle, masses half an inch in diameter, 
being easily crushed between the fingers. 
H. 6 to 6-5. S.G. 3-116. 

Comp. Ter-silicate of Magnesia. 

BB alone, on charcoal, fuses without diffi- 
culty and with phosphorescence to a white 
enamel ; with borax, very slowly, to a trans- 
parent glass. 

It is named after Chladni, the scientific 
founder of Astrolithology.* 

Chloanthite, Breithaupt. The term 
under which is comprised the Nickel varieties 
of Smaltine, the latter term being restricted 
to the Cobaltic varieties. 

Comp. Ni, As2 = arsenic 72-1, nickel 28-3 
= 100-0. 

Chlorapatite. Voelcker. A variety of 
Apatite from Kragerbe, in Norway, distin- 
guished by the entire absence of fluorine, 
and a very small but variable quantity of 
chloride of calcium, varying from 1*61 to 
1*71 in some specimens, to 6-41 to 6-70 in 

Comp. 3(Ca5P)+CeCl. 

Chlorastrolite, C. J. Jackson. A pale 
bluish-green mineral occurring on the shores 
of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, in small 
water-worn pebbles, which have been derived 
from trap. It is finely radiated or stellate 
in structure, with a pearly lustre, and is 
slightly chatovant on the rounded sides. 
H. 5-5 to 6. S'.G. 3-18. 

Comp. (Ca, Na)5 Si + 2 (Al, Fe) Si + 3 H 

= (iR3 + |Al)Si + H. 
Analysis by Whitney : 

Silica 36-99 

Alumina .... 25-49 
Peroxide of iron (a little 
protox.) . . . .6-48 

Lime 19-90 

Soda 3-70 

* From cca-rr,^, a meteor, Xido;, a stone, Koya;, a 



Potash 40 

Water 7*22 


BB fuses readily, with intumescence, to a 
greyish bleb by glass. 

Soluble in muriatic acid, giving a floccu- 
lent precipitate of silica. 

Name. From %Awfo?, green, oceri^ov, a star, 
and A/fof, a stone. 

Chlokide of Lead, Thomson. See 


Chloride of Potassium. See Sylvine. 
Chloride of Silver, Allan. See Ker- 


Chlorite, Werner. Hexagonal ; occurs 
in tabular six-sided prisms. Colour va- 
rious shades of dull emerald green in the 
direction of the axis, and yellowish or 
hyacinth-red at right angles to it; also 
pure white or yellowish. Massive varieties 
olive-green. Semitransparent to subtrans- 
lucent. Lustre pearly. Yields to the nail, 
and, when in powder, is unctuous to the 
touch. Streak corresponding to the colour. 
H. 1 to 1-5. S.G. 2-7 to 2-85. 

Fig. 1 


. Compact Chlorite is amorphous. .Chlorite 
slate possesses a slaty structure, and frequent- 
ly contains imbedded octahedral crystals of 
Magnetic Iron, Hornblende and Garnets. 
Earthy Chlorite is composed of small, pearly, 
glimmering, scaly particles. It has a some- 
what greasy feel, and bears a striking re- 
semblance to Green Earth. 

Camp. 4 (Mg, Fe), (Al, ¥e), 2 Si, 3 H = 

4Mg Si+Al Si + 3 H. 

Analysis from the Pyrenees, by Delesse : 

Silica 32-1 

Alumina . . ^. . 18 5 
Magnesia . . . . 36*7 
Protoxide of iron . . .0*6 
Water 12-1 

Chlorite frequently contains as much as 
8 or 9 per cent, of protoxide of iron ; those 
kinds which have more (up to 28 or 29 per 
cent.) are classed with Ripidolite. 

BB some lose their colour, and fuse at the 
edges ; with borax affords an iron reaction. 

Localities. The tin mines of Cornwall, 
where it is known by the name of peach. 
Also in Cumberland and Westmoreland, and 
near Caernarvonshire, At Port- 


soy, in Banffshire, it is mixed with Serpen- 
tine, and is frequently cut and polished. 
Name. From %Xa'g«5', green. 
This mineral may be distinguished from 
Mica by its laminge being flexible, but not 
elastic, while those of Mica are ver}' elastic. 
It has been proposed by Descloiseaux to 
divide Ciilorite into three groups, Pennine, 
Clinochlore, and Ripidolite ; to which may 
be added Leuchtenbergite. 
Brit. Mus., Case 32, 

M.F. G. Horse-shoe Cagk Nos. 1039-1043, 
1047. ^ 

Chlorite Ferrugineuse, Delesse. See 

Chlorite Spar. A variety of Chloritoid 
from Katharinenburg, analysed by Erdmann, 
who considered it to be a distinct species, in 
consequence of the absence of water. It was 
subsequently analysed by Hermann and Von 
Kobell, by the former of whom it is sug- 
gested that the absence of Avater, in the 
specimen analysed by Erdmann, might be 
accounted for by its having been burnt at 
the mine, where the stone is roasted to sepa- 
rate the Emery. 

Chloritoid. Occurs massive, in coarse 
folia which are often curved or bent. It has 
a dark grey or greenish- grey colour, and a 
weak pearly lustre. Streak uncoloured, or 
slightly greenish. H. 5-5 to 6. S.G. 3-55. 

Camp. R Si + 2 AlSi + 3 H = (J R + f Al) 

Si + H = silica 27-6, alumina 31-3, protoxide 
of iron 32-9, water 8*2 = 100-0. 

Analysis from Katharinenberg, by Her- 
mann i 

Silica 24-54 


, 30-72 

Protoxide of iron . 

. 17-30 


. 3-75 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 17-28 

Water . . . 

. 6-38 


BB infusible, but becomes darker and 
magnetic. Soluble in sulphuric acid. 

Localities. Koroibrod, near Katharinen- 
berg, in the Ural ; Bregatten in the Tyrol. 

Chlobitspath, Fiedler. See Chlori- 

Chlormercur. See Calomel. 

Chlorobromid of Silver, Domeyko. See 

Chlorocarbonate of Lead, Thomson. 
See Cromfordite. 

Chlobomelan, Kallmann. See Crox- 

ChloropAL, Bernhardi ^ Brajides. An 


amorphous mineral related to Halloysite, of 
a greenish-yellow colour, and with'^a weak 
waxy lustre. Opaque to subtransparent. 
Streak greenish-white. Brittle. Fracture 
splintery and conchoidal. H. 2*5 to 3. S.G. 
21 to 2-15. 

Comp. i^e Si3+3H = Silica 45-9, perox- 
ide of iron 40-5, water 13-7 = 100-0. 

Analysis of compact specimen from Hun- 
gary, bv Bernha^di §■ Brandes : 

Silica . ||. .46 
Peroxide of m)n . . .33 
Alumina .... 1 
Magnesia .... 2 
Water ]8 


BB infusible, but becomes black and 
then brown. 

Partially soluble in muriatic acid, -which 
takes up the hydrate of iron. 

Locality. Hungary. 

Name. From x'^'^e^s green and Opal. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Chloroph^ite. a mineral discovered b)'^ 
D. Macculloch in the amygdaloid of Scuir 
More in Rum. It occurs foliated, or granu- 
lar, massive, incrusting or disseminated in 
small grains or nodules, in basalt or amyg- 
daloid. Colour translucent pistachio- or 
olive-green, which soon changes to opaque 
dark-brown or black, with the aspect of Jet 
or black chalk, according to the degree of 
lustre or transparency. Lustre dull sub- 
resinous. H. 1-0 to 2.'S.G. 2-02. 

Comp. Fe Si + 6H = Silica 33-5, protoxide 
of iron 26 6, water 39 9 = 100-0 

Analysis from Faroe, by Forchammer : 

Silica 32-85 

Protoxide of iron . . 22-08 
Magnesia .... 3-44 
Water . . . .41-63 


BB fuses to a black glass. 

Localities. The Faroe Islands ; Isle of 
Eum, in Fife ; Antrim, Down Hill, in vesi- 
cular greenstone. 

Name. From x^'^i'>?i green, and (p<x,io;. brown, 
in allusion to the change of colour which 
takes place m the course of a few hours. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Chlorophane. The name given to those 
varieties of Fluor which, when heated, shine 
with a phosphorescent light of a peculiarly 
bright emerald-green colour. This they 
will exhibit repeatedly, if not subjected to 
too great a heat. This property is observ- 

able in some Cornish specimens, but in a 
remarkable degree in a violet-coloured Fluor 
from Nertschinsk in Siberia. In the United 
States Chlorophane forms two veins in 
gneiss at Turnbull, Connecticut, accompanied 
by Topaz and Magnetic Pyrites. 

Name. From a:^'=^?«', green, and <?«/»'<w, to 

ChIvOROPhyllite, Jackson. Probably an 
altered or hj'-drated variety of lolite. Colour 
green or brownish. Lustre of basal plane, 
pearh' ; of latei-al planes, pearly or greasy 
to imperfectly vitreous. Translucent to sub- 
translucent. " Highly foliated parallel to the 
base of the prism. Brittle. H. 0-5 at the 
edges ; of the basal planes 1-5 to 2. S. G. 

Comp. R5 Si2 + S'ii Si + 2H or lolite + 2H. 

Localities. The United States, at Neal's 
Mine in Unity, Maine, and at Haddam, Con- 
necticut, in large four-, six-, eight- or twelve- 
sided prisms, or in ibliated masses — usually 
associated Avith lolite in granite. 

Name. From ^Xw^o? green, and (piAXov, a 
leaf; in allusion to its colour and structure. 

Brit. Mus., Case 32. 

Chlorquecksilber, Berzelius. See Ca- 

Chlorsilber, Berzelius. See Kerargy- 

Chlorospinel, G. Rose. A grass- green 
Spinel from Slatoust in the Ural, in which 
a part of the alumina is replaced by per- 
oxide of iron. Streak yellowish-white. 
H. 8. S.G. 3-591 to 3-594. 

Comp. Mg (Al Fe). 

Analysis by G. Rose : 

Alumina . 

. 64-13 

Magnesia . 

. 26-77 

Peroxide of iron 

. 8-70 

Lime .... 

. 0-27 

Oxide of copper . 

. 0-27 


Becomes brownish -green when heated. 

BB with borax fuses easily to a bght- 
green glass, which is colourless when cold. 

Brit. Mus., C^ase 19. 

Chodneffite. See Cryolite. 

Chondrodite, d'Ohssnn. Rhombic; oc- 
curs in indistinct crystalline masses, or im- 
bedded grains of a wax-yellow or brown 
colour, having occasional but not very de- 
cided appearances of regular crystalline 
form. Lustre vitreous— resinous. Trans- 
lucent, Yields to the knife with difficulty. 
Streak white, or slightly yellowish or grey- 


ish. Fracture sub-conchoidal, uneven. Ac- 
quires resinous electricity by friction. 
H. 6 to 6-5. S.G. 3-12 to 3-19. 

Comp. Mg* Si with part of the oxygen 
replaced by fluorine, and part of the mag- 
nesia by protoxide of iron. 

Analysis of a reddish-yellow variety from 
Eden, near New York, by Thomson : 
Magnesia .... 54-64 

Silica 36-00 

Protoxide of iron . . 3-75 

Fluorine . . . . 3-97 
Water .... 1-62 


BB when strongly heated yields hydro- 
fluoric acid, loses its colour and fuses at the 
edges : with borax it fuses slowly but com- 
pletely, to a clear glass, tinged by iron ; but 
by interrupted blowing ov flaming, the glass 
becomes opaque and crystalline. 

Soluble in muriatic acid, with separation 
of gelatinous silica. 

Localities. — Scotch. Loch Ness, in gran- 
ular carbonate of lime, with Magnetic and 
Arsenical Pyrites. — bish. Near Gweedore, 
CO. Donegal, in crystalline Dolomite. — Fo- 
reign. The largest and most cr3'stalline 
masses occur a mile north of Sparta in New 
Jersey, and near Edenville in New York ; it 
is also met with massive and in grains, 
associated with Pargasite near Abo, in 
Pargas, Finland. Aker and Galsjo in Swe- 
den. Tabu in Wermland. Saxony. Ach- 
matowsk in the Ural, and at the mines of 
Schisminsk with red Spartite. 

Name. From xov^fo? a grain, in allusion 
to its granular structure. 

Brit. Mus., Case 58. 

M.F. G. Horse-shoe Case,Nos. 921, 921.* 

Chonikrite, v. Kohell. A variety of 
Pyrosclerite, with which it is associated, in 
Elba. Massive. Colour white with shades 
of yellow and grey. . Lustre glimmering 
or dull. Translucent: often only at the 
edges. Fracture conchoidal. H." 2 to 4. 
S.G. 2-91. 

Comp. Hj'drosilicate of alumina, inag- 

nesia, and lime. 5(Ca Mg Fe)2 Si + 2A1 

Si + 6H.=lime 12-85, magnesia 23 35, pro- 
toxide of iron 1*47, alumina 17-14, silica 
35-19, water 9-00 = 100-10. 
Analysis, by v. Kohell : 

Lime 12-60 

Magnesia .... 22-50 
Protoxide of iron . .1-46 

Alumina .... 17-12 


Silica 35-69 

Water 9-00 


BB fuses with tolerable facility to a grey- 
ish-white glassy with the evolution of bub- 
bles of gas ; with borax melts slowly to a 
globule covered with iron. 

Soluble in muriatic acid without gela- 

Locality. Elba, in irregular masses in 

Name. From %^v£'««, fusion, and xetro;, test, 
in allusion to its difference from some allied 
minerals with regard to fusibilitv. 
Brit. Mus., Cases 27—31. 
Cpirismatine, Germar. A mineral allied 
to Ozocerite, from a red argillaceous sand- 
stone in the coal formation at Wettin, near 
Halle. It is of an oil- green or yelloAvish 
colour, shining and translucent to trans 
parent. It becomes soft at 65° to 60° R, 
(156° to 167° F.) Burns with flame without 

Christiakite, Descloiseaux, The name 
given by Descloiseaux to the Harmotome 
from Stempel near Marburg, and small, 
colourless, translucent crystals from Iceland, 
referrible to a right rhomboidal prism. 
The crystals never occur detached, but al- 
Avays pressed closely together, forming mam- 
millary groups or radiating crests like 
certain varieties of Prehnite. Fragile. 
Easily scratches glass. S.G. 2-2. 
Analysis, from Stempel, by Genth : 

Silica 48-17 

Alumina .... 21-11 
Peroxide of iron . . . 0-24 

Lime 6-97 

Potash 6 61 

Soda 0-63 

Water . . . . . 16-62 


Localities. The Bay of Dyrefiord on the 
west coast of Iceland, in cavities in amyg- 

The name Christianite was also given by 
Monticelli to the Anorthite of Vesuvius, in 
compliment to Prince Christian of Den- 

Chromate of Iron, Phillips. See Chro- 
mic Iron. 

Chrohiate of Lead, Phillips. See Cko- 


Chromate of Lead and Copper, Phil- 
lips. See Vauqueli>sIte. 

Chrome Ochre, Hausmann, Nicol. A 
clayey substance, occurring in a pulverulent 




state, and in loose earthy masses of a bright 
^reen or j^ellowish-green colour. Opaque, 
dull. S.G. 2-7. 

Comp. (Al, -e-r, ?e) isi^ j ^Q^l rarely found 

Analysis from Silesia, by Zellner : 
Silica 68-50 

Oxide of chromium 

. 2-00 


. 30-00 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 3-00 

Water . . 

. 6-25 


BB infusible alone, but becomes paler in 
colour : with borax forms an emerald-green 

Localities. In Unst, one of the Shetlands, 
in a nearly pure state, in small fissures in 
Chromateof Iron. — Foreign. Creuzot (Saone- 
et-Loire) in France. Silesia. " Mortenberg 
in Sweden. Savoy and Piedmont in Ser- 
pentine. See also Chrome-Stone. 

Name. From x?^!^'^> colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 39. 

Chrome - stone. The name sometimes 
given to oxide of chrome or Chrome-ochre, 
when it is so intimately mixed with the rock 
in which it is contained as only to be se- 
parated from it by chemical means. Such 
mixtures are met with at Creuzot in France, 
Waldenberg in Silesia, Mortenberg in Swe- 
den and elsewhere. 

Chromeisenerz, iVaM»i«nw, G.Rose. See 
Chromic Iron. 

Chromeisekstein. See Chromic Iron. 

Chromic Iron, or Chrome-iron-ore. 
Cubical. Occurs crystallized in octahe- 
drons, the primary form, but commonly 
massive and disseminated in grains. Colour 
iron-black to brownish-black, with a shining 
subraetallic lustre. Opaque, Streak brown. 
Brittle. Fracture imperfect conchoidal, and 
uneven. Sometimes slightly magnetic. H. 
.5-5. S.G. 4-3. 

Comp. Fe -&r, or (Fe Mg) (^1, -^r) 
part of the protoxide of iron being replaced 
by magnesia, and part of the oxide of 
clu-omiam by alumina, and perhaps also by 
peroxide of iron. 

Analysis of crystallized Chrome-iron-ore 
from Baltimore, by Ahich : 

Magnesia .... 7-52 
Protoxide of iron . . 20-13 
Oxide of chromium . . 60-04 
Alumina .... 11-77 
Silica 0-36 



BB alone, infusible; but becomes mag- 
netic in the inner flame. With borax fuses 
with diffiulty, but completely, to a globule 
which, on cooling, exhibits the emerald- 
green of oxide of chromium, which becomes 
most apparent after heating the bead in the 
inner flame, especially with the addition of tin. 

Localities. Scotch. — Massive and crystal- 
lized in Unst, one of the Shetland Islands, 
at Swinaness, HaroldSwick, Balta Sound, 
Buness House, &c., and also in Fetlar, and 
some of the other smaller islands. Near Port- 
soy, Banffshire. Foreign. — Forms irregular 
veins, in Serpentine, at Cassin, Departement 
du Var, in France, (iulsen Mountains, near 
Kraubat, in Styria. Silesia and Bohemia. 
In the Eastern Urals. 

This ore is highly valuable as affbrding a 
pigment which is used in oil, porcelain, and 
water-colour painting. The ore used for 
this purpose is chiefly procured from Balti- 
more (in the Bare Hills), in the United 
States, Drontheim, and the Shetland Is- 

Brit. Mus., Case 39. 

31. P. G. Principal floor. Wall-cases 13 
(British) ; 19 (Foreign) ; 39 (Madras). 

Chromit, Haidinger, v. Kohell. Chro- 
mite, Brooke §' Miller. See Chromic Iron. 

Chromsaures Blei, v. Ltonhard. See 

Chrysoberyl. Rhombic. Colour aspara- 
gus-green, grass-green, oil-green, greenish- 
white, and yellowish-green ; sometimes with 
a bluish opalescence internally. Lustre vitre- 
ous. Streak white. Fracture conchoidal, 
uneven. Transparent to translucent. H. 8-5. 
S.G. 3-5 to-3-8. 

Fig. 115. 

5 S unaltered alone; with borax, or salt 

of phosphorus, fuses with great difficulty ; 
with soda, the surface is merely rendered 
Not acted upon by acids. 

Comp. (fie + Al^) or glucina 19-8, alu- 
mina 80-2=100. 

Analysis from Brazil, by Awdejew. (S.G. 
3-7337) : 

Alumina .... 78-10 

Glucina .... 17-91 

Protoxide of iron . . 4-47 


Analysis from the Ural, by Awdejt 


. 78-92 


. 18-02 

Protoxide of iron 

. 3-12 

Oxide of chrome . 

. 0-36 

Oxides of copper and lead 

. 0-29 


Analysis from Haddam, Conn., U. S., by 
Damour : 

Alumina .... 76*02 
Glucina . . . .18 41 
Protoxide of iron . . 4*61 
Quartz 0-49 


Localities. Irish. — Mourne Mountains, in 
granite. Foreign. — Brazil and Ceylon,, in 
rolled pebbles in the alluvial deposits of 
rivers. The Ural {Alexandrite) ; Slarchens- 
dorf, in Moravia. Haddam, Connecticut; 
and at Greenfield, near Saratoga, New 
York, U.S. 

Though not much worn in jewelrj', the 
Chrysoberyl, when transparent and of suf- 
ficient size to be cut in facets, forms a beau- 
tiful yellowish - green stone, which may 
almost vie with the yellow diamond in 
lustre, polish, and colour. It is,, however, 
ver}^ difiicult to work. The finest stones, 
if sufficiently deep, should be cut in pa- 
vilion facets, like a brilliant, and be made 
into rings, necklaces, &c., with or without 
diamonds. The smaller stones appear to 
the greatest advantage set round highly 
coloured gems, in circular ear-drops, &c. 
The thinner specimens should be cut in 
delicate steps. 

The name Cymophane is applied to those 
semi-transparent varieties which exhibit a 
peculiar bluish-white or milky opalescence 
floating in the interior of the stone. These 
Opalescent Chrysolites (as they are some- 
times termed), though less prized by jewel- 
lers than the more transparent varieties, 
often possess a very good colour, and when 
cut en cabochon make beautiful ring-stones. 
Chrysoberyl raa}^ be distinguished from 
Chrysolite, Moonstone, and opalescent 
Quartz (Cat's-eye) by its siiperior hardness, 
and from yellow Topaz by not being ren- 
dered electric by heat. 

The name Chrysoberyl is derived from 
X?'-"rk, golden, ^rii'-jy^'Mf, beryl; Cymophane from 
x.vfx,/x,^ a wave, and (po^ivM, to appear, in allusion 
to its floating light. 

The Chrysoberyl of the ancients was a 
different stone, probably the Chrysoprase of 
the moderns. 


Brit. Mus., Case 19. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, 859 to 864. 

Chrysocolla, Phillip.^, Haidinger. Oc- 
curs kidney-shaped, globular, stalactitic, 
massive, but oftener investing Malachite and 
other ores of copper. Colour verdigris- and. 
emerald-green, passing into sky-blue, and 
inclining to brown when impure. Lustre 
resinous, shining or dull. Opaque or slightly 
transparent. Streak white. . Eracture small 
conchoidal. H. very variable, 2 to 3. S.G. 

Comp. Cu Si + 2H, or oxide of copper 44-94, 
silica 34-83, Avater 20-23 = 100-00, oftener 
mixed with carbonate and oxide of copper. 
Analysis from Chili,, by Kittridge : 

Silica 40-09 

Oxide of copper . . . 27-97 
Protoxide of iron . , . 4*94 

Lime 1-49 

Magnesia. .... 0*78 
Water 24-73 


BB on charcoal does not fuse, but blackens 
in the outer and reddens in the inner flame. 
With borax melts to a green glassy globule, 
and is partly reduced. Soluble in muriatic 
acid, with separation of gelatinous silica. 

Localities. English. — Cornwall ; near the 
Lizard, in serpentine, associated with Na- 
tive Copper. Cu.mberiand. Westmoreland. 
Brada Head Mines, in the Isle of Man. 
iScofc)^. — Leadhills, in Lanarkshire. L'ish. 
— Knockmahon Mines; Audley Mine, co. 
Cork. Foreign. — The Kupferhiigel, near 
Kupferberg, in Bohemia, Spitz, in Austria. 
Libethen and Herrngrund, in Hungary. 
The Bannat. Ober and Nieder-Rochlitz, 
in Transylvania, in cr} stalline slates. Fal- 
kenstein and Schwatz, in the Tyrol. Saxony. 
Andreasberg, in the Harz. Siberia. Chili. 
South Australia, &c. 

.Name. From ^c^co?, gold, and ^oAAoj, glue, 

Chrysocolla may be' distinguished from 
Malachite by colour, conchoidal fracture, 
transparency, as well as by its very slight 
effervescence with acids. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

3L P. G. Principal floor. Wall-case 2 

Chrysolite, Phillips. The name given 
to the paler and more transparent crystals 
of Olivine ; the latter name being restricted, 
to imbedded masses or grains of inferior 
colour and clearness. Rhombic. Occurs 
massive and compact, or granular, usually 
in imbedded grains. Colour greenish-yel- 
low. Lustre brilliantly vitreous. Streak 
G 2 


Transparent. Fracture conchoidal. ! 



H. 6-5 to 7. S.G. 3 3514 to 3-44L 

Fi^. 116. 

Comp. E^ Si in which R may be Mg Fe 

Mn Ca alone or in combination. 

Analysis by Stromeyer (Oriental Chry- 
solite) : 

Silica 89-73 

Magnesia .... 50*13 
Protoxide of iron . . 9-19 

Alumina , . . . 0'22 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-09 
Oxide of nickel . . . 0-32 


Localities. Chrysolite occurs near Con- 
stantinople, at Vesuvius, and the Isle of 
Bourbon, in lava. Imbedded in Obsidian at 
Real del iMonte, in Mexico. In pale green 
transparent cr^'Stals among sand at Expailly, 
in Auvergne. It is also found in Upper 

It is usually found in angular or rolled 
pieces, rarely crystallized. The crystals 
(usually 8, 10, or 12-sided prisms) are vari- 
ously terminated, and often so compressed 
as to become almost tabular. They are 
generally very fragile, and therefore unfit 
ibr ornamental stones. 

As a gem, the Chrysolite is deficient in 
hardness and play of colours, but when the 
stones are large, of good colour, and -well 
matched, free from flaws, and well cut and 
polished, it is made into necklaces, hair- 
ornaments, &c., with good effect. From its 
softness, which is not much greater than 
that of glass, it requires to be w^orn with 
care, or it will lose its polish, and Avear off 
at the edges. The best mode of displaying 
the colours to the greatest advantage is to 
cut it in small steps. To give it the highest 
polish, a copper wheel is used, on which a 
a little sulphuric acid is dropped.' During 
the process, a highly suffocating smell is 
given out, produced probably by the action 
of the acid on the copper and the gem. 

The Chrysolite or Peridot has been con- 
founded not only with the Chrysoberyl but 
with the greenish-yellow varieties both of 
Sapphire, Topaz, Aquamarine, and even of 
Apatite and Idocrase. It is softer than 
Chrysoberyl, Sapphire, Topaz, or Aquama- 


rine, but harder and heavier than Apatite, 
while its infusibility and n on- electrical pro- 
perties, w^hen heated, distinguish it from 
green Tourmaline. 

The Chrysolite is supposed to have been 
the Topaz of the ancients. 

The name is derived from %«y<^«?, gold, and 
A/5or, stone, in allusion to its colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 925 to 

Chrysolite commune. See Olivine. 

Chrysolite du Cap. See Prehnite, 

Chrysophane, BreitJuLupt. A name given 
to Holmesite or Clintonite, the composition 
of which may be represented by the formula 


2(AlMg) + CaSi + H. 

Analysis by Richardson t 

Silica .... 

. 19 35 

Alumina . . • . 

. 44-75 


. 9-05 

Lime .... 

. 11-45 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 4-80 

Protoxide of manganese . 1-35 
Zirconia . . . .2-05 
Fluorine .... 0-90 
Water .... 4-55 

Name. From a:?'"^*?, 

i, and ipa/v^f, to 

Chkysoprasb (from %§y«-o=, gold, and 
TT^oca-ov, a leek), an apple-green or leek-green 
variety of Chalcedony, passing into Horn- 
stone and Chalcedony, and differing from 
the latter, apparenth% in little more than 
colour. It occurs massive, in thick plates; 
never crystallized. Fracture even, or 
finely splintery, or flat-conchoidal, with a 
slight degree of lustre. H. slightly less than 
that of Quartz. 

Analysis by Klaproth ; 

Silica 96-16 

Oxide of nickel . . . 1-00 
Lime ..... 0-83 


This stone is not held in much esteem as 
an article of jeAvelry in this country, but on 
the continent it is more highly valued, and 
is made into brooches, rings, bracelets, seals, 
&c., the larger pieces being converted into 
snuff-boxes, cane-heads, &c. The apple- 
green variety is the most valuable. It should 
be cut en cabochon, as it is spoiled if cut in 
facets, and appears to most advantage by 
candle-light. Chrysoprase is apt to lose its 
colour and to become dark and clouded if kept 

in a dry -warm situation, or if it belong ex- 
posed to the light of the sun ; but the colour 
ma}' be restored by keeping the stone in a 
damp place, or in Avet cotton or sponge, or 
even by dipping it into a solution of nitrate 
of nickel, which also improves the tints of 
inferior kinds. 

The kings of Prussia used only to allow 
the works Avhere it is found to be opened 
once in three years, and monopolised most 
of the finest specimens ; consequently, semi- 
transparent stones of a delicate colour, tit 
for setting in rings, formerly fetched very 
high prices in Berlin and Vienna. 

The common pe&ple of Silesia wear Chry- 
soprase round the neck as a chann against 

It is found at Kosemiitz, in Lower Silesia, 
imbedded in Serpentine, and associated with 
Opal, Quartz, and Chalcedony; also at 
Belmont's lead mine, St. Lawrence co., U.S., 

Chrj'soprase was probably the stone called 
Chrvsobervl by the ancients. 
BVit. Mus., Case 23. 

31. P. G. Upper Galleiy, Table- case A, 
in recess No. 138, 

Chrysopras-e Earth. An earthy form of 
Pimelite, from Silesia. 
Analysis, by Klaproih : 

Sihca .' . . . . 35-GO 
Protoxide of nickel . ,15-63 
Magnesia .... 1'25 
Peroxide of iron . . . 4-58 

Lime 0-42 

Alumina .... 5-00 
Water 38-. 2 

Name. From xi^^o;, gold, and vgot-crov, a 

Chrysotil, v. Kohel. An asbestiform 
variety of Serpentine, allied to Picrolite, of 
olive-oil, yellowish or brownish colour, and 
metallic or silky lustre. S.G. 2-2 to 2-49. 

Analysis from New Haven, U.S., by 
Brush : 

Silica 44-05 

Magnesia .... 3924 
Protoxide of iron . .2-53 
Water .... 13-49 

Localities. Anglesey. Reichenstein, in 

Silesia. Montville, Morris co., and New 

Haven, Connecticut, U.S. 

Chusite, Werner. An altered form of 

Chrysolite, occurring in small, uncrystal- 

line, wax-, or honey-yellow masses in the 

basalt of Limbourg. 



The name is derived from x^'-', to pour ; 
in allusion to its fusibility. 

CisroLiTE. A veiy soft, massive variety 
of Pyroxene, of a white or greyish colour. 
It is opaque, dull, and has an earthy frac- 
ture. Lustre of streak greasy. Yields to 
the nail and adheres to the tongue. Absorbs 
water but does not fall to pieces. Often in- 
closes small grains of Quartz. S.G. 2-18 to 

Comp. M, 4Si + 3H, or hydrated quadro- 
silicate of alumina. 

Ayiahjsis from Argentiera, bv Klaproth : 
Silica . . . . ' . 6300 
Alumina .... 23-00 
Peroxide of iron . . . 1'25 
Water ...... 12-00 


Locality. Very abundant in the island of 
Cimolos (now called Argentiera) in the 
Grecian Archipelago, b}^ the inhabitants of 
wliich it is used as a substitvrte for Fuller's 

Name. From Giniolos, and xWa;, stone. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1119. 

Cinnabar. Hexagonal. Primar}^ form 
an acute rhomiinhedron, in which it also 
occurs crystallized ; but the crystals are 
mostly modified by secondai-y planes : also 
granular, massive and forming superficial 
coatings. Colour passing from carmine, 
through cochineal-red to lead-grey. The 
red specimens are more or less translucent, 
and exhibit an adamantine lustre, but 
when grey it is opaque and has a metallic 
lustre. Sti-eak bright scarlet. Structure 
lamellar. Fracture subconchoidal, uneven. 
M. Descloiseaux has observed circular po- 
larization in Cinnabar; which previously to 
this discovery was supposed to be peculiar 
to Quartz. H. 2 to 2-5. S.G. 8 99. 

Fig. 117. 

Comp. Protosulphide of mercurj^ or HgS 
= mercury 86-21, sulphur 13-79 = 100, but 
it is sometimes rendered impure by the pre- 
sence of clay, bitumen, iron, &c. 

BB melts and is volatilized with a blue 
flame and sulphureous fumes. 

Localities. — The principal localities of this 
mineral are Idria in Carniola, and Alma- 
den near Cordova, in Spain, where it is 
usually massive. Cinnabar, associated with 


Eealgar, forms the chief produce of the Eu- 
genia mine, near Pola de Lena, in Asturia. 
The vein of ore is in Carboniferous Lime- 
stone. The tetrahedral pseudomorphous 
crystals afford on analysis, 

Mercury .... 85-12 
Sulphur .... 11-35 

(See Realgar). It is also abundant in 
China, and forms extensive mines at New 
Almaden in California, in a mountain south 
of San Jose, between Monterey and the Bay 
of San Francisco. 

Cinnabar is the ore from which the Mer- 
cury of commerce is obtained, by sublima- 
tion. The pigment vermilion is an artiticial 
Cinnabar, which is also prepared from the 
crude ore. 

The name is taken from the ancient Greek 
term used to denote the same substance, 
Kivvoi'^a.^i ; a word itself derived from ?ot?i?, 
heavy. The ancients derived their supplies 
from Spain and Colchis. 
Brit. Mus., Case 9. 

M. P. G. Principal floor. Wall-case 23 
(Spain), and 25 (Tuscany). 

CiNNAMON-STOXE, Phillips. A variety of 
Jime-Garnet of a clear cinnamon-brown 
tint, commonly occurring in masses which 
are full of fissures. Translucent, seldom 
transparent. Lustre vitreo-- resinous. Frac- 
ture flat-conchoidal. H. scratches Quartz 
with difficulty. S.G. 3-5 to 3-6. 
Anali/sis from Cevlon, by Gmelin : 
Silica . . ' . . . 40-01 
Alumina .... 23-00 
Peroxide of iron . . . 3-67 

Lime 30o7 

Potash 0-59 

Loss by heat . . . 33 

BB fuses with ebullition to a darkish- 
green glass : with borax fuses very readily 
to a transparent glass, more or less feebly 
coloured by iron. 

Localities. — Scotch. At the limestone 
Quarries at Glen Gairn in Aberdeenshire. — 
Irish. In large dodecahedral crystals of a 
rich cinnamon colour in a coarse crystalline 
Dolomite at Bun Beg near Gweedore ; at 
Kilranelagh, Wicklow, &c. Foreign. — In 
masses of considerable size in Ceylon, at 
Malsjo in Wermland, and at St. Gotthard ; 
also in the United States, in beautiful yel- 
low crystals (with Idocrase) at Parsons- 
field, Phippsburg, and Rumford in Maine ; 
in trapezohedrons at Dixon's Quarry, Wil- 
mington, Delaware; crystallized and mas- 


sive, at Amity, and on the Croton aqueduct, 
near Yonkers, in small rounded crystals and 
a massive variety, the latter when polished 
forming a beautiful gem. 

Name. From its resemblance in colonr to 
the spice called cinnam^on. 

When transparent and of good colour and 
size the Cinnamon-stone from Ceylon is 
used as a gem : most of the Hyacinths of 
commerce are in reality Cinnamon-stones. 

Brit. Mus., Case 35. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 903 and 

Circle Agate. Those kinds of Agate 
in which the stripes are arranged concen- 
trically round a central point. 

Citrine, or Citron. A name some- 
times given by lapidaries to limpid and 
transparent Rock Crystal of a lemon, gol- 
den, or wine-yellow colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 20. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 509. 

Ci-aussenite. A variety of Hydrargy- 
lite, from Mariana in Brazil, 

Clausthalite, Beudant. Cubical. Ge- 
nerally occurs in masses resembling a fine 
granular Galena, with a slight but peculiar 
tinge of blue. Lustre metallic. Opaque. 
Streak darker than the colour. Fracture 
granular and shining. TI. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 
7 to 8-8. 

Comp. Selenide of lead, orPbSe = sele- 
nium 27-6, lead 72-4=100 ; with part of the 
lead frequently replaced by silver. 

Analysis from Clausthal, by Stromeyer ; 
Selenium .... 28-11 

Lead 70-98 

Cobalt 0-83 

BB on charcoal it is quickly decomposed, 
and besides the usual phenomena arising 
from the presence of lead, it affords the 
odour of decayed horse-radish, and a red- 
dish-brown substance is deposited on the 
charcoal. Heated over a spirit lamp in a 
glass tube, closed at one end, the selenium al- 
most instantly sublimes, and forms a red 
ring within the tube, at the open end of 
which its odour is very perceptible. Oh 
heating the tube to redness, the ore fuses 
and the red ring partially disappears, a 
white crj^stalline deposit remaining. 

Localities. This is a rare mineral, occur- 
ring massive in veinsof Flaematite at Hartz- 
gerode, in the Harz ; at Clausthal, Tilke- 
rode, Zorge and Lehrbach ; at Reinsberg, 
near Freiberg in Saxony; and at the Rio 
Tinto mines, near Seville, in Spain. 
Brit. Mus., Case 4. 


Clay Iron-stone. A "massive form of 
Siderite rendered impure by an admixture 
of clay. Most of the iron of this country 
is extracted from this ore, which derives an 
additional value from its occurrence in 
layers and nodules in the Coal-measure 
strata. See Black Band. 

M. P. G. Principal floor, Wall-cases 50 to 
52 (British); 18 and 19 (Foreign); 41 
(Vancouver's Island; ; Upper Gallerv, Wall- 
case 43, Nos. 134 to 169, 179 to 182"; Wall- 
case 44. 

Clayite, W. J Taylor. A variety of 
Galena with about 25 per cent, of Arsenic, 
Copper, and Antimony, and apparently ana- 
logous with Steinmannite. Occurs in 
small cubical crystals, a combination of the 
tetrahedron with the dodecahedron ; also 
amorphous as a thin coating on a layer of 
Quartz. Colour and streak blackish-grey. 
Sectile. H. about 2-5. 

Comp. (Pb, -&U) (S, As, Sb). 

Lead 68-51 

Sulphur . . . .8-22 
Arsenic . . . . 9'78 
Antimony . . . . 6-54 
Copper . . . . . 7-67 
Silver trace 


BB on charcoal fuses easily, giving reac- 
tions for lead, arsenic, and antimony, and 
with soda a brilliant metallic globule which 
becomes lustreless on cooling. 

Locality. Peru. 

Name. After the Hon. J. R. Claj^ U.S. 
Minister in Peru, and J, A. Clay, of Phila- 

Cleavelandite, Brooke ^ Levy. See 
Albite. Named after Parker Cleaveland, 
Lecturer on Chemistry and Mineralogy, 
Bowdoin College, U.S. 

Brit. Mus., Case 30. 

Cleiophane, Nuttall. A white transpa- 
rent variety of Blende. It has been found 
at Fowey Consol Mines, in Cornwall. 

Clingmanite, Silliinan. See Margarite. 
The name was proposed (after that of the 
Hon. T. L. Clingman), for a distinct species 
in consequence of an incorrect determina- 
tion of the silica in the analj'sis. 

Clinochlore, W. p. Blake. Rhombic 
and hemihedral. Occurs in large crystals, 
having generally a rhombohedral aspect, 
and in plates with a micaceous structure. 
Colour olive-green with a somewhat pearly 
lustre. Transparent in thin plates. Some"- 
v/hat elastic. Optically biaxial ; in com- 
pound crystals there is a second pair of 



optical axes making 60° with the other. 
H. 2 to 2-25. S.G. 2-7. 

5R3 bi + 3Al Si + 12H= (|R5 + 

fit) Si + 1-5 H=silica 32-6, alumina 1/ 
magnesia 36 6, water 12-9 = 100. 

Analysis from Bavaria, by v. Kobell: 

Silica 33-49 

Alumina .... 15-37 
Peroxide of iron . . .2-30 
Oxide of chrome . . .0-55 
Magnesia .... 32-94 
Protoxide of iron . . 4"25 
- Water 11-50 


BB like Chlorite: exhibits traces of fu- 
sion at the edges. 

Localities. Lengast in Bavaria, in large 
crystals and plates, with Serpentine. Ach- 
matowsk in Siberia ; and in the United 
States near Westchester, and Unionville, 
Chester co., Pennsylvania. 

M. Descloiseaux refers to this species 
Tabergite, and the hexagonal Chlorite of 
Pfitsch, Pfunders, and Zillerthal in the 
Tj'^rol, which occurs in bipyramidal hexa- 
gonal compound crystals ; and the Chlorite 
of Traversella is also, according to him, a 
talcose Clinochlore. 

Clinoclase. Greg Sf I^ettsom. Arseniate 
of copper. Oblique. Rarely occurs distinctly 
crj^stallized in small oblique rhombic prisms. 
Colour "dark verdigris- green inclining to 
blue ; also dark-blue. Lustre pearly on 
cleavage planes, elsewhere vitreous to re- 
sinous. Streak verdigi-is-green. Translu- 
cent at the edges. H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 4-2 to 

Fig. \\i 

Fig. 119. 

Comp. Cu5 As + 3Cu H = oxide of copper 
62-7, arsenic acid 30-2, water 7-1 = 100. 
Analysis from Cornwall, by Rammehherg : 

Arsenic acid . 

. 29-71 

Phosphoric acid . 

. 0-64 

Oxide of copper 

. 60-00 

Silica . 

. 1-12 

Peroxide of iron 

. . 0-39 

Lime . 

. 0-50 

Water . . . 

. 764 




BB deflagrates, emits arsenical fumes, 
and fuses readily, yielding a globule of cop- 

Soluble in acids and ammonia. 

Localities. Near St. Day, Cornwall, at 
Ting Tang Mine, Huel Unity and Huel Gor- 
land, and at Bedford United Mines, near 
Tavistock. The crystals usually present a 
very dark blue colour and a brilliant lustre, 
but are rarely recognisable, being aggre- 
gated in diverging groups, or disposed in 
extremelv minute individuals in cavities of 
Quartz (Allan). 

Name. From ^a/voi, to incline, and «a«^, 
to break, in allusion to the oblique cleavage. 

Brit. Mus., Case 56. 

M. P. G. Principal floor, Wall-case 2 

CLi>rToxiTE, Mather. Generally occurs 
in tabular crystals, or in thinly foliated 
masses which are micaceous parallel to the 
base. Colour yellowish, reddish-brown or 
copper-red, with a pearly submetallic lus- 
tre. Streak white, or slightlv vellowish or 
greyish. Brittle. H. 4 to 5. ' S.G. 3 to 3-1. 

Comp. (iK3 + iit) 

Si Al§ + iH. 

Analysis, bv G. H. Brush : 

Silica ."' . 

. 20-24 


. 39-13 


. 0-75 

Lime . 

. 13-69 


. 20-34 

Soda . 

. 1-14 

Potash . 

. 0-29 

Peroxide of iron 

. 3-27 

AVater . 

. 1-04 


BB alone infusible ; but whitens, and with 
borax or soda forms a transparent pearl. 

Locality. Amit}-, New York, U.S. ; in 
limestone with Serpentine, associated with 
Hornblende, Spinel, Pyroxene and Gra- 

Name. After the Hon. De Witt Clin- 

Cloudy Chalcedony. Chalcedony dis- 
playing dark ana clouded spots in a pale grey 
transparent base. 

Cluthalite, Thomson. The mineral 
named Cluthalite by Thomson, which oc- 
curs in flesh-red, \'itreous crystals in amyg- 
daloid at the Kilpatrick Hills, is Anal- 
cime, with half of the soda replaced by prot- 
oxide of iron, and with a larger amount 
of water. H. 3-5. S.G. 2160. 

Analysis, hv Thomson : 

Silica . ' . .• . . 51-206 
Alumina .... 23-560 


Protoxide of iron 

. 7-306 

Soda .... 

. 5-130 

jMagnesia . 

. 1-233 


. 10-553 



Name. After Clutha, a name by which 
the valley of the Clj'de has been sometimes 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1185. 

Coal is vegetable matter which has become 
mineralized by certain chemical changes 
which it has undergone, and by subsequent 
solidification by compression under the 
weight of the strata which have been ac- 
cumulated above it since it was originally 
deposited. It appears to be composed of 
terrestrial and aquatic plants and trees, (the 
decay of which probably reduced them to 
peat,) which grew in a warm and moist 
climate of equable temperature, on the 
areas it now occupies, close to, or perhaps in, 
the margin of a shallow sea ; and the clay 
{Underclay) with the roots of plants {Stip- 
maria, §-c.) supporting each bed of coal, is the 
soil on which the vegetation grew of which 
it is formed. Each separate bed of coal, on 
this supposition, denotes the former exist- 
ence of an adjoining surface of land, on the 
depression of which beneath a sea of moderate 
depth, the vegetable matter growing upon 
it became covered up by a deposit of sedi - 
ment which in its turn, by the further 
deposit of sediment and oscillation of level, 
supported a fresh growth of vegetation. In 
this manner, by a series of depressions of mo- 
derate amount, each bed of coal was formed 
in succession, while its interstratification 
with beds of limestone, shale, clay, sandstone 
and ironstone indicates alternations of ma- 
rine, estuary andlagoon conditions. Although 
coal for the most part appears to have been 
formed in the above-mentioned manner, it 
is probable that other conditions may have 
occasionally prevailed, as for instance in the 
north of England and in the soutii of Russia, 
where some of the coal beds are stated to be 
apparently composed of the remains of 
broken and drifted plants carried into the 
sea by inundations, and the freshets of rivers. 

Coal is composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, 
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur, and earthy 
matter or Ash, in variable proportions. The 
greater the proportions of Carbon and Hy- 
drogen the better is the coal, while sulphur 
and ash tend to render the coal both un- 
pleasant to use, and prejudicial in its effects, 
especially in the smelting of iron and steel. 

Coals may be divided into two classes — 
bituminous and nonbituminous or Anthra- 

cite. These change gradually, and merge one 
into the other, and in the South Wales coal- 
field the bituminous coal passes into anthra- 
cite in a westerly direction. The conver- 
sion of the vegetable matter into coal was 
apparently produced by a kind of moist pu- 
trefaction, accompanied by the exclusion of 
all access of air. Under those circumstances 
the oxygen escaped in the form of carbonic 
acid, Avhile the hydrogen, being disengaged ' 
in the form of carburetted hydrogen, the 
carbon became in consequence more con- 
centrated. In this manner by the removal 
of all the hydrogen, bituminous coal be- 
comes converted into anthracite. S.G. 1"20 
to l'o9; mean S.G. of 31 samples 1"3. 

Analysis * from Graigola in S. Wales 
(S.G. 1-3) : 

Carbon .... 84-87 

Water .... 
Nickel, lime, 
Sulphuric acid 

- traces. 


Ash . 


Coke left by the Coal 85-5 per cent. 

The specific gravity of Coal varies from 
1-2 to 1*6. Thirty-one varieties examined 
by Sir Henry De la Beche and Dr. Lyon 
Playfair gave an average specific gravity 
of 1-3. See Albert Coal, A^^thracite, 
Coking Coal, Cannel Coal, Torbajxite, 

Cobalt Arseniate, Haiiy. See Ery- 


Cobalt Arsenical, Haiiy. See Sjial- 


Cobalt Bloom. See Ertthrine. 
Cobalt-coating is Cobalt-bloom con- 
taining some free arsenous acid. It is pro- 
duced by the weathering of Cobaltine on 
which it immediately rests, and may be re- 
garded as a mixture of Cobalt-bloom and 
arsenioiis acid, often with the addition of a 
small quantity of Cobalt-sulphate. Occurs 
botrj'oidal, reniform or massive ; scaly or 
earthy. Colour varying from peach-blos- 
som-red to pale-rose.' Opaque. 

Analysis -by Kersten, from the Wolfgang - 
Maassen mine at Schneeberg : 

Arsenous acid . . .51-00 
Arsenic acid . . . . 19-10 
Oxide of cobalt . . . 16-60 
Protoxide of iron . . 2-10 

* Report on the Coals suited to the Steam 
Navy, by Sir Henry T. De la Beche and Dr. Lyon 
Playfair ; Memoirs of the Geological Survey of 
Great Britain, vol. ii. part 2. 

Cobalt Ochre, 
Cobalt Oxide 

:,Nicol. V 

NOIR, Haiiy. C 

Localities. Schneeberg, and Annaberg, 
in Saxony. 
Brit. Mus., Case 56. 

Cobalt Crust. A name for earthy va- 
rieties of Ery thrine (Arseniate of Cobalt). 
Cobalt eclatant, Brochant. ( See Co- 
Cobalt Glance, Jameson. \ baltine. 
Cobalt-gris, Haiiy. See Cobaltine. 
Cobalt Kies, v. Leonhard. See Lin- 
Cobalt Mica. See Ertthrine. 

See Wad, 
or Earthy 
Cobalt Pyriteux, Necker ; Cobalt Py- 
rites. See LiNN.aEiTE. 

Cobalt- Scorodite. The name given by 

Lippmann to a mineral occurring in small 

bluish crystals, with Hypochlorite and 

Quartz, at Schneebft-g in Saxony. 

Cobalt Sulfure, Lucas. See Linnje- 


Cobalt Terredx rayonne rouge, 
Brochant. See Erythrine. 

Cobalt Vitriol. See Bieberite. 

CoBALTic Germinations, Kirwan. See 

Cobaltide, Leymerie. See Wad, or 
Earthy Cobalt. 

Cobaltine, Beudant, Haidinger. Cubi- 
cal. Occurs in the cube and its varieties ; 
its crystalhne forms resembling those of 
Iron Pyrites; the planes of the cube are 
generalh' striated, those of the modifications 
smooth. It also occurs arborescent, stalac- 
titic, botrj'oidal, and amorphous. Colour 
silver- or yellowish-white, with a tinge of 
red ; inclining to steel -grey, or greyish- 
black when much iron is present. Lustre 
metallic. Streak greyish- black. Brittle. 
Fracture uneven and lamellar. Yields with 
difficulty to the knife. H. b-b. S.G. 6 to 8-3. 

Fig. 120. Fig. 121. Fig. 122. 

Comp. (Co, Fe, Ni) As. 
^na/ys?s of massive Cobaltine from Schnee« 
berg, bv Hofmann : * 

Iron 11-71 

Copper ..... 13-95 

Kick el . 







BB on charcoal, it gives off copious arseni- 
cal fumes, and fuses to a white, brittle, 
metallic globule, which, after being roasted, 
imparts a blue colour to glass. 

Soluble in hot nitric acid, with separation 
of arsenious acid. 

Localities. Cornwall: Botallack Mine, 
in small particles, interspersed in reddish 
Quartz and Chlorite. Has been found at 
Dolcoath Mine, and was formerly worked 
at Huel Sparnon and the Wherry Mine. 
It is now worked at St. Austell Consols. 
Foreign. — In large, well-defined crystals at 
Tunaberg, Riddarhyttan and Kokensbo in 
Sweden. Modum and Skutterud in Nor- 
Tv^ay in mica-slate. "Wehna in Sweden. 
Querbach in Silesia. Slegen in Westphalia, 

This ore of Cobalt and Smaltine furnish 
the greater portion of the Smalt of com- 
merce, which is employed in glass and 
porcelain pamting, and for imparting a blue 
tint to paper or linen. It is prepared by 
roasting the ore, and then melting the oxide 
of cobalt so pt'oduced, in certain propor- 
tions, with pure potash and pounded 
quartz, which is afterwards ground to 
powder and carefully washed : for the most 
delicate purposes the oxide of cobalt is 
employed as a pigment. 

Name. Kobolds in German are malicious 
spii-its haunting mines, and delighting in 
mischief. The metal was named after them, 
because its occurrence is unfavourable to 
the ores more particularly sought for. 

Brit. Mus., Case 12. 

31. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases 9 
(British); 20 (Foreign). 

CocciNiTE, Haidinger, is found in red- 
dish-brown coloured particles on selenide of 
mercur}^ at Casas Viejas, in Mexico. It 
has an adamantine lustre, and resembles 
Cinnabar, but the streak is paler than in 
the latter mineral. 

Comp. Protiodide of mercury or Hg,I 
^mercury 44-1, iodine 55-9 = 100'0. 

BB fuses and easily sublimes. 

"It forms a magnificent water colour, 
known by the name of Scarlet, which, 
however, fades ver}' quicklj' when exposed 
to light, and at the same time destroj's the 
colour of vermilion which mav be mixed 


with it. It is likewise used in calico-' 
printing."— Gmelin, 

CoccOLiTE, Jameson, is of two kinds, 
white and green. Both are granular, friable 
varieties of PjToxene, the former of which ^ i 
may be referred to the sub-species Diopside.B I 
Coccolite consists of small, translucent 
granules of irregular shapes, and of various 
shades of green, which are very slightly 
coherent, but sutficiently hard to scratch.^ jj 
glass. Lustre vitreous. Fracture lamel- B ! 
lar. S.G. 3-3. '' 

BB infusible alone. With carbonate of 
soda it melts to an olive-green, vesicular, 
slaggy glass; and Avith borax, to a pale 
yellow semitransparent glass. 

It is chiefly found at the iron mines of i 
Sudermannland and Nerika in Sweden, and 
of Arendal in Norway. 

Name from xcxy^o;, a grain. 

Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

Cochineal Red Coppek OpvE, Kirwan. 
See Red Copper, Tile Ore, &c- 

Cockle, Dufrenoy. See ToukjMAline. 

Cock's-comb Barytes. A variety of 
Barytes formed of an aggregation of small 
greyish-white and opaque cr^'stals. It is 
found in Cumberland, crystallized at Car- 
rock Fells, and in curved plates at Patter- 
dale : also in Derbyshire and Lancashire. 

Cock's-comb Pyrites. A form of Mar- 
casite composed of a comb -like aggregation 
of crystals similar in shape to Jig. 123. Oc- 
curs in heaps of refuse (attle-heaps) at Huel 
Crebor, near Tavistock, in Devonshire ; the 
Harz, &c. 

Brit. Mus. Case 6. 

Fig. 123, 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 151. 

Cog-avheel-ore, Nicol. See Radelerz. 

Coking Coal. The name given to those 
kinds of Coal which can be used for making 
Coke. For that purpose they should con- 
tain little or no sulphur. 

CoLESTiN, Haidinger, Hausmann, Nau- 
mann, v. Kobell. See Celestine. 

CoLLYRiTE is a ver}"" soft, and white 
clay-like compound, with a glimmering 
lustre, unctuous to the touch, and adhering 
strongly to the tongue. H. 1 to 2. S.G. 
2 to 2-15. 

Comp. Hydrated Disilicate of Alumina, 

or A12 Si + 10 H. 


Analysis, from Ezquerra, by Berthier : 

Alumina .... 44-5 

Silica 15-0 

Water 40-5 


BB infusible. In water becomes trans- 
parent, and crumbles to pieces : dissolves in 
acids, and the solution yields a jelly on 

Localities. Near Schemnitz in Hungary, 
and Wissenfels in Saxony, in porphyry. 
Ezquerra in the Pyrenees. 

Name, From ;coAA'^, glue; from its gela- 
tinous appearance. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

CoLOPHONiTB. The varieties of iron- 
lime Garnet which have a resinous lustre. 
S.G. 3-896. 

Fig. 124. 

Localities. Arendal in Norway. United 
States ; in New York, at Roger's Rock ; 
and at Willsboro', Essex co., forming a 
large vein in gneiss, associated with Tabular 
Spar and green Coccolite : also at Lewis. 

Name. From KoXo<poj)i, a city of Ionia 
whence resin was obtained; in allusion to 
the resinous aspect of the mineral. 

Brit. Mus., Case 36. 

CoLUBRiNE, French. See Potstone. 

CoLUMBATE OF Iron. See Tantalite. 

CoLUMBiTE, Hatchett. Rhombic: it oc- 
curs in single crystals and in small crystal- 
line masses ; the crystals are mostly incom- 
plete, but possess the general form" of right 
rhombic prisms, striated longitudinally, 
with the lateral edges truncated, and vari- 
ously modified. Colour greyish or brownish- 
black, often iridescent, with a dark brown 
streak. Opaque with metallic lustre. 
Scratches glass, and gives sparks with 
steel. Brittle. Fracture sub-conchoidal, 
and imperfectly laminar. H. 6. S.G. 5-4 
to 6-4. 

Fig. 125. 


Analysis, from Evigtok : 

Columbic acid (Niobic acid) 78*74 
Protoxide of iron . . . 16-40 
Protoxide of manganese . 5-12 
Oxide of tin and tungstic acid 0-16 

Comp. Columbate of protoxide of iron 
aad of manganese or (Fe, Mn) -G-'b'^. 

This analysis is almost identical with those 
of specimens from Middletown, U.S., by H. 

BB alone, on charcoal, infusible ; but it 
becomes somewhat rounded at the corners ; 
dissolves slowly in borax, to which it im- 
parts a blackish-green colour. 

Localities. The finest crystals have been 
found in a felspar-quarry at Middletown ; 
one of them, described by Professor Johnston, 
weighed 1 4 lbs., another 6| lbs. It has also 
been met with at Chesterfield and Beverly 
in Massachusetts, in granite ; and at Had- 
dam in Connecticut, where it was first dis- 
covered, it occurs in a granite-vein, with 
Beryl, Chrysoberyl and Automolite. The 
Colurabite of Bodenmais in Bavaria is also 
found in granite associated with Beryl. 
The most beautiful variety of this mineral 
hitherto procured, remarkable for its well- 
developed and highly-modified crystalliza- 
tion, is that from Evigtok, in the fiord of 
Arksut in Greenland. At first it appears to 
resemble certain kinds of Tinstone, the crys- 
tals being either loose or enveloping pieces 
of decomposed Felspar, or covering the sides 
of small cavities in the latter mineral. It 
does not exhibit the beautiful iridescence of ■ 
the American Columbite. 

Name. The name Colurabite was be- 
stowed on this mineral from its having been 
first discovered in America. 

Brit. Mus., Case 38. 

Columnar Heavy Spar. This mineral 
(which is the Stangenspath of Werner) oc- 
curs crystallized in yellowish, milk-, greyish- 
and greenish- white, acicular, oblique rhom- 
bic prisms, which are generally ill-defined 
and aggregated laterally into columns, and 
inter.sect one another. It has a shining 
pearly lustre, is translucent, and easily 
frangible — breaking with a straight foliated 
fracture. It is found in metallic veins at 
Freiberg in Saxon3^ It may be distin- 
guished from white -lead ore (Cerusite), to 
which it bears a resemblance, by its pearly 
lustre, foliated fracture and specific gravity, 
which is not above 4-5, while that of white- 
lead ore is 6-55, its small conchoidal frac- 
ture, and its lustre adamantine. 

Combustible Copper Ore, Kir wan. 
Bituminous Shale or Coal impregnated with 


Common Felspar. See Okthoclase. 

Common Jade. See Nephrite. 

Common Mica. See Muscovite. 

Common Opal. The name applied to 
the common varieties of Opal which do not 
exhibit the peculiar play of colours termed 

Localities. Cornwall : at Huels Stennaek, 
Spinster, Buller, Damsel, Poligine, Rose- 
■warne, &c., and at Botallack Mine, Sc. 
Just. Abundantly at the Giant's Cause- 
way in Ireland, the Hebrides, Faroe, Ice- 
land and Hungary. A wax-yellow or 
greyish-green variety, sometimes white, 
occurs in Smyrna Harbour, (within half a 
mile, in a S.VV. direction, of the watering- 
place at Vourla), with yellow Jasper and 
Hornstone, imbedded in a low ridge of 
compact pale yellow or greyish-white lime- 

Common Opal is sometimes made into 
pins, cane-heads and other ornaments. 

Common Salt, Dana. See Rock Salt. 

Common Serpentine. See Serpentine. 

Common Spar, Kirwan. Calcareous 

Compact Bitumen, Phillips. See As- 

Compact Mineral Pitch, Kirwan. See 

CoMFOSTELLA Hyacinth. Quartz cry- 
stals coloured red by an admixture of 
ferruginous clay found at Compostella. 

CoMPTONiTE, Brewster. iJhombic : is 
found in white translucent cr3'stals, the 
primary form of which is a right rect- 
angular prism, of which the base is not 
square. Lustre vitreous. Strealv white. 
Fracture small-conchoidal and uneven. H. 
6 to 5-5. S.G. 2-35 to 2-4. 

Fig. 126. 

Analysis, from Seeberg, by Rammelsbercf t 

Silica 38-74 

Alumina .... 30-84 

Lime 13-43 

Soda 3-85 

Potash 0-54 

Water 13-10 

BB froths up slight!}', becomes opaque, and 
fuses imperfectly to a vesicular glass. 

Comptonite is mereb' a variety of Thom- 
sonite, and the name was originally given 


to the specimens of the latter mineral which 
occur in the vesicular lavas of Vesuviius. 

Localities. Renfrewshire, at Kilmalcolm , 
and Port Glasgow. In basalt at the Pflaster 
Kante, near Eisenach, in Saxe Weimar. 
Bohemia in Clinkstone at Seeberg and Hau- 
enstein. The Cyclopean Isles, in SicUy, with 
Analcime and Phillipsite. 

Name. After Lord Compton, by whom it 
was first distinguished. 
Brit. Mus., Case 27. 

CoMPTONinc Kouphone Spar, Haidin- 
ger. See Comptonite. 

CoNARiTE, Breithaupt. Occurs in small 
grains and crystals, with one perfect clea- 
vage. Colour yellowish, pistachio- and 
siskin-green ; also olive-green. Translucent 
in thin lamellae. Streak siskin-green. H. 
2-5 to 3. b.G. 2-459 to 2-49. 

Locality. Rottis in Voigtland, with 

Name. From x,ova.e,oi, evergreen. 
CoNDRODiTE, Haily. See Chondrodite. 
CoNDURRiTE, Faraday. Is an arsenite of 
copper derived from the oxidation or wea- 
thering of the arsenide Cu^ As (Domeykite). 
It occurs mostly in no^lular masses, ex- 
ternally of a brownish-black colour (some- 
times with a tinge of blue), and earthy ; 
internally on a fresh surface exhibiting a 
tin-white tarnish. Also black and soft, 
soiling the fingers. Yields to the knife, 
producing a metallic -looking surface, nearly 
of a lead-grey colour. Brittle. Fracture tlat- 
conchoidal. H. 3 to 3-5. S.G. 4-5. 

Comp. 6Cu As + 4H = copper 70-11, ar- 
senic 29-88-100. 

Analysis, bv J. Blyth : 


. 60-21 


. 19-51 


. 0-25 


. . 2-33 


. 13-17 


. 1-62 

Hvdrogen . 

. 2-41 


. 0-06 

Water . 

. 2-41 

BB on charcoal gives off fumes of arsenious 
acid, and yields a metallic globule of the 
colour of copper. In a tube affords fumes of 
arsenious acid and water, and with soda and 
borax yields a globule of copper. 

Not soluble in muriatic acid. 

Localities.— English. Cornwall at Gon- 
durrow Mine, and at Carn Brea Mines, near 
Redvuih.— Foreign. The Cordilleras of Co- 
piapo, Chili, S. America. 

Brit. Miis., Case 4. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 2 
Confetti di Tivoli. See Dragees de 


CoNFOLENsiTE, A Variety of Hallojrsite 
from Confolens, Dept. of the Charente. 

CoNiCHALCiTE. A reniform and massive 
mineral, nearly allied to Olivenite and Vol- 
borthite, of a pistachio-green colour, in- 
clining to emerald -green. Subtranslucent. 
Streak same as the colour. Brittle. Frac- 
ture splintery. H. '4-5. S.G. 4-12. 

Comp. (Cu, Ca)4(P' As) + 1-5 H, with 
part of the phosphoric acid replaced by 
vanadic acid. 

Analysis by Fritzsche : 

Arsenic acid . . . S0"68 

Phosphoric acid . 

Vanadic acid 

Oxide of copper . 


Water . 

Locality. Probably Hinajosa de Cordova, 
in Andalusia, Spain. * 

CoNiSTONiTE, Greg. Rhombic. Colour- 
less. Transparent to translucent. Lustre 
vitreous. Slightly sectile. Fracture small- 
conchoidal, uneven. S.G. 2*052. 

Comp, Hydrated oxalate of lime, Ca -C- + 


Ayialysis : 

Oxalic acid . , . 28-017 

Lime 21-055 

Snda and magnesia . . 0-822 
Water .... 49-155 

Locality. Coniston in Cumberland. 
Conistonite has been shown to be a result 
of accidental admixture. 

CoNiTE, Frieslehen. A variety of Dolo- 
mite, of a flesh -red colour, coated'externally 
with Iron-ochre. Opaque. Brittle. Frac- 
ture fine-grained or imperfect conch oidal. 
Scratches glass. S.G. 3. 

Comp. CCa + 3MgC. 

Analysis from Meissner, by John : ' 
Carbonate of lime . .28-0 
Carbonate of magnesia . 67-4 
Carbonate of iron . .3-5 
Water 1-0 

Localities. It occurs amorphous, massive, 


and in crusts at Down Hill, co. Derry, in 
Ireland ; in Iceland ; on the Meissner in 
Hessia, and in Saxony. 
Brit. Mus., Case 49. 

Fig. 127. 

CoKNELLiTE, Brooke §" Miller. Hexagonal. 
Occurs in smalt-blue to deep Berlin-blue 
hexagonal prisms with truncated edges. 
Lustre vitreous. Translucent. 

Comp. Supposed, according to Connell, to 
be a compound of chloride and sulphate of 
copper, and a little water. 

This is an extremely rare mineral, stated 
to have been found in 'Cornwall at Huel 
Providence, and at Carharrack in St. Day. 

Brit. Mus., Case 56. 

CoPALE FossiLE, Dufrenoy ; or Cop aline, 
Hausmann, Nicol. A fossil resin. Is found in 
irregular pieces of a pale yellowish and dirty- 
brown colour, resembling the resin copal in 
colour, lustre, transparency, hardness, and 
difficult solubility in alcohol. Yields easily 
to the knife. Brittle. H. 2-5. S.G. 1-04. 

Comp. 40C, 32H, O. 

Analysis, from High gate, by Joimson : 
Carbon .... 85-408 
Hydrogen .... 11-787 
Oxvgen .... 2-669 
Ashes .... 0-136 


Emits an aromatic and resinous odour 
when broken and heated. Melts easily to 
a limpid fluid. Volatilizes in the air by a 
gentle heat, and burns with a clear yellow 
flame and much smoke, leaving vaj-y little 
residue. Slightly soluble in alcohol. 

Locality. Highgate Hill, K of London, 
in London Clay. 

Another resin (from the walls of a trap- 
dj'ke, at an old lead mine in Northum- 
berland, called Settling Stones), has been de- 
scribed by Johnston as resembling Copal ine 
in external appearance, but consisting of 
carbon 85-133, hvdrogen 10-853, ashes 3*256 
-99-242, or nearly 4C, 3H. 

CopiAPiTE, Haidinger. Occurs in small 
yellow grains, sometimes composed of deli- 
cate hexagonal tables ; also fibrous and in- 
crusting. Translucent, with a pearly lustre. 

Comp. F^e2is5 + 18H. 

Analysis of foliated specimen, by H, Rose : 


Sulphuric acid 
Peroxide of iron . 

Silica .... 
Water .... 








Locality. Incrusting Coquimbite in the 
district of Copiapo, in Chili. 

Copper-black, Jameson. See Black 

coppkrdiaspore. see kupferdiaspore. 

Copper Emerald, Jameson. See Diop- 


Copper Froth, Dana. See Tyrolite. 

Copper Glance, Jameson. Ehombic : 
Occurs crystallized in regular six - sided 
prisms, mostly modified on the terminal 
edges, sometimes on the lateral; and in 
acute and obtuse double six-sided pyramids, 
with triangular planes; massive, and occa- 
sionally in pseudomorphous crj'stals. Colour 
and streak blackish lead-grey, often tar- 
nished black, and occasionally iridescent. 
Lustre metallic. Structure perfectly lamel- 
lar, sometimes sectile and soft. Eracture 
conchoidal. Slightly malleable, and much 
more easily fusible than copper. H. 2-5 to 3. 
S.G. 5-5 to 5-8. See 2S' ail-headed Coppek- 


Fig. 128 

Fig. 129. 

Comp. Bisulphide of copper or -G-u S = 
sulphur 20, copper 80 = 100. 

Analysis from the United Mines of Corn- 
wall, by Thomson : 

Copper 77-16 

Sulf)hur .... 20-62 
Iron 1-45 

BB on charcoal melts very easily after 
the sulphur is driven off, and yields a glo- 
bule of copper covered with a blackish 
scoria. Forms a blue solution in ammonia. 
Found in Cornwall, the finest specimens 
in the neighbourhood of St. Just; also in 
Ayrshire ; in the porphyritic district of Bar- 
rack Mountain, in Ulster, and massive at 
Kenmare Mines, Kerry. The compact and 
massive varieties occur in Siberia, Hessia, 
Saxon}^, and the Bannat, and at the mines 
near Angina, in Tuscany, 

Copper Glance is met with in veins and 


beds accompanied by other ores of copper, 
and is highly prized by the miner; but it 
is rather a scarce ore of copper, and does not 
occur in very great abundance, although it 
is found in many different places. 

It may be distinguished from Red Silver- 
ore (Pjn-argyrite) by the colour of its streak, 
which resembles that of the mineral, while 
the streak of Pyrargyrite is a fine cochineal- 
red. From Silver Glance it may be distin- 
guished b}' many characters- especially by m 
its inferior tenacity ; from Bournonite and * 
Grey Copper by its comportment before the 
blow-pipe, and the green solution it affords 
with nitric acid. Copper Glance is sectile, 
but Grey Copper is brittle. 

Brit. Mus., Case 7. 

M. F. G Principal Floor, Wall-cases 2 
and 7 (British); 17 (Foreign). 

Copper Green, Jameson. See Chryso- 


Copper Mioa, Jameson. See Chalco- 


Copper Nickel, Allan, Jameson. Hexa- 
gonal, and isomorphous with Breithauptite. 
It rarely occurs crystallized, but reticulated, 
dendritic, and botryoidal ; most commonly 
massive. Colour copper-red, acquiring a 
grey or blackish tarnish by exposure. Lus- 
tre metallic. Streak pale brownish-black. 
Emits an arsenical odour when struck with 
steel. Yields to the knife with difficulty, 
and is brittle. Fracture imperfect conchoidal, 
or fine-grained uneven. H. 5 to 5o. S.G. 
6-6 to 7-6. 

Comp. Di-arsenide of nickel or Ni^, As = 
nickel 44-1, arsenic 55-9 = 100; with small 
quantities of Sb, Co, Pb, Fe, and S. 

Analysis from Balen, in the Pyrenees, by 
Berthier : 

Nickel ..... 33-67 

Iron 1-43 

Antimony .... 28-37 
Arsenic .... 33-67 

Sulphur . . . .2-86 

BB on charcoal emits strong arsenical 
fumes, and fuses to a silver-white, brittle 

Soluble in nitric acid, with separation of 
arsenious acid ; more readily in nitro-muri- 
atic acid. 

Copper Nickel generally accompanies 
ores of cobalt, bismuth, silver, and copper. 
It is found in Cornwall, at Pengelly Mine, 
St. Teath ; at Huel Chance, St. Austell, and 
at Fowey Consols Mine; also in Norway 
and Sweden ; Koliwan, in Siberia ; Andreas- 
berg, in the Harz ; Schneeberg, Annaberg, 


Freiberg, in Saxony ; Querbach, in Silesia ; 
Joachimstahl, in Bohemia ; Saalfield, in 
Thuringia ; in Swabia, Styria, Hessia. Alle- 
niont, in Daupbine; and Aragon, in Spain. 

Copper Nickel may be distinguished from 
copper, to which it bears a striking resem- 
blance, by its brittleness. The name is de- 
rived from its copper-red colour, and its 
constituent parts. 

Brit. Mus., Case 4. 

M. P. G. Principal FlooV, Wall-cases 9 
(British) ; 20 (Foreign). 

Copper Pyrites, Jameson, Phillips. See 

Copper Vitriol, Jameson. 



Copper Ura^s^ite, Naumann. See Chal- 

Copperas, Dana. Oblique: primary 
form an oblique rhombic prism. It occurs 
massive, pulverulent, botryoidal, reniform, 
stalactitic, and crystallized. Colour various 
shades of green, but generally of a yellow 
or yellowish -brown colour externally. Trans- 
lucent. Lustre vitreous. Streak wbite. 
Taste metallic and astringent. Brittle. 
Fracture conchoidal. H. 2. S.G. 1*83. 

Fig. 131. 

Comp. Heptabydrated protosulpbate of 

iron or Fe S + 7 H = sulphuric acid 28-9, pro- 
toxide of iron 25-7, water 45-4 = lOO'O. j 

BB on charcoal, becomes magnetic ; with , 
borax affords a green glass. On exposure i 
to the air, becomes covered with a yellow j 
powder, which is sulphate of peroxide of iron. ! 

Soluble in 1-6 parts of cold, and 0-3 of I 
boiling water, and the solution turns black I 
on the addition of tincture of galls. I 

This salt is generally produced b}' the de- 
.composition of Iron Pyrites ; and in Great | 
Britain is found in Lower Bagshot Clays in } 
Branksea Island, in Dorsetshire ; in Fullers \ 
Earth at Widcombe, near Bath ; in Alum- 
shale at Whitby, in Yorkshire; and Hurlet, 
near Paisley ; at Castleton, in Derbj'shire, 
in small crystals ; and in some of the 
Gwennap Mines in Cornwall. It also occurs 
in the Rammelsberg Mine, near Goslar, in 
the Harz ; at Giesbilbl ; near Bodenmais, 
in Bavaria ; at Schwartzenberg, in Saxony ; 
and Schemnitz, in Hungary, and in the 
United States at Copperas Mount, a few 
miles east of Bainbridge, Ohio. 

Copperas is employed in dyeing and tan- 


ning, in the manufacture of writing-ink, of 
Prussian blue, and sulphuric acid The re- 
sidue of the latter process (colcothar of iron) 
is used as a red paint, and, when washed, for 
polishing glass, steel, &c, (See Vitriolite.) 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 233. 

CoppERASiNE. The name proposed by 
Prof. C. U. Shepard for a hydrated ferrous 
cuprous, and ferric sulphate from Ducktown 
copper mine, in Eastern Tennessee. 

CooEiMBiTE, Brooke §- 3Iiller, Dufrenoy. 
Hexagonal : occurs in prisms, with the ter- 
minal edges deeply replaced, and in fine 
granular masses. Colour violet-white, j-el- 
lowish, or brownish. Fracture conchoidal. 
Taste astringent. H. 2 to 2 5. S.G. 2 
to 2-1. 

Comjp. Tersulphate of iron, or Fe feS + 9 

H = peroxide of iron 28-5, sulphuric acid 

42-7, water 28-8 = 100-0. 
A.nalysis by H. Rose : 

Peroxide of iron . . . 24'1 1 

Alumina .... 0-92 

Sulphuric acid . . . 43'55 

Lime 0-73 

Magnesia .... 0*32 

Silica 0-31 

Water 30-10 

Dissolves in muriatic acid or in cold 
water, with the exception of the silica ; the 
latter solution deposits a large quantity of 
peroxide of iron on boiling. 

Coquimbite appears to have been pro- 
duced by the weathering of Iron Pyrites. It 
is found in crystals, and massive, with other 
ores of iron, in a felspathic rock, in the pro- 
vince of Coquimbo, about half a day's 
journey from Copiapo, in Chili. It also 
forms the greater part of a large hill near 
Calama in Bolivia. 

CoRAOiTE, Leconfe. An amorphous mine- 
ral, resembling Pitch-blende, of a pitch- 
black colour. H. 3. 

Analysis by J. D. Whitney : 

Peroxide of uranium . . 72*60 
Oxide of lead . . . 6-56 

Lime 5-99 

Peroxide of iron . . . 2-74 
Alumina . . . . 1-10 

Silica 5-33 

Water 5-68 

BB gives the action of uranium with the 
fluxes. On account of the read}' solubility 


in acid, the uranium is supposed by Mr. 
Whitney to be in tlie state of peroxide in- 
stead of protoxide as in Pitch-blende. 

Coral Ore. A variety of Hepatic Cin- 
nabar, from Idria, in Carniola, composed of 
curved lamellar concretions, with the form 
and apparent structure of fossilized shells. 

Brit. Mus., Case 9. 

CoRALiKERZ, Werner. 

CoRDiEKiTE, Dufrenoy. The name given 
by Haiiy to lolite, in honour of Cordier, the 

CoKiNDON, Haiiy. See Corunduji. 

Corn ALINE, Brochant. Carnelian. 


name given by lapidaries to clear trans- 
parent varieties of Carnelian of a dark red 
colour, and held in most esteem in conse- 
quence of the i-ichness of their colour, and 
their hardness, which renders them suscep- 
tible of a high polish. They are found in 
the older rocks, and are chiefly brought 
from Surat, in India. 

Corneous Lead Ore, Jameson. See 

Corneous Manganese, v. Leonhard. 
See Rhodonite. 

Corneous Mercury, Jameson. See 

Corneous Silver-ore, Kirwan. See 

Cornish Diatmond. The true Cornish 
Diamond is a peculiar variety of Quartz, 
differing in some respects in its crystalline 
form ; it is usually covered with an opaque 
coating of silica. These crystals Avere found 
abundantly some years since in St. Just, 
and at some of the mines in St. Agnes ; 
they are qow very rarely found : but Rock 
Crystals are sold as Cornish Diamonds. These, 
De la Beche says, which are " commonly 
known as Cornish diamonds, are suflB.ciently 
transparent to be cut and set in brooches, 
seals, and other personal ornaments, though 
far more rarely now than formerly, when, 
judging from old jewelry preserved in some 
Cornish families, they would appear to have 
been very often employed for these purposes. 
We have seen very clear crystals from 
thence of the usual form (a hexagonal 
prism terminated by a hexagonal pyra- 
mid), about three inches high and one inch 
and a half thick. Cornish diamonds would 
appear to have been esteemed and used for 
personal ornauiehts in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, for Carew notices them, and ob- 
serves that, though ' in blacknesse and in 
hardnesse they come behind the right ones, 
yet I have knowne some of them set on so 
good a foile, as at first sight they might ap- 

pose a not unskilfull lapidarie.' (Survey of 
Cornwall, 1602, reprint of 1769, p. 7.) The 
violet Rock Crystal, or Amethyst, seems 
scarce; we have, however, seen a few 
Cornish specimens, and among them some 
which might have been advantageously 
employed for personal ornaments if they 
had not been more precious as mineralogi- 
cal specimens." (Report on Cornwall, 
Devon, and W. Somerset, by Sir H. T. 
De la Beche, p. 496.) 

CoR^^SH Tin-ore, Jameson. See Wood 

Cornwallite, Zippe. Amorphous. Colour 
blackish or verdigris- green. Fracture con- 
choidal, H. 4-5. S.G. 4-16. 

,Comp. Arsenate of copper, or Cu5As + 
suboxide of copper 55-37, arsenic acid 
32-07, water 12-56 = 100. 

Analysis, mean of two, by Lerch : 
Arsenic acid . . . . 30-21 
Phosphoric acid . . . 2'IG 
Oxide of copper . . . 5461 
Water 13-02 

BB on charcoal gives off fumes of 
arsenic, and yields a globule of copper en- 
veloped in a brittle crust. 

Locality. Cornwall: in small botryoidal 
or disseminated masses of Olivenite. It 
may be readily distinguished from Mala- 
chite, by not efferverscing with acids. 

CoRUNDELLiTE, SilUman. A name given 
to a supposed variety of Margarite, founded 
on an incorrect determination of the silica 
in the analyses of that mineral. 
CoRUNDiTE. See Corundum. 
CoRUNDOPHiLLiTE, Shepard. Oblique. 
Colour and streak dark leek-green passing 
into grey and greenish black, with a pearly 
lustre. Lamellar; thin laminae flexible, 
but less so than Talc. Brittle. 
Analysis, by Shepard : 

Silica 34-75 

Protoxide of iron . . .31-25 
Alumina .... 8-55 
Alkalies and loss . . . 20-00 
Water 5-47 

BB alone, instantly blackens and melts at 
the extremity to a shining black globule : 
with borax effervesces and forms a clear 
bottle-green glass. 

Localities. Near Asheville, Buncombe 
county. North Carolina, in imperfectly stel- 
late groups, and also spreading out into 
laminae between layers of Corundum ; also 

frequently with, the Corundum of Asia 

Name. From Corund (^Corundum), and 
^/X«?, a friend. 

Brit. Mus , Case 32. 

Corundum, PJdUips. Corundum-stone. 
Hexagonal : commonly occurs crystallized 
in six-sided prisms, which rarely exhibit, a 
tendency to flat triedral terminations ; also 
in obtuse and acute hexahedral pyramids. 
It is likewise found granular or compact. 
Sometimes nearly colourless and slighth' 
translucent, but more frequently with a 
greyish, greenish or reddish tint, or brown 
with a chatoyant lustre. Fracture con- 
choidal, uneven. Extremely tough when 
compact. H. 9. S.G. 3-9 to 4-1. 

Fig, 132. 

Fig. 133. 

Comp. M or oxide of aluminium, when 
pure. — Aluminium 53-19, ox3-gen 46-81=- 

Analysis of Corundum of India, by J. 
Lawrence Smith : 

Alumina .... 9^*12 
Magnesia . . . .0 91 

-Linie 1-02 

Silica 0-96 

Water 2-86 


JBB like sapphire. 

Localities. In hexagonal crystals at 
Carrock Fells in Cumberland, and in small 
rolled fragments in the bed of a stream in 
the county of Wicklow. Foreign. — In 
granite rocks in China, Ava, on the coast of 
Malabar and in the Carnatic : also less 
abundantly at Gellivara, in Sweden, in 
Magnetic Iron ; near Mozzo in Piedmont, 
'and at St. Gotthard Largelyin Asia Minor. 

Name. From the Intlian, ^orawd 

This is the hardest of all known bodies, 
except the Diamond. The name Cortmdum 
is commonly confined to the opaque rough 
crystals and cleaveable masses, generally of 
dingy colours and often dark ; while the 
term Emery embraces the more or less im- 


pure, massive, granular and compact kinds, 
and Sapphire and Ruby comprise the 
transparent, brightly- tinted varieties. 

It is used extensively for polishing steel 
and cutting gems. See Emery. 

Brit. Mus, Case 19. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 783 to 
785; Wall-case 41. 

CoTHAM, Ruin, or Landscape Marble. 
A light gre}' argillaceous limestone, occur- 
ring in thin inegular layers, from two to 
six inches thick, at Cotham and other 
places in the neighbourhood of Bristol. 
Slices of the stone cut at right angles to the 
bedding exhibit, when polished, fanciful 
representations of landscapes, and ruins, 
which have caused it to be called, also, 
Ruin or landscape marble. 

According to Charles Moore this stone 
forms the lowest bed of the " White Lias " 
at Fyile Hill, on the Bristol and Exeter 
Railway, near Bristol. It is also stated by 
Phillips to be of common occurrence in the 
Val d'Arno, near Fjorence. 

CoTTONSTONE. The name given to Me- 
solite in Skye. 

CoTUNNiA, Monticelli §• Covelli. CoTUN- 
NiTE, V. Kobell. Rhombic. In extremely 
minute, white acicular crystals, with an 
adamantine lustre inclining to silky or 
pearl V. Streak white. May be scratched 
with 'the nail. S.G. 5-23. 

Comp. Chloride of lead, or Pb Cl=lead 
74-5 chlorine 25-5 = 100'0. 

BB fuses easily, colouring the flame blue, 
and emitting a white smoke which is con- 
densed on the charcoal. With soda yields 
a globule of lead. 

Soluble in about twenty-seven times its 
weight of cold water. 

Locality. This mineral was observed by 
Monticelli and Covelli, in the higher crater 
of Vesuvius, after the eruption of 1822; 
next in 1840, soon after the eruption of 
1839, in the upper crater, near the Punta 
del Mau'O; and lately in the lava of 1855, 
which ran into the Fosso della Vetrana. 

Name. After a medical man in Naples. 

Brit. Mus., Case 59. 

M.P. G. Upper Gallery, Table-case A, in 
recess 4, No. 148. 

CouPERosE Blanche. See Goslarite. 

CouPKRosE Bleue. See Cyanose. 

CouPEROSE Jaune. See Copiapite. 

CouPEKosE Verte. See Copperas. 

CouzERANiTE, Charpentter. Occurs in 
small, but perfect, square prisms imbedded 
in limestone. Colour greyish-black to 
indigo-blue. Lustre vitreous or resinous. 
Opaque, but in fragments transparent and 


brilliant. Fragile. Fracture slightly la- 
mellar. H. under 5. S.G. 2-69.^ 

Comp. According to Dufrenoy : Silica 
52-37, alumina 24-02, lime 11-85, 
1-40, potash 5-52, soda 3-96 = 98-55. 

BB fuses to a white enamel. 

Not aflfected by acids. 

Fig. 134. 

Localities. This mineral was noticed by 
Charpentier, in the defiles of the valley of 
Seix in the Pyrenees, called "Des Couze- 
rans," whence the name Couzeranite. It 
has been referred to Labradorite ; but R. P. 
Greg suggests that it is a variety of Di- 
pvre. , 

'B:it. Mus., Case30. 

Co^':ELLINE, heudant : or Covelmnite. 
Hexagonal. Colour indigo-blue; with sub- 
metallic, somewhat greasy lustre, a little 
pearly on tbe cleavage-face. Streak black, 
shining. Opaque. Sectile: thin leaves 
flexible. H. 1-5 to 2. S.G. 3-8 to 3-85. 

Comp. -6-u S2 = copper 66-5, sulphur S3'5 
= 100. 

Analysis from Vesuvius, by Covelli : 
Sulphur . . . .32 

Copper . . . . . 66 


BB before becoming red-hot, bums with 
a blue flame, and melts with ebullition to a 
globule, which, with soda, yields a button 
of copper. 

Soluble in nitric acid. 

Localities. — English. Huel Maudlin in 
Cornwall: investing Copper Pyrites — Fo- 
reign. Leogang in Salzburg, Keilee in 
Poland. Sangerhausen in Saxony. Mans- 
feld in Thuringia. In black or greenish -blue 
incrustations around the fumaroles of the 
crater of Vesuvius, in the form of a sooty 
deposit, or net-Avork like a spider's web. 

Name. After its discoverer, Signor Co- 
velli of Naples. 

M.P.G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 17. 

Craie de Briancox. a subschistous 
kind of Talc, of a wliitish colour and with a 
scaly texture. It is composed of an inti- 
mate mixture of scaly Talc and Steatite ; and 
is met with in the neighbourhood of Brian- 
^on, Dept. of the Hautes-Alpes, in France. 

Ceaitonite. See Crichtonite. 


Crayon Rouge, Brochant. See 

Crednerite, Rammelsherg. Oblique. 
Occurs foliated-crystalline. Colour steel- 
grev to iron-black. Lustre metallic. Streak 
brownish-black. H. 4-5. S.G. 4-9 to 5-1. 

Comp. Cu3 M^n2 = oxide of copper 42-9. 
peroxide of manganese 57-1 = 100. 

Analysis from Friederichsrode, by Ram- 

Protoxide of manganese 

. 64-24 

Oxide of copper . 

. 23-73 


. 2-01 


. 8-83 


Reu W 

[que. B 
teel- fl 
reak m ' 


BB infusible, except on thin edges: with 
borax gives a dull- violet coloured glass. 

Locality. Friederichsrode. 

Name. After Charles Auguste Credner, 
professor of theology at Gieasen. 

Brit. Mus., Case 13. 

Crichto:nite, Bournon, Haidinger. A 
Titaniferous Iron occurring in small acute 
rhombohedrons, having their summits re- 
placed, and being otherwise variously modi- 
fietl by secondary planes. Colour bluish- 
black, with a brilliant metallic lustre. O- 
paque. Streak deep black. Fracture con- 
choidal. H. 6. S.G. 4-79. 

Fig. 135. 

Comp. *i ¥e. 
Analysis by Marignae . 

Titanic acid . 

Peroxide of iron . 

Protoxide of iron . 




BB alone infusible; with salt of phosphorus 
affords a glass, which becomes red on cool- 

Locality. This variety of Ilraenite is found 
at St. Christophe, near Oisaus, in Dauphine, 
on Rock Crystal, and associated with Ana-- 

Name. In honour of Dr. Crichton. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

Crispite, Saussure. See Rutile. 

Cristated Quartz. Cellular Quartz 
with the plates arranged in a cristated 
manner, like the comb of a cock. 


Crocidolite. Occurs both compact and 
in long and easily separable fibres, wbicli 
are flexible and elastic, like those of Asbestos. 
Colour and streak lavender-blue and leek- 
green. Lustre silky. Opaque. H, 4. S.G.3-2. 

Comp. (Na, Mg) 2Si + 3(Fe, Si) + 5H. 

Analysis by Stromeyer : 

Silica 61-64 

Protoxide of iron . . . 34-38 
Soda . . ... . 7-11 

Lime 0'05 

Magnesia .... 2-64 
Peroxide of manganese . 002 
Water 4-01 

JBB at a strong red heat, even in the flame 
of a spirit-lamp, fuses to a black, swollen, 
strongly magnetic glass. With borax forms 
a transparent green glass. 

Localities. The Grigna country, beyond 
the Great Orange River, in South Africa, 
-vvith Magnetite. Stavarn, in Norway, in 
Zircon-syenite. Greenland. Golling, in Salz- 
burg, in Gypsum. 

Name. From as'^'k, wool, in allusion to its 
Tvoolly, fibrous structure. 

Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

Crocoisk, Beudant; Crocoisite, v. Ko- 
hell. Oblique : primary or cleavage form an 
oblique rhombic prism. Occurs in very dis- 
tinct crystals; also massive. Colour various 
tints of hyacinth-red. Translucent, with 
strong refracting j)Ower and adamantine lus- 
tre. Streak orange-yellow. H. 2*5 to 3. 
S.G. 0-9 to 61. 

Fig 136. 

Comp. Monochromate of lead, or Pb Cr = 
oxide of lead, 68-7, chromic acid 313 = 
100 0. 

Analysis bv Berzelius : 

Oxide of lead .... 68-5 
Chromic acid . . . .31-5 

BB decrepitates when heated, assuming for 
the time a darker colour; but it may be 
fused to a black shining slag, containing 
globules of metallic lead. Colom's glass of 
borax green. 



Soluble in nitric acid, forming a yellow 

Localities. In narrow veins, traversing 
decomposed gneiss, at Nischne Tagil sk, near 
Beresow, in Siberia ; and in fine crystals in 
decomposed granite at Conghonas do Campo, 
in the Brazils. Rezbanya, in Hungary. 
The Bannat. Luzon, one "of the Philippine 

Crocoisite is used as a pigment, but the 
colour is not permanent. 

Name. From x^o-^Sng^ aurora-yellow. 

Brit. Mus., Case 39. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, WaU-case 21. 

Croisette. See Staurotide. 

Cromfordite, Greg §- Lettsom, Pyrami- 
dal. Primary form a rectangular four- sided 
prism ; in which it also occurs either perfect, 
or having the lateral and also the terminal 
edges replaced. Colour white, greyish or 
yell w. Transparent or translucent. Streak 
snow-white. Rather sectile, and easily 
frangible. Fracture conchoidal, with a splen- 
dent adamantine lustre. H. 2-75 to 3. S.G. 6 
to 6-3. 



Fig. 137. 

Comp. Chlorocarbonate of lead, or Pb 

CI + Pb C = chloride of lead 51, carbonate 

of lead 49-100. 

Analysis, by Klaproth, recalculated by 

Berzelius : 

Oxide of lead . . .85-5 

Muriatic acid . . . 14-0 

Carbonic acid . . .6-0 

BB melts readily in the outer flame to a 
yellow globule, which on cooling becomes 
white, and somewhat crystalline ; oa char- 
coal yields a globule of lead. 

Soluble with effervescence in nitric acid. 
Localities. The finest crystals of this 
rare mineral were obtained many years ago, 
in the air-shaft of a mine between Cromford 
and Wirksworth, in Derbyshire; many of 
these specimens are deposited in case 57 B, 
at the British Museum. It has lately been 
found by Mr. Brice Wright, in minute 
crystals, at Lossiemouth lead- mine, at Elgin, 
in' Scotland, and has also been met with at 
Huel Confidence, in Cornwall. 


Name. After that of the locality, Crom- 

The name Hornblei (Corneous Lead-ore) 
was not given to this mineral by Karsten 
in consequence of its resemblance in certain 
external characters to Kerargyrite or Horn 
Silver, but from its chemical composition. 

Cromfordite is principally distinguished 
from Cerusite or white lead ore, by its colour, 
crystallization, fracture, inferior hardness, 
and less specific gravity. 

Brit. Mus., Case 57 B. 

Cronstedtite, Steinmann. Hexagonal. 
Occurs in regular six-sided prisms, tapering 
towards their summits, and generally adher- 
ing laterally; also massive in opaque jet- 
black fibres, ha\'ing a brilliant lustre. Streak 
dark leek-green. Thin laminae, somewhat 
elastic. H. 2-5. S.G. 3-35. 

Fig. 138. 

• Comp. (Fe MgMn)6 jji + #e2 Si + 6H, or 

more simply Fe^ Pe Si + 3H = silica 17-68, 
peroxide of iron 30*63, protoxide of iron 
41-36, water 10-33 = 100. 
Analysis from Przibram, by Damour : 

Silica 21-39 

Peroxide of iron . . . 29-08 
Protoxide of iron . . .33-52 
Magnesia .... 4-02 
Protoxide of manganese . 1*01 
Water ..... 9-06 

.B5 froths a little, and in the reducing flame 
fuses to a highly magnetic black slag; with 
borax gives an iron reaction. Wholly soluble 
in salt of phosphorus: on the addition of a 
little nitre gives an iron reaction, and a feeble 
rose tint, indicating the presence of man- 

In powder dissolves readily in dilute sul- 
phuric or muriatic acid, forming a solution 
which becomes gelatinous. 

Localities. E7iglish.—\ Maudlin, near 
Lost\vithiel, in Cornwall, on Pharmacoside- 
rite and decomposed Pyrites. Foreign. — 
Mines of Przibram, in Bohemia, in veins 
containing silver ores; and associated with 
Quartz and iVJagnetic Pyrites at the mines 
of Conghonas do Campo, in the Brazils. 


Name. In honour of Cronstedt, the Swe- 
dish mineralogist. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Cross -COURSE Spar. The name given 
to radiated Quartz by Cornish miners, from 
its frequent occurrence in cross-courses. 

Cross- stone, Jameson. See Harmotome. 

Crow Coal. A kind of coal containing 
only a very small quantity of Bitumen. It 
is found at Alston Moor, in Cumberland. 

Crucite, La Metherie. See Chiastolite. 

Crumbling Felspar. See Albite. 

Cryolite, Phillips, J. W. Tayler. Mas- 
sive. Structure lamellar. Colour white; 
yellow or brown when associated with iron. 
Lustre vitreous. Tr mslucent, becoming 
transparent when immersed in water. Brit- 
tle. H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 2-96. 

Comp. Fluoride of aluminium and sodium, 

or 3Na F+ A12 F3 = aluminium 13-10, so- 
dium 33-27, fluorine 53-63-^100. 

Fuses below a red heat (in the flame of a 

BB on charcoal fuses to a globule, which 
is transparent while hot, but opaque on 

Soluble in sulphuric acid with evolution of 

Locality. Evigtok,in W. Greenland,12miles 
from the Danish settlement of Arksut, form- 
ing a vein in gneiss, about 8u feet thick and 
300 feet long, running parallel with the 
strata, in a direction nearly E, and W. 

Name. From x-^voi, ice, and A/&f, stone, 
because it melts like ice when held in the 
flame of a candle. 

Probably the original colour of the mineral 
was black or very dark, as the white Cryo- 
lite only occurs at the surface, and bears 
evidence of partial disintegration, becoming 
more translucent and compact, and o^ a 
darker colour in proportion to the de])th 
from the surface. The black Cryolite parts 
with about 1 per cent, of acid and moisture 
when heated to redness, and loses the whole 
of its colour, and some of its transparency, 
becoming perfectly white like the Cryolite 
at the surface. 

Cryolite was first turned to account by 
the Greenlanders in the manufacture of 
snuff", xhey grind the tobacco-leaf between 
two pieces of Cryolite, and the snuff" so yjre- 
pared, which contains about half its weight of 
cryolite powder, thev prefer to any other. 

Brit. Mus , Case 58. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 200. 

Cryptoline. a fluid detected by Sir 
David Brewster in minute cavities of Topaz, 


Ghrysobery], Quartz -crystals from Quebec, 
and Siberian Amethyst. It quickly hardens 
on exposure into a yellow, transparent, resin- 
like substance, not volatilizable by heat, nor 
soluble in water or alcohol, but rapidly dis- 
solving, with effervescence, in sulphuric 
acid. It is also soluble in nitric and muri- 
atic acids. 

Cryptolite, Wuhler. Occurs in acicu- 
lar hexagonal prisms, about a line in length, 
and of a wine-vellow colour. Transparent. 
S.G. 4-6. 

Comp. Ce5 p, in which the cerium is in 
part replaced by didymium. 
Analysis by Wohler : 

Oxide of cerium . . . 73-70 

Protoxide of iron . . . 1-51 

Phosphoric acid . . . 27'37 


The excess arises from the protoxide of 
cerium contained in the mineral being con- 
verted by ignition into sesquioxide. 

Decomposed by sti-ong sulphuric acid, the 
whole being reduced to a dry earthy mass. 

Locality. Arendal, in Norway, imbedded 
in greenish and rose-coloured Apatite, from 
•which it is separated by dissolving the Apa- 
tite in nitric acid. 

Name. From x^wnrTog^ concealed. 

It has been suggested that Cryptolite is a 

Brit. Mus., Case 57. 

Cuban, Breithaupt. A variety of octahe- 
dral Pyrites. Cubical. Occurs in cubes or 
massive. Colour between bronze and brass- 
yellow. Streak dark reddish bronze to black. 
H. 4. S.G. 4-1. 

Comp. Cu S + Fe3 S^. 

Analysis by Eastwick : 

Sulphur .... 39-01 

Copper 19-80 

Iron ..... . 38-01 

Silica . . . . . 2-30 


BB fuses readily, giving off fumes of sul- 

Locality. Barracanao, Cuba (whence the 
name Cuban). 

Cube-ore, Jameson ; Cube-ore of Iron. 
See Pharmacosiderite. 

Cube-spar, Jameson. See Anhydrite. 

Cubic Nitre. See Nitratine. 

Cubic Pyrites. See Iron Pyrites. 

Cubizit, Werner. See Analcime. 

CuBoiTE, Breithaupt. See Analcime. 

CuiR DE Montagnb. See Mountain 

CUIVRE. 101 

CuiVEE Arseniate, Haily. See Phar- 

Cuivre Arseniate en Prisme rhom- 
boidal oblique, Levy. See Aphanesite. 

Cuivre Arskniate Ferrifere, Haily, 
See Aphanesite. 

Cuivre Arseniate octaedre aigu, 
Haiiy. See Olivbnite. 

Cuivre Arseniate hexagonal iamel- 
LiFORME, Haiiy. See Chalcophyllite. 

Cuivre Arseniate octaedke obtuse. 
Haiiy. See Liroconite. 

Cuivre Arsenical, Dufrenoy. See Do- 

Cuivre Carbonate bleu, Haiiy. See 


Cuivre Carbonate TERREUx,£rawy. See 

Cuivre Carbonate vert, Haiiy. See 

Cuivre Carbonate vert pulveru- 
lent, Haily. See Chrysocolla. 

Cuivre Dioptase, Haily, Breithaupt. See 

Cuivre Oris, Haiiy. See Tetrahedritb. 

Cuivre Hydrophosphate. See Phos- 


Cuivre Hydrosilicieux, Haily. See 

Cuivre Muriate, Haily, Breithaupt. See 

Cuivre Natif, Haiiy. See Native 

Cuivre Oxide noir, Haiiy. See Mela- 
con it e. 

Cuivre Oxide rouge, Haiiy. \ See Red 

Cuivre Oxidule, Haiiy. j Copper. 

Cuivre Phosphate, Haily, Dufrenoy. 
See Lieethenite. 

Cuivre Pyriteux, Haiiy. See Chalco- 


Cuivre Pyriteux Hepatique, Haiiy. 
See Erubescite. 
Cuivre Selenie, Haiiy. See Berzelia- 


Cuivre Selenie Argental, Haiiy. See 

Cuivre Spiciforme, or Argent en Epis, 
Haiiy. Vegetable matter impregnated with 
black sulphide of copper (Copper Glance). 
It is found at Frankenberg, in Hessia, and 
at Mahoopeny, Pennsylvania, U. S. 

Cuivre Sulfate, Haiiy. See Cyano- 


Cuivre Sulfure, Haily. See Copper 

Cuivre Sulfure Argentifere, Levy. 
See Steomeyerite. 

Cuivre Sulfure Hepatique, Haiiy. 
See Variegated Vitreous Copper, 

102 CUIYRE. 


CuivRE Vanadate. Soe Volborthite. 

CuivRE Yeloute, Levy. See Lettso- 


CuivRE ViTREux, Brochant. See Cop- 
per Glance. 

CuMENGiTE. The name given by Kengott 
to a White Antimony from the province of 
Constantine, in Algiers, after C. Cumenge, by 
whom it was analysed. 

CuMMTNGToNiTE, Dewey. A variety of 
Anthophyllite, containing a large quantity 
of oxide of iron. It is often scopiformly 
arranged, and resembles an asbestiform 
Tremolite. Colour ash-grey. Lustre silky. 

Cmnp. (|Fe + |Mg)4 SiS. 

Analysis (mean of two) by Smith §• Brush ; 

Silica 50-91 

Magnesia .... 10-30 

Lime trace 

Protoxide of iron . . .32-60 
Protoxide of manganese . 1-63 
Alumina . . .' . 0-92 

Soda 0-64 

Potash trace 

Water 3-04* 

100 04 
BB alone, fuses with great difficulty. 
Localities. Cummington and Plainfield, 
Massachusetts, U. S. 
Brit. Mus., Case 35. 

Cupreous Anglesite. See Linarite. 
Cupreous Arseniate of Iron, Boumon. 
See ScoRODiTE. 

Cupreous Bismuth, Phillips. See Wit- 
TiCHiTE ; also Tannenite. 

Cupreous Manganese, Phillips. Occurs 
massive ; reniform, botryoidal, stalactitic, or 
earth}^ Colour and streak biuish-black. 
Lustre resinous. Opaque. H. 1-5. S.G. 3-1 
to 3-2. 

Comp. Hydrous oxides of manganese, 
containing from 14 to 25 per cent, of black 
oxide of copper, 4 to 18 per cent, of oxide 
of cobalt, with various other impurities. 

BB infusible, but becomes brown ; with a 
mixture of soda and borax yields reduced 

Localities. Schlackenwald, in Bohemia. 
Camsdorf. Lauterberg, in the Harz. 

Cupreous Sulphate of Lead, Brooke, 
Phillips. See Linarite. 

Cupreous Sulphato-carbonate of 
Lead, Brooke. See Caledonite. 

Cupreous Sulphuret of Silver. See 
Strom EYE rite. 
Cupriferous Calamine. See Tyrolite. 

Cupriferous Marlite, Khwan. Bitu- 
minous Schist {Kupfer Schiefer), acciden- 
tally impregnated with Copper Pyrites, or 
Purple or Vitreous Copper Ore. 

3L P. G. Wall-case 17, Nos. 745 to 748, 
from Eisleben. 

Cupriferous Sulphuret of Bismuth, 
Phillips. See Wittichite ; also Tannenite. 
Cuprite, Haidinger. See Red Copper. 
CuPROPLUMBiTE, Breithaupt, Cubical : 
occurs massive-granular, with a cubic cleav- 
age. Colour blackish lead-grev, with a me- 
tallic lustre. Streak black. Rather sectile 
and brittle. H. 2 5. S.G. 6-4 to 6 42. 

Comp. -e-u S + 2Pb S, or (-C-u, Pb) S= 
sulphur 15-1, lead 65-0, copper 19-9 = 100'0. 
Analysis bv Plattner : 
Lead \ . . . . 64-9 

Copper 19*3 

Silver 0-5 

Sulphur and loss . . • 15'1 


BB on charcoal, surrounds the assay 
with an areola of oxide of lead and sul- 
phate of lead ; with soda affords a globule of 

Locality. Chili. 

Cyanit, G. Rose. Cyanite, Brochant, 
Kirwan. See Kyanite. 

Cyanolite. H. How. A mineral form 
ing the central part of a reniform nodule, 
partly imbedded in crystalline trap. No 
crystalline structure. Colour bluish-grey. 
Subtranslucent in very thin pieces ; trans- 
lucent at the edges. Lustre duU. Streak 
Avhite. Rather brittle. Fracture flat con- 
choid al, even. H. 4-5. S.G. 2-495. 

Comp. Ca't siio + 5H, being by far the 
most highly siiicated combination of lime 
yet met with. 
Analysis : 
Silica . 

Lime . 
Potash . 
Water . 


In matrass gives off water and becomes 
white. _ 

BB in platina forceps becomes rounded at S| 
the edges. With borax and soda affords ^ 
transparent globules. Decomposed by mu- 
riatic acid, affording slimy silica. 

Locality —The Bay of Fundy, on the 
shore of Annapolis Co., two miles E. of 
Black Rock. 


Name. — From »y«v9s, sky blue; and >^'dos, 
stone, in allusion to the blue tint which dis- 
tinguishes it from its associates, Cerinite 
and Centralassite (which see). 

Cyanose, Beudant. Cyanosite, Dana, 
Sulphate of copper. Anorthic ; but rarely 
found in distinct crystals ; generally occurs 
stalactitic, reniform, and amorphous or pul- 
verulent. Colour dark sky-blue of various 
shades, sometimes passing into bluish-green. 
Lustre vitreous. Translucent. Streak v/hite. 
Taste metallic and very nauseous. Rather 
brittle. Fracture conchoidal. H. 2-5. S.G. 

Fig. 139. 

Comp. Sulphate of copper or Cu S + oH. 
= sulphuric acid 32, oxide of copper 32, 
water 36 = 100. (Thomson.) 

BB on charcoal with soda, yields metallic 

Soluble in three parts of cold and ^ part 
of boiling water ; affording a blue solution, 
which deposits a film of pure copper on a 
polished surface of iron. 

Localities. English. — Crystallized, in 
CornAvall, at Ting Tang and other mines in 
Gwennap ; and at Trevarthen near Marazion : 
crystallized and fibrous at Gunnis Lake 
near Callington, in attle-heaps. Welsh.— 
Pary's mine, Anglesea. Irish. — Various 
copper mines in the county of Wicklow. 
Foreign. — Herrngruud, near Neusohl, in 
Lower Hungary. The Rammelsberg Mine, 
near Goslar in the Harz. Fahlun in 
Sweden. Zalathna in Transylvania. Rio 
Tinto Mines in Spain, &c. 

Cyanosite exists in the water issuing from 
mines, and is derived principally from the 
decomposition of Iron Pyrites containing 
small quantities of copper. 

When purified it is employed in cotton 
and linen printing, in dyeing, &c. 

"Throughout all the mines (of the Vale 
of Avoca) the juxtaposition of large quanti- 
ties of f'vrites with clays and soft slates, 
combined" with their exposure to air and the 
percolation of water, produce various de- 
compositions, which exhibit their effects 
abundantly in the old workings, under the 
forms of blue and green vitriol, and other 
sulphates: The water, trickling through old 
excavations, continuallj'^ dissolves a portion 
of these salts, and at its exit from the mine 
is carefully led into inclined troughs or 


' launders,' in which fragments of scrap iron 
are laid. At the expense of tlie sulphate 
of copper, sulphate of iron is then formed, 
and the metallic copper is precipitated, and 
from time to time collected." * This method 
of extracting a large quantity of valuable 
metal, which would otherwise run to waste, 
is also now in use in Gwennap, and at 
Perranzabuloe in Cornwall, At Alderley 
Edge, in Cheshire, the copper, being dis- 
solved out of the sandstone by an acid, is 
precipitated on a large scale by the above 
process. The same mode of treating cupri- 
ferous water is also practised at the mine of 
Herrngrund, near Neusohl, in Hungary. 

Name. The names Cyanose and Cyanite 
are derived from avocvo?, dark blue. 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

Cyanotrichite. See Lettsomite. 

Cyclopitb, von Waltershausen. Anor- 
thic. Occurs in small white crystals 
resembling those of Anorthite and Labra- 
dorite. Lustre vitreous. Transparent. H. 6. 

Comp. R5 Si + 2^' si = (iR3 + fij) Si. 

Analysis by v. Waltershausen ; 

Silica 41-45 

Alumina .... 29-83 
Peroxide of iron . . . 2*20 

Lime 20-83 

Magnesia .... 0-66 
Soda . . . . . 2-32 

Potash 1-72 

Water l-9i 


Locality. The Cyclopean Islands near 
Catania, in Sicilj^ in dolerite. 

Cymatine. See Kymatin. 

Cymolite. See Cimolite. 

Cymophake (from xCf^a,, a wave; and 
<pot,ivu, to appear), the name given to those 
semitransparent varieties of Chrj'soberyl 
which display a peculiar miiky or opales- 
cent appearance. When cut en cabochon it 
shows a white floating band of light, and is 
much prized as a ring-stone. See also 

Brit. Mus., Case 19. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case,Nos. 860 to 863. 

Cyprine. a blue variety of Idocrase, 
the colour of which is supposed to be pro- 
duced by a minute portion of copper. S.G. 

* " On the Mines of Wicklow and Wexford." 
by W. Warrington Smyth, M.A. " Records of 
the School of Mines," vol. i. part iii. p. 385. 



by Richardson . 


Silica 38-80 

Alumina .... 2040 
Protoxide of iron . . . 8 35 
Lime ..... 320 

Locality. The neighbourhood of Telle- 
marken in Norway. 
Brit. Mus., Case 35. 
Cypronica, Necker. See Chalcophyl- 



Damourite, Delesse. A variety of Mar- 
^arodite; perhaps a hydrous Muscovite. 
Colour yellow or yellowish-white with a 
pearly lustre and a'scaly texture. 

Comp. (^igR3 X fjii) 'Si + H. 

Locality. Pontivy in Brittany, associated 
with Kyanite, 

]Vame. After Damour, the French chemist. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Danaite. a cobaltic variety of Mis- 

Comp. (Fe, Co) (As, S)3. 

Analysis by Hayes : 

Arsenic . . . .41*44 

Sulphur .... 17-84 

Iron 32-94 

Cobalt 6-45 

Name. After Professor Dana, of Yale 

College, U.S. 

Danburite, Shepard. 

Anorthic : occurs in imbedded crystals, also 

disseminated massive, without regular form. 

Colour whitish or pale yellow, with a weak 

vitreous lustre. Translucent. Very brittle. 

H.7. S.G.2-95. 

Cowp. Ca3 Si + 3 B Si = silica 48-9, boracic 
acid 28-4, lime 22-7=^100-0. 
Analysis by Smith §• Brush : 

Silica 48-10 

Alumina and peroxide of 

iron . . . . 0-30 

Peroxide of manganese . 0-56 

Lime 22-45 

Magnesia .... 0-40 
Boracic acid . . . 27-73 

Undetermined . . . 0-50 



BB fuses rather easily. In the dark co- 
lours the flame green, especially after the 
assay has been moistened and heated with 
sulphuric acid. 

Locality. In dolomite with Oligoclase at 
Danbury, Connecticut, U.S. 

Danburite may be distinguished from 
Chondrodite, which it resembles in colour, 
lustre, and brittleness, by being distinctly 
(though often irregularly) cleavable. 

Dannemouite, Kennyott, JErdmann, a 
variety of Hornblende, consisting of stronglv 
consolidated fibres, of a greenish, greyish, or 
yellowish-brown colour. S.G. 3-516. 

Comp. R4 y'is. 

Locality. The iron mines of Dannemora, 
in Sweden. 
Daotrit. See Rubellite. 
Dapeche. See Elastic Bitumen. 
Dark Red Silver Ore. See Pyrargy- 


Darwinite, David Forbes. A new mineral, 
supposed, when first discovered, to be native 
silver. Massive, without traces of cleavage. 
Colour of freshly-fractured surface dark sil- 
ver-grey, tarnishing on exposure to dirty 
bronze-yellow. Opaque. Lustre metallic. 
Streak metallic, dark silver-grey. Rather 
brittle and easily broken ; receives an inden- 
tation from the hammer before vielding. 
Fracture even. H. 3-5. S.G. 8-57^0 8-69. 

Comp. Cui8 As = copper 88-37, arsenic 
11-63 = 100. 

Analysis by David Forbes : 

Copper 88-07 

Silver 0-24 

Arsenic .... 11-69 

Heated in a close tube does not alter, or at 
most a faint trace of arsenious acid sublimes 
on to the side of the tube. In an open tube 
a distinct white sublimate of arsenious acid 
is obtained. 

BB on charcoal in reducing flame fuses 
readily to a silver-white globule, which in 
the act of cooling evolves arsenical fumes, 
and becomes slightly red on the surfiice; in 
the oxidizing flame on charcoal evolves 
abundant arsenical fumes, rotates, and ulti- 
mately leaves a globule of metallic copper, 
malleable, but still retaining some arsenic: 
on cupelling tbis buttonof copper with lead, 
a minute globule of silver is obtained : with 
fluxes gives the reactions of copppr only. 

Locality. Potrero Grande, S.E. of the 
town of Copiapo, in Northern Chili, where 
it is said to occur in small veins or strings, 
seldom attaining a breadth of more than 


two inches across, cutting through the 
porph yritic claystones which form the moun- 
tain range at that place. 

Name. Named by David Forbes after 
Charles Darwin, in honour of his geological 
examination of the part of South America 
where the mineral occurs. 

Datholite, Phillips, Dana, Brooke §• Mil- 
ler; Datholith, Werner; Datolite ; Da- 
TOLITH, Haidinger, Hausmann, v. Kohell. 
Oblique ; primary or cleavage-form an 
oblique ihombic prism (Senarmont). Occurs 
crystallized in rhombic prisms, of which the 
lateral edges and solid angles are commonly 
replaced by planes ; also massive. Colour- 
less, or inclining to greyish, greenish-white, 
orj'ellowish-grey. Translucent. Lustre vi- 
treous. Streak white. Brittle. Fracture 
uneven to imperfectly conchoidal. H. 5. to 
5-5. S.G. 2-9 to 3-4. 



Fig. 140. " Fig. 141. 

Comp. Borate and silicate of lime, with 

one atom of water, or Ca B + Ca 2Si + H. 
Analysis from Andreasberg, by Rammels- 

herg : 

Silica 38-477 

Lime . . . . . 35-640 
Boracic acid . . . i 0-315 
Water .... 5-568 


In a matrass yiehls water. Becomes 
opaque and friable in the flame of a candle. 

BB swells up and melts readily to a co- 
lourless glass, imparting at the same time a 
green tint to the flame. 

Dissolves readily in nitric acid, leaving a 
jelly of silica. 

Localities. — Scotch. In basaltic green- 
stone, on the Kilpatrick Hills, in Dumbar- 
tonshire. In the trap of Salisbury Craigs^^ 
Edinburgh. Costorphine Hill, L*aa#fesfeif©. '^ 
Glen Fay Perthshire, fg. 141. — Foreign. 
Arendal in Norway, Uto in Sweden, An- 
dreasberg ; near Wolfstein, in Rhenish Ba- 
varia. In large, transparent crystals at Monte 
Catini, in Tuscany, and Toggiana, in Mo- 
dena. In large, pellucid crystals at Roaring 
Brook, 14 miles from New Haven, Connec- 
ticut ; in nodules, like the most close-grained 

marble at Minnesota Mine, Lake Superior, 
U.S., &c. 

Name. From ^»6o?, turbid, in allusion to its 
want of transparency. 

The synonym Datolite is derived from 
docrio/xMi, to divide ; because of its division 
into granular portions. 
Brit. Mus., Case 39. 
M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No, 1095. 
Daurite. See Tourmaline. 
Davidsonite, Richardson, Thomson. A 
variety of Beryl, occurring in greenish-yel- 
low crystals, near Aberdeen at the granite 
quarry of Rubislaw, and at Tory, on the 
south side of the Dee. Texture foliated. 
Analysis by Heddle : 

Silica 67-70 

Alumina . . . . 15*64 
Glucina .... 12-52 
Magnesia . . . . 3-10 
Protoxide of iron . . .0-25 
Water . . . . . O'lG 

Name: After the discoverer, Dr. Davidson, 
Professor of Natural History in the Maris- 
chal College, Aberdeen. 

D A VINA, Monticelli §• Covdli. See D avyne!. 
Davite, Mill. Occurs massive of a white, 
green, or yellow colour, the changes of colour 
indicating some changes in the composition. 
The yellow variety contains sulphate of iron, 
the green sulphate of copper also, but the 
white is solely sulphate of alumina. The 
fracture under the lens exhibits a multitude 
of fine silky crystals, resembling those of 
sulphate of quinine. Taste nauseous and 
highly astringent. 

Comp. Native sulphate of alumina. 
Analysis : 
Extraneous substances . .3-2 
Sulphate of alumina . .38-0 
Sulphate of iron . . .2-4 
Free sulphuric acid . . 4-6 
Water 51-8 


BB on charcoal gives off" water, sulphtlirous 
and sulphuric acids, and ultimately becomes 
a white powder Very soluble in water, 
leaving a little impurity undissolved. 

Locality. Near a thermal spring, which 
contains free sulphuric acid, at Chiwachi, an 
Indian village in the Andes, one day's jour- 
ney from Bogota, in Columbia. 

A^ame. In honour of Sir Humphry Davy. 

Davyne, Allan, Phillips; Davytic Kou- 
PHONE Sfab., Haidinger. A variety of Nephe- 
line occurring in the older lavas of Vesuvius, 


accompanied by Garnet, Mica, Wollastonite, 
&c. Colour white or yellowish ; inclining to 
grey when transparent, to whitish when 
opaque. Lustre inclining to opalescent in 
transparent, to pearly in opaque specimens. 
Fracture conchoidal. H. 6 to 5-o. S.G. 2-4. 

Fig. 142. 

Analysis by Monticelli §- Covelli ; 

Silica 42-91. 

Alumina .... 33-28 
Peroxide of iron . . .1*25 

Lime 2*02 

Potash . . . .7-48 
Loss 3-11 


BB alone, fuses with effervescence to a 
somewhat porous, opaque, white globule. 
Gelatinises in nitric acid, with effervescence. 

Name. By Monticelli and Covelli in ho- 
nour of Sir Humphry Davy. 

Davyne may be distinguished from Nephe- 
line b} the length of its cr\'stals excee ling 
their breadth, the reverse 'of which is the 
case with the latter mineral. Its specific 
gravity is also much lower. 

Brit. MuF., Case 31. 

Dechenite, G. Bergemann. Occurs in 
small botryoidal masses, with a crystalline 
texture, and some appearance of a rhombohe- 
dral cleavage. Colour dull-red; sometimes 
yellowish. Lustre of fresh fracture greasy. 
Streak yellow. H. 4. S.G. 5-81. 

Comp, Pb V, or vanadate of lead. 

Analysis by Bergemann ; 

Vanadic acid . . . 46-101 
Oxide of lead . . . 63-717 


BB alone, fuses easily to a yellowish glass ; 
with soda forms a white enamel containing 
grains of lead. 

Locality. The Lauter Valley, near Nieder- 
Schlettenbach, in Fvhenish Bavaria, in varie- 
gated .sandstone. 

Name. After Dr. H. von Dechen, of Bonn. 

Brit. Mus., Case 38. 

Delanovite, Kenngott. A reddish, amor- 
phous, earthy mineral ; a variety of Halloy- 
■ site, placed by Kenngott near Montmoril- 


lonite. Coloured by silicate of manganes€l.l 
Streak reddish, somewhat shining. AdherLsl 
to the tongue. Fracture splintery to earthy.i 
H. 1 to 1-5. 

Comp. (iK3 + §S) sb + 15H. 

Analysis by Voji Hauer : 

Silica 50-55 

Alumina .... 19-15 

Lime 0-63 

Protoxide of manganese . 4-40 

Water 24-05 


BB infusible. 

Locality. Environs of Nontron, depart- 
ment of Dordogne in France. 

Delessite, Naumami. Occurs massive, 
with a short fibrous or scaly feathery tex- 
ture, in the amygdaloidal porphyry of 
Oberstein and Zwickau, in Saxony. The 
fibres are very delicate, and arranged nearly 
perpendicular to the surface on which they 
are implanted. Colour olive-green to 
blackish-green. In powder always clear 
green. H. 2-5. S.G. 2-89. 

Comp. QR + 0) Sif + 1 -5 H. 
Analysis from Planitz, near Zwickau, by 
Delesse : 

Silica 29-45 

Alumina .... 18-25 
Peroxide of iron . . . 8-17 
Protoxide of iron . . . 15-12 
Magnesia .... 1582 

Lime 0-45 

Water 12-67 


BB fuses with difficulty at the edges. 

Soluble in acids, yielding a deposit of silica. 

The variety from Planitz, near Zwickau, 
contains much more iron than that from 

Delislite, Leymerie. A name for Freis- 
lebenite after Rome de Lisle, who made it a 
species, as " Argent gris antimonial." 

Delphinite. a variety of Epidote from 
Dauphiny. Colour olive-green. Clear and 
transparent. Lustre very brilliant. Takes 
a fine polish. 

Delvauxene, Delvauxit, Dumont. Is 
supposed to be a mechanical mixture. It 
occurs massive and earthy, with a yellow- 
ish-brown, brownish-black, or reddish colour, 
and a waxy, dull lustre. Opaque to trans- 
lucent at the edges. H. 2-5. S.G. 1-85. 

Comp. ¥e2 P' + 24H (Dumont), or Fe2 P 

+ 18H (Delvaux). 


Analysis, of reddish- brown specimen, by 
Dumont ; 

Phosphoric acid . 
Peroxide of iron . 
Water .... 


BB changes colour, decrepitates, and fuses 
to a grey magnetic globule. 

Locality. Berneau, near Vise, in Belgium. 

Name. After Mons. Delvaux. 

Brit. Mus., Case 57. 

Demant, Werner. See Diamond. 
Demant Spath, EmerJhig. See Corundum. 

Demidoffxte, Demidovite, Nordens- 
Jmld. A mineral mixed with the Malachite 
of Nischne Tagilsk, which it covers in deli- 
cate layers. Surface splendent. Slightly 
earthy. Colour sky-blue, sometimes with 
a tinge of green. Translucent at the edges. 
H. 2. S.G. 2-25. 

A.nnlysis : 
Silica . 

Oxide of copper 
Phosphoric acid 
Water . 






Localities. Cumberland and Cornwall 
with quartzose rock and Malachite. Val- 
paraiso, S. America. 

Name. After Prince Anatole de Demidov. 

Dendrachates (from SsvS^ov, a tree; and 
"Axot.7'/ii, Agate), the name given by the 
ancients to Moss-agate. 

Dent de coghon, De Lisle. See Dog's- 
tooth SPAR. 

Dermatin, Breithaupt Occurs in reniform 
masses, rarely globular, and in thin coatings 
or crusts on Serpentine. Colour dark olive- 
green or liver-brown, with a resinous lustre. 
Translucent at the edges. Feels greasy. 
Odour, when breathed upon, argillaceous. 
Streak yellow, inclining to grey. Fracture 
conchoidal. H. 2-0. S.G. 2-136. 

Comp. (Mg, Fe)3 Si2 + 6H ? 

Analysis by Ficinus ; 

Silica 35-80 

Magnesia .... 23-70 
Protoxide of iron . . .11-33 
Peroxide of manganese . 2-25 
Alumina . . . .0-42 
Lime ..... 0-83 

Soda 0-50 

Water and carbonic acid . 25-20 



BB splits and becomes somewhat friable, 
and assumes a darker hue. 

Locality. The serpentine quarry at Wald- 
heim in Saxony. 

The name is derived from ^i^/^, skin, in 
allusion to its occurrence as an incrustation, 

Desoloizite, a. Damour. Rhombic : no 
cleavage. Colour mostly deep black ; smal- 
ler crystals olive, with a chatoyant, bronze 
lustre. Light brown inclining to red at the 
edges by transmitted light. The colours 
are zoned with straw -yellow, reddish-brown 
and black on surfaces of fracture. H. 3*5. 
S.G. 5-84. 

Fig. 143. 

Comp. W V = oxide of lead 7-07, 
vanadic acid 29-3 = 100 0. 

Analysis (mean of two) by A. Damour : 
Vanadic acid . . . 22-46 
Oxide of lead . • .54-70 
Oxide of zinc . . . 2-04 
Oxide of copper . . . 0*90 
Protoxide of manganese . 5-32 
Chlorine . . . .0-32 
Peroxide of manganese . 6-00 
Peroxide of iron . . . 1'50 

Sand 3-44 

Water . ,. . . . ^2-20 

The zinc, copper, manganese, and iron are 
considered impurities. 

BB fuses and is partially reduced to a 
black slag investing a globule of metallic 

Soluble in cold dilute nitric acid. 

Locality. S. America, in small crystals, 
on a siliceous and ferruginous gangue. 

Name. After Descloiseaux, Crystallo- 

Desmin, Breithaupt,'^ 
Hausmann, Naumann, > See Stilbite. 

Desmine, Dufrenoy.) 

Deuto-fluate of Cerium. See Fluo- 
CERiTE or Flucerjne. 

Devonite, Fuchs. A name given to 
Wavellite, in allusion to its having been first 
discovered in the county of Devon. 

Deweylite, Emmons. An amorphous 
mineral, bearing some resemblance to gum- 
arabic. Colour whitish, yellowish, greenish, 
reddish. Lustre greasy. Translucent. Brit- 


tie and often much cracked. H. 2 to 3-5. 

S.G. 2 to 2-3. 

Comp. Mg2 Si + 3H == magnesia 35-6, 
ilica 40-3, water 24-1 = 100-0. 
Analysis, from Fleims, by von Widter- 

Silica . 
Magnesia . 
Peroxide of iron . 
Carbonic acid 
Water . . . 

. 40-82 
. 36-06 
. 0-42 
. 0-59 
. 21-72 

BB decrepitates, becomes opaque, and 
fuses with great difficulty at the edges : 
in powder, with boras, forms a transparent 
colourless glass. 

Localities. The Tyrol, with serpentine. 
United States at Middlefield ; Texas, Penn- 
sylvania; and at Bare Hills, Maryland. 
Name. After Professor Chester Dewey. 
DiACLASiTE, Hausmann. A mineral with 
the pale colours of Diallage, passing into 
brass-yellow, but in composition between 
Diallage and Hvpersthene. Streak greenish- 
grey. H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 3-32. 
Analysis, from Baste, by Kuhler : 

Silica 53-74 

Magnesia . . . .25 09 

Lime 4-73 

Protoxide of iron . . 11-51 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-23 
Alumina .... 1-34 
Water 3-76 

100-40 . 

Locality. Wiirlitz in Bavaria. Guadar- 
rama mountains in Spain, in gneiss. 

Name. From ^i«, x>.a.u, to cleave through. 

DiADOCHiTE, Breithaupt. A variety of 
Pitticite in which sulphuric acid is associ- 
ated with the phosphoric acid. Resembles 
Iron Cinder in outward appearance ; reniform 
or stalactitic, with a curved lamellar 
structu.-e. Colour ^-ellow or yellowish - 
brown, with a resinous lustre inclining to 
vitreous. Somewhat translucent. Streak 
uncoloured. Fragile. Fracture couchoidal. 
H. 3. S.G. 203. 

Comp. Phosphosulphate of iron, or (F-e 

P2 + 8H)+4(FeS + 6H.) 
Analysis by Plattner : 
Peroxide of iron . 
Phosphoric acid . 
Sulphuric acid 
Water . 

, 39-69 
■ 14-81 
, 15-15 
, 30-35 



BB colours the flame green, and fuses at 
the edges, with intumescence, to a black, 
slightly magnetic enamel. With the fluxes 
gives the reaction of iron. 

Boiling water extracts 12-6 per cent, of 
sulphuri(t acid without any peroxide of iron, 
leaving 2-3 per cent. 

Localities. Near Grafenthal and Saal- 
field in Thuringia; in alum-slate. • 

Brit. Mus., Case 56. 

ClAGONiTE, Breithaupt. See Brews- 


DiAKLASE. See Diaclasite. 

Diallage, Haiiy. A variety of Augite, 
including Bronzite and Schiller-spar (in 
part). Oblique, The crystals are usually 
thick and stout. Colour various shades of 
green, grey and brown. Lustre vitreous, 
sometimes pearly. Transparent at the edges, 
or opaque. Streak white-grey. Structure 
laminated, with cleavage parallel to the sides 
and diagonals of a slightly rhombic prism. 
Brittle, Fracture conchoidal — uneven. 
Yields to the knife. H. 6 to 6. S.G. 3-11 
to 3-22. 

Comp. R Si, or one atom of silica to each 

atom of base, E consisting of lime, magnesia, 
protoxide of iron, protoxide of manganese, or | 
even soda in variable proportions. There is 
also generally present from 1 to 4 per cent, 
of alumina, which usually replaces silica, 
and enters into the composition without 
changing essentially the crystallization ; 
and 5 to 4 per cent, of water. 

Analysis, from the Gabbro of Prato, near 
Florence, by Kohler : 

Silica 53-20 

Lime 19-09 

Magnesia .... 14-91 
Protoxide of iron . . 8*67 
Protoxide of manganese . 0*38 
Alumina .... 2-47 
Water 1-77 


This gives nearly the formulae 30(Ca Mg 

Fe) Si + i'l Si2 +2H. 

BB on charcoal, fuses with difficult}' at 
the edges to a grey slag; with borax forms 
a glass coloured with iron. , 

Localities. Generally occurs with serpen- 
tine, or forming a constituent of diallage | 
rock. It is found in the serpentine of the 
Lizard district in Cornwall, and in the ser- | 
pentineof Portsoy in Banffshire. Landlefoot, 1 
near Ballantrae. in Ayrshire, The Alic Hills 
of Aberdeenshire. Baste in the Forest of 


Harzburg in lhe Harz. Massive or disse- 
minated near Geneva, and on Monte Eosa in 

Name. From S;aXA.<»y-^, difference, alluding 
to the dissimilar cleavage. 

Brit. Mus., Case 2o. 

M. P. G., Horse-shoe Case, 1088. Upper 
Gallery, Wall-case 5, Nos. 10 to 37, 

DiALLAGE Chatoyante. See Schiller- 


LoiDE, Huity. See Bronzite. 

Diallage Metalloide, Haxiy. See 
DiALLAGE and Hypersthene. 

Diallage Veute, Haiiy. See Smarag- 


DiALLOGiTE, Beudant. Hexagonal : pri- 
mary form a rhomb. Occurs very com- 
monly in saddle-shaped lenticular crystals; 
also massive. Colour rose red and flesh -red. 
Lustre vitreous inclining to pearly. Trans- 
lucent. Streak white. Structure lamellar. 
Scarcely scratches glass, and yields to the 
knife. Brittle. Fracture uneven. H. 3-5 to 
4-5. S.G. 3-4 to 3-6. 

Fig. 144. 

Comp. Mn C = carbonic acid 38 "2, protoxide 
of manganese, 61-8 = 100-0. The Mn is 
usually replaced partially by Ca, Fe, and 
Mg ; so that the composition may be repre- 
sented generally by the formula (Mn, Ca, 

Fe, Mg) C. 

Analysis, from Freiberg, by Stromeyer : 
Carbonate of manganese . 73 70 
Carbonate of lime . . 13"08 
Carbonate of iron * . . 5'76 
Carbonate of magnesia . 7"26 
Water 0-05 


Decrepitates when heated. 

BB becomes brown or greyish-black, but 
is infusible without addition. 

Very slowdy soluble in cold, and rapidly 
in warm muriatic acid. 

On exposure to the air assumes a brown 
tint, and the bright rose-red varieties be- 
come paler. 

Localities. — English. The mines near 
Oswe.stry, in Shropshire. Hartshill, War- 
wickshire. — Irish. Glendree, near Tulla, co. 

DIAMOND. " 109 

Clare, &c. — Foreign. Freyberg and other 
mines in Saxon a'. Those of Kapnik, Nagyag, 
and Oflfenbanj^a in Transylvania. Near El- 
bingerode in" the Harz. In a pulverulent 
form, coating Triplite, at Washington, Con- 
necticut, U.S. Placentia Bay, Newfound- 
land ; of a fawn or chestnut -brown colour 
in Silurian slates. 

Diallogite may be distinguished from 
Rhodonite, or Manganese Spar, by its in- 
ferior hardness. It generally occurs in me- 
talliferous veins with ores of silver, lead, and 
copper, as well as with other ores of manga- 
nese, both massive and in botryoidal con- 
cretions lining cavities. 

Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 
13 (British). 

DiAMANT. French for Diamond. 

DiAMANT d'Alencon. See Smoky 
Quartz. ' 

Diamond. Cubical. Frequently in twin 
crystals, with faces often convex. Plane of 
composition octahedral. Cleavage highly 
perfect. Rarely massive. Lustre brilliant ada- 
mantine. Colour white or colourless, occa- 
sionally with tints of yellowy red, orange, 
green, brown, or black. Transparent to 
translucent when dark coloured. Fracture 
conchoidal. H. 10. S.G. 3-5295 to 3-55. 

Exhibits vitreous electricity when rubbed. 

Index of refraction 2-489, being often irre- 
gular, owing probably to the same cause 
which has produced the convexity of its 

Becomes phosphorescent on exposure to 
the light, and the smaller Diamonds become 
phosphorescent by a much shorter exposure 
than those of larger size. 

Fig. H5 

Fig. 146. Fig. 147. 

Comp. Pure carbon crystallized. Burns 


at a temperature of 14° Wedgwood, and is 
wholly consumed, producing carbonic acid 
gas ; also combustible in oxygen gas and in 
the oxyhydrogen flame, and in the electric 
arc is converted into coke and graphite. 

The Diamond has in all ages been held 
in the highest estimation. 

The most valuable are perfectly colourless. 
There is rarely more than one tinge of colour 
in the same stone, but, Avhile it is consider- 
ably deteriorated by a dull or faint tint, its 
commercial value, on the other hand, is 
greatly enhanced by a well-defined tint of 
pink, green, or blue. 

Diamonds are weighed in carats (151J of 
which make one ounce troy) of o'16 or 3^ 
grains each. The medium value of a Dia- 
mond, when rough, is £2, and the value of 
rough Diamonds of greater weight is esti- 
mated by multiplying the square of their 
M'eight in carats by 2, which gives the value 
in pounds. Example: — To find, the value 
of a rough Diamond 2 carats in weight. The 
square of the weight 2x2 — 4, this multi- 
plied by 2 = 4x2 =£8, the value of a Dia- 
mond of two carats. 

The price of polished Diamonds is much 
greater, for, amongst other reasons, the pro- 
cess of pohshing is so uncertain, that the 
cutters think themselves fortunate in retain- 
ing one half the original weight, and the 
greater number of the Diamonds found are 
very small in size, their rarity increasing at 
a rapid rate in proportion to their weight. 
The average weight and size of Diamonds 
may be learned from the results of an exa- 
mination of 1000 stones bj'- Professor Ten- 
nant, who found that, out of the entire 
number, one half weighed less than half a 
carat, 300 less than 1 carat. 80 weighed 1^ 
carats, 119 varied from 2 to 20 carats, and 
1 weighed 24 carats. 

A polished Diamond, of the purest water, 
well cut, and free from flaws, is worth £8 ; 
above that weight the value is calculated by 
multiplying the square of the weight in 
carats by 8. Thus : the value of a polished 
Diamond of 2 carats = 2 x 2 x 8 = £32 : the 
value of a polished stone of 3 carats 3 x 3 x 
8 = £72, and so on. 

Above 10 carats the price increases in 
such a rapid ratio, that few persons can 
afford to purchase the larger stones, and it 
therefore becomes difficult to sell them at 
their calculated value. 

The natural cleavage is taken advantage 
of by the native jewellers in the East, who 
form table Diamonds by adroitly striking the 
stone placed between two sharp-edged tools. 

The art of cutting and polishing Diamonds 


was discovered by Louis van Bei*quen, a] 
citizen of Bruges, in 1456, previously to 
which time the Diamond was only knowu' 
in its rough, or in its cleaved state. 

The cutting is effected (chiefly by Jews' 
at Amsterdam), by means of a scharf or 
mill, consisting of an iron wheel about 10 
inches in diameter, which is made to re- 
I volve horizontally with great rapidity, from" 
j 2000 to 3000 times in a minute. The stone, 
[ imbedded in pewter at one end of an arm, is 
pressed on the wheel, smeared with diamond- 
dust and oil, by means of weights varying 
from 2 to 80 lbs., and regulated according to 
the amount of pressure it may be considered 
necessary to produce. 

The ancients did not possess the art of 
polishing the Diamond, but its extreme 
hardness, and the regularity of its form, 
coupled with its rarity and supposed inde- 
structibility, caused them to attach a high 
value to it, and to endue it with many sup- 
posed virtues. 

Although Diamonds do not appear to have 
been so much in request with the Komans 
as pearls, the former are, nevertheless, de- 
scribed by Pliny as amongst the most valua- 
ble of human possessions. 

From its extreme hardness, which was be- 
lieved to be sufficient to shiver both the ham- 
mer with which it was struck, as well as the 
anvil on Avhich it was placed, and the impossi- 
bilit}'- of rendering it red hot by the most vio- 
lent heat, it was called «S«w.ot5-, (or unconquer- 
able ), b}' the Greeks, a name which has been 
adopted by the moderns, though applied in- 
differently to the loadstone as well as the 
Diamond. It was also imagined to destroy 
the effect of poisons, and to cure insanity. 

In the East it is still supposed by the 
credulous to act as a preservative against 
lightning, and to cause the teeth to fall out 
when placed in the mouth ; but the last bad 
quality has been disputed by one author, 
who supports his objection (with some show 
of reason), by stating that diamond -powder 
has been used as a dentifrice without pro- 
ducing such injurious effects upon the teeth. 

Owing to the general resemblance be- 
tween Kock Crystal and Diamond, the 
former is called in the East kacha, or unripe, 
and the latter joa^/fa, or ripe Diamond. 

In addition to its value as a precious stone, 
the Diamond is employed for engraving and 
cutting glass, in splinters for drilling, and, 
reduced to powder, for polishing and cutting 
other gems. Diamond-powder, being worth 
£50 per ounce, is too expensive to be used 
alone ; and it is, therefore, generally mixed 
with emery, and applied to the mill with 


oil. Diamonds have, also, been made into 
lenses for microscopes, but the advantage 
resulting from its slight chromatic aberra- 
tion, and the large tield of view it conse- 
quently affords, is counterbalanced by an 
irregufaritv of internal structure which' ren- 
ders it unfit for the purpose, even when suf- 
ficiently clear. 

The largest Diamond of which there is 
any record is that described by Tavernier as 
belonging to the Great Mogul. It was found 
in 1550 in the mine of Colone, and, in its 
original state, weighed 900 carats or 2844 
grains, but was reduced in cutting to 272*46 
carats, or 861 grains. 

The following are the names and weights 
of some celebrated Diamonds : — * 
Eussian diamond, 194 carats, sold for 

£90,000 and an annuity of £4,000. 
Austrian diamond, 139 carats, valued at 

Kegent or Pitt diamond, 136^ carats (430-55 

grains), sold for£12o,0i'0. 
Pisjott diamond, 49 carats, valued at 

Blue diamond, 44^ carats, valued at 

jSTassuck diamond, 11'23 carats (35| grains), 

purchased by the Marquis of Westminster 

for £7,200. 

The most celebrated Diamond of modern 
times is the Koh-i-noor f, Avhich became the 
property of the Queen of England on the 
annexation of the Funjaub by the E. I. 
Company in 1850. In addition to its intrin- 
sic value, this Diamond is highly interesting 
from its great antiquity and the historical 
associations connected with it. It is re- 
puted to be 4,000 years old by Indian tra- 
ditions ; certainly 50 b. c. it is said to have 
belonged to the Rajah of Mjayin, and to 
have remained in the possession of his suc- 
cessors until India was subdued by the 

It is mentioned by Tavernier in 1665, as 
the property of the Mogul Emperor. He 
says it weighed 279-9_ carats, and was esti- 
mated to be worth half a million sterling. 
The original weight is various!}' stated at 
787J and 793 carats. It was called Koh-i- 
noor, or " the hill of lustre," in allusion to 
Mount Sinai in Arabia, where God appeared 
in glory to man. 

* Models of these and other celebrated Dia- 
monds are exhibited at the Museum of Practical 
Oeolo^v. See Horse-shoe Ca^e on the Principal 
Fioor, Nos. 5 to 16. 

t see M. F G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 11, for 
models oi tue Koh-inoor (and pendants), both in 
its original and in its present state. 

DIAMOND. 11 r 

When brought to this country it mea- 
sured about 1§ inch in its greatest diame- 
ter and above | of an inch in thickness, and 
weighed 186 ^'g carats. The beauty of the 
stone being greatly marred by its irregu- 
larity of form and the imperfect manner in 
which it had been cut (the principal face 
and one or the largest sides having been 
discovered by Mr. Tennant to be merely 
cleavage-planes, one, to all appearance, not 
polished), it was determined to recut it. 
This was skilfully and successfully accom- 
plished by the Messrs. Garrard in 38 da3's, 
each of 12 hours' uninterrupted labour. Al- 
though the weight of the stone has been re- 
duced from 186-1, to 103| carats, its bril- 
liancy and general appearance have been 
greatly improved. 

From a careful examination of the stone 
before it was recut. Prof. Tennant arrived at 
the conclusion that it had originally formed 
a portion of a larger Diamond, the form of 
Avhich -was a rhombic dodecahedron. He 
also suggested that the great Russian Dia- 
mond, and another slab weighing 130 carats, 
had been taken from it. This division of 
the original dodecahedron into three, was, 
most likely, the result of accident, as a very 
slight blow inadvertently struck in the 
direction of the planes of cleavage, in set- 
ting the stone, or a fall, would have the 
effect of causing it to split in the manner 
pointed out. Possibly the slab alluded to 
above may have formed the diamond, with 
a flat surface, nearly as valuable as the Koh- 
i-noor, which Forbes, in his Oriental Me- 
moirs*, describes as being with it in the 
royal treasury at Ispahan, and called the 
Doriainoor, " the ocean of lustre." 

Both these jewels formed part of the plun- 
der seized by Nadir Shah at the taking of 
Delhi in 1739, when the riches he carried off 
exceeded £70,000,000 in value.f 

The most celebrated mines of India were 
those of Golconda, in the territory of the 
Nizam ; and at Raolcondal, near Visiapoor, 
in the Mahratta empire. The Koh-i-noor 
was found in the former district at Purteal, 
between Hyderabad and Masulipatam, but 
now there are only one or two places of ex- 
ploration, and the mines have gradually be- 
come all but valueless, since the discovery of 
the diamond mines of Brazil in 1728. Dia- 
monds also occur in Bundelcund, near Panna, 
and on the Mahanuddy, near Ellore. 

* Vol. ii. p. 84. 

t An interesting history of the Koh-i-noor will 
be found in R. Hunt's Handbook of the Great Ex- 
hibiiion of iH'il . See also Ute's Dictionary of Ails, 
S;c. 5th Edition, vol. 11., p. 17, art. Diamond. 


Diamonds, when cut, are called Brilliants, 
rose Diamonds or rosettes, and table Dia- 
monds. Of these the brilliant displays the 
lustre of the stone to the greatest advan- 
age, and is the most esteemed. 


The following figures (148 to 164) show- 
ing the different forms and sizes of pohshed 
Diamonds, will render intelligible tie vari- 
ous modes of cutting them better than a 
mere verbal description. 

Fig. 163. 

Fig. 162. 

Fig. 148. Oval Brilliant. 
Fig. 149. Oval Brilliant, under side. 
Fig. 150. Brilliant of 1 carat. 
• Fig. 151. Brilliant of 10 carats. 
Fig. 152. Brilliant of 20 carats. 
Fig. 153. Round Brilliant, 
Fig. 154. Round Brilliant, under side. 
Fig. 155. Drop Brilliant. 
Fig. 156. Drop Brilliant, under side. 

Jn Jigs lis to 152 the horizontal lines bene; 
stone, and the small facets below the horizontal 

Fig. 164. 

Fig. 157. Rose Diamond of 1 carat. 
Fig. 158. Rose Diamond of 10 carats. 
Fig. 159. Rose Diamond of 20 carats. 
Fig. 160. Round Rose Diamond. 
Fig. 161. Oval Rose Diamond. 
Fig. 162. Drop Hose Diamond. 
Fig. 163. Side view of Brilliant. 
Fig. 164. Side view of Rose Diamond. 

!th each figure represent the depth of the 
lines in figs. 150 to 152 the size of the collet. 

Diamonds appear to occur generally in 
countries where there is a laminated rock 
called Itacolumite. They are procured by 
washing, either from the soil or from super- 
ficial deposits. At Minas Geraes in the 
Brazils, there are two of these Diamond- 
bearing deposits ; the one a gravel composed 
of broken fragments of Quartz covered with 
a thin layer of sand or earth — which is 
called gurgulho, the other called cascalho, 
(See if. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1) 
made up of rolled pebbles of Quartz in a 
base cf fei-ruginous clays — the whole, as 
well as the talcose clay on which it rests, 
being the debris of talcose rocks. The 
finest Diamonds are found in the gurgulho. 

There are also mines called Bagugem in 
the province of Minas Geraes, on the banks 
of the river Patrocinho, which have pro- 
duced some large stones : one in 1851 weigh- 
ing 117 carats, and another more recently 
of 247^ carats. 

The most celebrated mines are situated to 
the north of Eio Janeiro, on the rivers 
Jequetinhonha and Pardo : it has lately, also, 
been found in Bahia, at the mines of Surua 
and Cincora on the river Cachoeira, but the 
quality of the Cincora Diamonds is inferior 
to those of Minas Geraes or Cuyaba. 

The Uralian Diamonds occur in the de- 
tritus along the Adolfskoi rivulet, where it 
is worked for Gold, and also at other places. 
A few Diamonds have also been found in 
Georgia and N. Carolina, also in Rutherford 
CO., N. C , and Hull co. Ga., in the United 
States ; in Australia, on the banks of the 
Tur-on ; at Pontiana in Borneo, on the west 
side of the Eatoos mountain, and on the 
river Gunil in the province of Constantine 
in Algiers. 

Brit. Mus., Case 4. 
M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1 to 9. 
Case 11. (The first diamond brought to 
this country from Australia.) 
DiAMo:sD Spak. See Corundum. 
DiAKiUM. A new metallic acid, belonging 
to the same group Avith tantalic and niobic 
acids, discovered by Von Kobell in Euxenite, 
iEschynite, Samarskite, and in a Tantalise 
from Tammela. It also exists, though in a 
less pure state, in the Tantalite of Greenland, 
in the Pyrochlore of the Ilmengebirge, and in 
the brown Wohlerite. 

The Tantalite from Tammela, which Von 
Kobell calls Dianite, has a dark, brownish- 
red streak and a specific gravity of o'o, while 
other Tantalites vary in density from 7-06 
to 7-3, and have a dark grey streak. 

Titanic acid is easily distinguished from 


other acids of the same group, by boiling 
it with muriatic acid and tin, and diluting 
the solution with water. The blue colour 
then passes to rose red, and the solution re- 
tains this colour several days. When 
Dianic acid is present, the blue colour pre- 
dominates, but, after standing some hours, 
the rose colour of Titanic acid appears. 

BB Dianic acid behaves like the Tantalite 
of Kimito. 

DiAPHORiTE. See Allagite, 
DiASPORE, Haiiy, Philips, Nicol. Rhom- 
bic : usually crystallized in thin flattened 
prisms, sometimes acicular. Also occurs 
massive, in slightly curved laminse, which 
may be easily separated, of a greenish-grey 
colour, Avith a shining pearly lustre : also in 
cellular masses, with a pearly lustre, inter- 
cepting each other in all directions, and of a 
brown hue externally, but perfectly colour- 
less and transparent when reduced to thin 
laminae. Verv brittle. Scratches glass. 
H. 6-5 to 7. S".G. 3-43. 

Fig. 165. 

Comp. Hydrate of alumina, or Al H=alu^ 
mina 851, water 14-9 = 100-0. 

Analysis from Siberia by Dufrenoy : 
Alumina . . ' . . 74 66 

Water 14-58 

Peroxide of iron . . . 4-51 
Silica . . . .2 90 

Lime and magnesia . .1-64 


Heated in a glass tube decrepitates vio- 
lently, and crumbles into small, white, bril- 
liant scales, which evolve water when more 
strongly heated. 

BB infusible, alone. 

Not soluble in boiling muriatic acid, which 
only extracts the oxide of iron mechanically 
mixed with it. 

Localities. Near Kosoibrod, district of 
Katherinenburg, in the Ural. Schemnitz. 
Broddbo, near Fahlun, in Sweden. St. Gott- 
hard, in dolomite. The Grecian archipelago, 
with Emery. 

Name. From hatr^ii^w, to disperse; from 
decrepitating and being dispersed when 
placed in the flame of a candle or BB. 

Diaspore may be distinguished from Kj-a- 
nite, to some varieties of which it bears a 
close resemblance, by its superior lustre. 



Brit. Mas., Case 19. 

DiAsTALiTE. A variety of Hornblende, 
from Wermland. According to Breithaupt, 
the angle of the prism differs one degree 
from that of Hornblende. S.G 3-09 to 3-1. 

DiATOMOUS EuKLAS Haloid, Haidinger. 
See Cobalt Bloom. 

DiATOMOUS Gypsum Haloid, Haid- 
inger. See Haidingerite. 

DiATOMOUS HabronemMalachit, iJfb^s. 
See Aphanesite. 

Dichromatic Euklas Haloid, Haid- 
inger. See ViviANiTE. 

Dichlorid of Mercury, Thomson. See 

DiCHROiTE, Cordier. (From S;j,rfoa5Ze, and 
%§o/os, colour^. A name for lolite, in allusion 
to its dichroism, or exhibition of different 
colours when viewed in different directions. 

DiGENiTE, Breithaupt. A variety of 
Copper-glance from Chili and Sangerhausen 
in Thuringia. S.G. 4-56 to 4-68. 

Comp. (1 of Copper-glance and 3 of 
Covelline). -C-u S+3Cu S = Gu5 S*. 

Brit. Mus., Case 7. 

DiHYDRATE OF Alumina, Thomson. 

DiHYDRiTE, Hermann. See Phosfho- 


DiLLNiTE. A substance allied to Colly- 
rite, found in the gangue of the Diaspore of 
Schemnitz, in Hungary. It is white and 
firm fH. 3-5), or earthy (H. i-8 to 2) ; S.G. 
2-57 to 2-83. 

Comp. A13 isi + 4i H = silica 2439, 
alumina 54-23, water 21-38 = 100. 
Analysis by Karafiat : 

Sihca 23-53 

Alumina .... 5300 

Lime 0-88 

Magnesia . . . .1-76 
Water 20 05 

Name. After the village of Dilln, near 
which it is found. 
Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Dimagnetite, Shepard. A pseudo- 
morph of Magnetite, found in slender rhom 
bic prisms, at Monroe, Orange co., New 
York, U, S. Dana considers that the 
mineral imitated is probably Lievrite; but 
Heddle ascertaining certain needle-crystals, 
usually considered to be Gbthite, which 
occur in drusy cavities in the porphyritic 
trap of Gourock in Renfrewshire, to be 
Magnetite, supposes them to be Dimagne- 
tite, and infers that mineral to be a pseudo- 

morphous form after Gothite instead of 

Brit. Mus., Case 14, 

DiMANTHOin. Rolled Garnets somewhat 
resembling Diamonds in form. From Niigny 
Tagilsk,in theUr;ilian Mountains of Siberia. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 902. 

DiMORPHiNE. Orpiment found with 
Realgar, so named by Scacchi, because he 
ccmsidered it to be a particular sulphide of 
arsenic susceptible of assuming incompatible 

Rhombic. Crystals not exceeding half 
a millimetre (-018 inch) in their longest 
diameter. Colour orange-yellow; powder 
saffron-yellow. Lustre adamantine. Trans- 
lucent and transparent. Fragile. H. 1*5. 
S.G. 3-58 

Comp. As4,S3 =^ arsenic 75 45, sulphur 
24-55 = 100 00. 

Heated in a porcelain crucible affords an 
agreeable odour and t rns red ; with more 
heat becomes brown, gives off A'ellow fumes, 
and entirely evaporates: with soda gives 
out an odour of garlic. 

Soluble in nitric acid. 

Locality. Vesuvius; in the fumaroles of 
the Solfatara, Phlegrsean fields, near Naples. 

M. P .G. Upper Gallery, Table-case A 
in recess 4, No. 147. 

DiNirE, JMeneghini. An organic com- 
pound resembling ice in appearance, but 
with a tinge of yellow due to a foreign 
substance. It is met with forming aggre- 
gations or druses of crj^stals, in a lignite 
deposit at Lunigiana, in Tuscany. It is 
inodorous and tasteless. Frai^ile and easily 
reduced to powde Insoluble in water; 
slightly soluble in alcohol, but A'^ery soluble 
in ether, and in sulphide of carbon. Fuses 
with tlie warmth of the hand to a yellow- 
ish oily-looking liquid ; which, on cooling, 
forms large transparent crN'stals. 

Na ae. After Professor Dini, by whom it 
was first found. 

DiopsiDE, Phillips, Nicol, Dana. A 
variety ot Augite. Oblique : primary form 
an oblique rhombic prism, like that of 
Augite. Occurs in prismatic crystals, which 
are colourless or various shades of green; 
and translucent or transparent. They are 
generally striated longitudinalh', have a 
shining lustre, and may be cleaved parallel 
with the planes of the primary prism. 
Scarcely scratchr-s glass. H. 5 to 6. S.G. 
3 31. 

Comp. Monosilicate of lime and mag- 
nesia, or Ca Si + Mg Si=lime 25-46, mag- 
nesia 18-18, silica 56-36 = 100-00. 


Analysis, from Fassa, by Wackenroder : 

Lime 2474 

Magnesia . . . • . 18-22 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-18 
Protoxide of iron . . . 2*50 

Silica 45*16 

Almnina . , . . 0*20 


BB alone fuses to a colourless, almost 
transparent glass. 

Localities. In translucent crystals, in 
veins traversing Serpentine at Ala, in Pied- 
mont, accompanied by Epidote, Hyacinth, 
red Garnet, and green Talc. The more 
transparent crystals from this locality are 
sometimes cut and worn as gems. 

Nome. From Itk, through, and o-^t?, ap- 
pearance ; in allusion to its occasional trans- 

Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1033. 

DioPSiDE BACCILLAIRE, Dufrenoy. See 
MussiTE, Breislakite. 

DiopsiDE compacte, Dufrenoy. See 
Shekzoute, Karlibinite. 

DioPSiDE GRANULiFOKME, Dufrenoy, See 


DiOPTASE, Hady, Nicol, Dana. Silicate 
of Copper. Hexagonal. Colour emerald- 
green. Lustre vitreous. Transparent to 
translucent Streak green. Brittle. Fracture 
conchoidal. H. 5. S.G. 3-27 to 3-34. 

Fig. 165*. 

Comp. Silicate of copper or Cu^ Si^ +3H 
= silica, 38-3, oxide of copper 50-3, water 
Analysis hy Hess : 
Oxide of copper 
Silica . 

Lime . 
Water . 

. 45-10 
. 36-85 
. 2-36 
. 3-39 
. 0-22 
. 11-62 

BB decrepitates, tinging the flame yel- 
lowish green ; becomes black in the outer 

red in the inner flame, but does not fuse. 

With borax fuses to a greeik globule, and is 
finally reduced. 

Dissolves in heated nitric or muriatic acid, 
•with the formation of a jelly of siUca. 


Localities, This scarce mineral occurs 
disposed on Quartz in small but well- 
defined crystals, at Altyn Tiibe, in the 
Kirghese steppes of Siberia. It is also found 
between Oberlahnstein and Braubach in the 
Duchy of Nassau, 

Name. From M'rTo/y.a.i, to see through, in 
allusion to the natural joints being visible 
by transmitted light. 

It may be distinguished from Emerald by 
inferior hardness, higher specific gravity, 
and by becoming negatively electric by 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

DioxYLiTE, Shepard. See Lanarkite. 
DiPHANiTE, Nordenskiold. A mineral 
allied to Margarite, found in the emerald 
mines of the Uralian mountains, together 
with Emerald, Cymophane, and Phenakite, 
on a brown micaceous slate. It forms regu- 
lar six-sided prisms with a perfect cleavage 
at right angles to the principal axes. The 
crystals appear blue and transparent on one 
side, and have a vitreous lustre ; but on the 
cleavage-faces the mineral appears white 
and opaque when in tolerably thick laminae, 
and has a mother-of-pearl lustre. Very 
brittle. H. 5 to 5-5. S.G. 3-04 to 3-07. 

Comp. 2(K2 Si) + 3A12 Si) + 4H. 

Analysis by Jewreinow ; 

Lime 13-11 

Protoxide of iron . . 8-02 
Protoxide of manganese . 1'05 
Alumina .... 43-33 

Silica 34-02 * 

Water 5-34 

BB becomes opaque, swells up, exfoli- 
ates, and fuses in the inner flame to a 
smooth enamel, with borax and microcos- 
mic salt, readily yields a clear glass which 
becomes yellowish on cooling ; whence the 
name Diphanite — from ^h double, and ?«v:jf, 


See Epistilbite. 

DiPLOiTE, Breithaupt. A variety of 
Anorthite. See Latrobite. 

DiPRiSMATic Copper Glance, Mohs. 
See Bournonite. 

DiPRisMATic EucLAS Haloid, Haidiu- 
ger. See Haidingerite. 

DiPRisMATic Iron Ore, Mohs. See 


DIPRISMATIC Hal Baryt. Mohs. See 


DiPRisiviATiC Lead Baryt, Mohs. See 


116 DIPTRE. 

DiPRiSMATic Olive Malachit, Moh ^ 


DiPYRE, Haiiy. Occurs in slender, indis- 
tinctly formed, four-sided prisms, rounded 
at the ends, and resembling grains of wheat ; 
also in small fascicular masses. Colour grey- 
ish-white or red dish -white. Lustre vitreous. 
Translucent to transparent. Opaque in 
weathered specimens. Easily frangible, lon- 
gitudinal fracture foliated. Scratches glass. 
H. above 4 when fresh. S.G. 2-64. 

Comp. 4 (Ca, Na) Si + 3 ^i,si = silica 
53-8, alumina 26-2, lime 9-5, soda 10-5 = 

nalysis by Delesse : 

Silica . 

. . 55-5 


. 24-8 


. 9-0 

Soda . . . 

. 9-4 

Potash . 

. . 0-V 


BB fuses with effervescence to a white 
blebby glass. 

Attacked with much difficulty by the 
strongest acids. 

Localities. A torrent near Mauleon, in the 
Western PjTenees, with Talc or Chlorite, 
in a soft clay-slate; Valley of Castillon, 
especially at Angomer. 

Name. From S'V, double, and ^H,fire; in 
allusion to the double effect of fire upon it, 
by fusing it, and rendering it slightly phos- 

Brit. Mus., Case 31. 


Mohs. See Molybdenite. 

Discrase, Leymerie ; DlsCRASTTE, Frobel. 
Rhombic : occurs in hexagonal prisms and 
stellate forms; also massive, disseminated, 
or in grains. The surfaces of the prisms are 
usually deeply striated longitudinalh- ; but 
those of other forms are smooth. Colour and 
streak between silver-white and tin-while, 
generally inclining to the former, often tar- 
nished yellow or reddish. Lustre metallic. 
Opaque.' Structure lamellar. Easily frangi- 
ble. Fracture flat conchoidal. Soft. Slightly 
malleable. H. 3-5 to 4-0. S.G. 9-44 to 9-8. 

Comp. Antimonide of silver, or Ag*, Sb 
= silver 77'01, antimony 22-99 = 100. 

Analysis, of a coarse-grained specimen 
from Wolfach, by Klaproth : 

Silver 76 

Antimony 24 

BB on charcoal, fuses readily, giving off 
antimonial fumes, which stain the charcoal, 


and is reduced to a grey, brittle, metallic 
globule, which becomes white on continu- 
ing the heati and solidifies, with incan- 
descence, to a crystalline globule on cooling, 
which, by further blowing, is converted into 
pure metallic silver. 

Soluble in nitric acid, leaving oxide of 

Localities. Altwolfach in Baden, andWit- 
tichen in Swabia, in veins, with Galena, 
Native Silver, Iron Pyrites, Blende, and 
other ores, in granite. In clay-slate, at 
Andreasberg, in the Harz. Allemont, in 
Dauphine. Casalla, near Guadalcanal, in 
Spain. The Goldberg, in Rauris, Salzburg. 
Near Coquimbo, S. America, &c. 

If this mineral were less rare, it would be 
a valuable ore of silver. It may be distin- 
guished from Native Silver by its brittle- 
ness and foliated fracture; from Smaltine 
by its fracture, which is foliated instead of 
granular and uneven ; from Arsenical Pyrites 
by fracture and hardness, the Pyrites hav- 
ing a fine-grained, uneven fracture, and 
giving sparks with steel. {Jameson.) 

Name. From S/V, two-fold, and xe.K(rn, mix- 
ture, in allusion to its composition. 

DisoMOSE, Beudant. See Gersdorffite. 
The name is derived from ^U, twice, and 
cLLoioi, like, because the formula is the same 
as for Grey Cobalt, where cobalt replaces 
nickel, and as for Antiraonickel where anti- 
mony replaces arsenic. 

DlSTERiTE, Dufrenoy; Disterrite. A 
variety of Clintonite, occurring in hexa- 
gonal prisms, in the valley of Fassa, Tyrol. 
H. of base 5; of sides 6 to Q'5. S.G. 3-04 
to 3-05. 

Analysis by v. Kdbell : 

Silica 20-00 

Alumina .... 43-22 
Magnesia . . . .25-01 

Lime 400 

Potash 0-57 

Peroxide of iron . . .3-60 
Water 3-60 


See Brandisite. 

Disthene, Haiiy. (from ^U, double, and 
trdivo;^ strength.) A name given by Haiiy to 
Kyanite, on account of its double electric 
powers; some crystals acquiring negative, 
others positive electricity by friction. 

Dodecahedral Corundum, Mohs. See 

Dodecahedral Dystome Glance, iHfoAs. 
See Tennantite. 

Dodecahedral Garnet, Mohs. See 



See Blende. 

DoDEOAHEDRAii Iron Ore, Mohs. See 


Dodecahedral Mercury, Mohs. See 
Native Amalgam. 

Dog's-tooth Spar. The name given to 
certain crystals of Calcite, from their fancied 
resemblance to the tooth of a dog. They 
have been found principally at Ecton, in 
Staffordshire, and in Derbyshire. Fig. 166. 

Fig. 166. 

DoLOMiE, Leymerie. Dolomite. The 
name applied to white crystals and granular 
varieties of carbonate of lime and carbonate 
of magnesia. H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 2-95 to 3-1. 

Fig. 169. 

Comp. Ca C + Mg C= carbonate of lime 
54'35, carbonate of magnesia 45-65 = 100"00, 
but carbonate of iron or carbonate of man- 
ganese, or both together, are generally pre- 

BB like Calcite ; some varieties become 
darker and harder. 

Soluble in acid, but more slowly than Cal- 

Localities. Crystallized at Leadhills, in 
Lanarkshire {Jig. 167). Jena, &c. ; also 
in the United States, at Richmond co., New 
York, and at Hoboken, New Jersey. Matea, 
a coral island near Tahiti. Granular Dolo- 
mite or magnesian limestone is found in the 
Pyrenees, Saxony, France, Sweden, and in 
Somersetshire, Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, 


&c.; at Building Hill, near Sunderland, it 
forms globular and radiated earthy-like 
concretions; and at Marsden, in the same 
neighbourhood, a schistose Dolomite, of a 
pale brownish-yellow colour is found, which, 
when split into thin pieces, is very flexi- 
ble. This quality is supposed to be owing 
to the water it contains, as it is nearly lost 
when the stone dries. 

Dolomite is said to be best suited for a 
building-stone, when it has a crystalline 

Name. After Dolomieu, the geologist. 

For varieties of Dolomite, see Pearl Spar, 
Brown Spar, Ankerite, Miemite, Gurhofite, 
and Brossite. 

Brit. Mus., Case 47. 

M.P.G. Horse- shoe Case, No. 438 (cry- 
stals) ; No. 215 (granular). 

Dolomite Sinter, v. Kohel. See Hydro- 
dolomite. A variety of Hydromagnesite, 
with part of the magnesia replaced by lime. 
It occurs on Somma, in isolated globular 
or stalactitic earthy masses, resembling Sin- 
ter, and of a white or yellowish colour. 

Comp. According to Rammelsberg3[(Mg, 
Ca)C + H]+MgH. 
Analysis by v. Kobell : 
Carbonic acid . . . 33"10 

Lime 25-22 

Ma:<nesia .... 24-28 
Water ..... 17-40 


Dolomite Spar, Jameson. See Bitter 

DoLOivnTic Ophiolite. The name given 
by T. Sterry Hunt to the varieties of Ser- 
pentine which contain intimate admixtures 
of Dolomite. 

Domeykite, Haidinger. Occurs reniform 
and botryoidal ; massive and disseminated. 
Colour tin-white; often with a slightly 
yellowish or iridescent tarnish. Lustre 
metallic. Fracture uneven. Also black and 
soft, soiling the fingers, when impure or de- 
composed. See CoNDURRiTE. H, 3 to 3-5. 
S.G. 4-5. 

Fig. 170. 

Comp. Arsenide of copper or -C-u^ As^ 
=copper 71-63, arsenic 28-37 = 100-00. 

Analysis, from Calabazo in Chili, bj 
Domeyko : 



Arsenic .... 28-36 
Copper 71-64 


BB fuses easily, with the odour of arsenic. 

Not soluble in muriatic acid. 

Localities. The Calabazo Mine near Co- 
quirabo ; Antonio Mine, Copiapo, Chili. 

Name. After M. Domeyko, Professor of 
Chemistry at Coquimbo. 

DoNACARGYKiTE. A scarce mineral con- 
sisting probably of a mixture of several 
sulph-antimonides of silver and lead. 

Brit. Mus., Case 10. 

DoppLESPAifi. See Calcite. 

DoPPLERlTE, Dufrenoy. An organic 
compound, occurring in thin plates or mas- 
sive, in peat, near Aussee, in Styria. It has 
a brownish-biack colour, with a dull brown 
streak and greasy snbvitreous lustre, when 
fresh ; and a reddish-brown colour by 
transmitted light when in thin plates. 

Comp. C^ H^ 05, or, according to Schrot- 
ter, it is a homogeneous peaty substance, 
from whose cellulose two parts of water have 
been remov^ed. 

Analysis by Schrotter ; 

Carbon 51-63 

Hydrogen . . . .5-34 
Oxygen .... 4303 

Name. After Mr. Doppler. 
DoRANiTE, Thomson, Greg 8^ Lettsom. A 
zeolitic mineral, probably allied to Anal- 
cime, in which the soda is replaced by mag- 
nesia. Occurs in aggregated translucent crys- 
tals of a yellowish-white colour. S.G. 2-15. 
Analysis by Thomson : 

Silica 48-00 • 

Alumina .... 2200 
Protoxide of iron . . . 2-75 

Lime 6-00 

Magnesia . . . . 13 00 
Water 7-70 


Locality. Two miles W. of Carrick- 
fergus, CO. Antrim, Ireland ; in basalt. 

Name, After Pat. Doran, late fossil col- 
lector to the Geological Survey of Ireland. 

Double Fluate of Cerium and 
Yttria, Phillips. Double refractlng 
Spae. See Calcite. 

Double refracting Spar. Gelf, Kir- 
wan. The name given in Hungary to "a par- 
ticular sort of Ai-gentiferous Copper Pyrites." 

Dragees de Tivoli. Pisolite, which, 
•when broken, exhibits calcareous matter 
covering a nucleus composed of some other 


substance, and thus acquiring the appearance 
of confectionary comfits. 

Dre ELITE, ^w/rgnoy. Hexagonal: occurs 
in small truncated rhombohedrons. Colour 
and streak white. Lustre pearly ; externally 
dull, splendent on surfaces of fracture. H. 
3-5. S.G. 3 3. 

Comp. Sulphate of lime and baryta, or 

CaS + 2BaS. 

Analysis, by Dufrp.noy : 

Sulphate of baryta 

. 61-730 

Sulphate of lime 

. 14-275 

Carbonate of lime 

. 8'050 

Silica .... 

. 9-710 


. 2-405 

Lime . 

. 1-520 


. 2-310 


BB fuses to a white blistered glass, which 
is coloured blue by nitrate of potash. 

Localities. In small rhombohedral crystals, 
disseminated over the surface, and in the 
cavities of a quartzose rock, near Beaujeu, 
Dep. of the Ehone, in France. Badenweiler, 

Named after the Marquis de Dree. 

Drop -STONES. Stalagmite. See also 
Dragees de Tivoli. 

DucKTOsvNiTE. The name proposed by 
Prof. C. U. Shepard for a substance which 
is stated by Prof. G. J. Brush, by whom it 
has been examined, to be "a mixture of 
Iron Pyrites, and a rich sulphide of copper, 
which, if obtained pure, Avould probably 
prove to be Copper Glance." It is found at 
the Ducktown Copper mine, in Eastern Ten- 
nessee, U.S. 

Dufrenite, Brongniart. Rhombic : dull 
leek-green, or blackish-green, in needles, ar- 
ranged in small radiated masses, with a 
weak silky lustre. The colour changes on 
exposure to yellow and brown. Streak olive- 
green. Slightly translucent. H. 3-5 to 4. 
S.G. 3-2 to 3-4. 

Comp. Phosphate of peroxide of iron, or 

^e2P + 3H = peroxide of iron 61*32, phos- 
phoric acid 28'07, water 100-00. 

Analysis, from Haute Vienne, by Van- 
quelin : 

Peroxide of iron . . . 56-20 
Protoxide of manganese . 6-76 
Phosphoric acid . . . 27-84 
Water 9-20 

Extremely fusible, melting even in the 
flame of a candle. 

BB fuses easily to a black opaque glass. 
Localiiies. Department of la Haute Vienne, 
in France ; at Anglar, near Limoires. Siegen, 
in Prussia. (See Greicn Iron Ore.) 

Name. Named after Dufre'noy, Professor 
of Mineralogy. 

• DuFPENOYSiTE, Damour. Cubical. Colour 
steel-grey. Lustre metallic. Streak reddish- 
brown. Brittle. Fracture uneven. S.G. 5*074 
to 5 55. 
I Qnnp. 2PbS + AsS3 = lead 67-2, sulphur 

I 22-1, arsenic 20 -7 -100. 

' A.nalysis, bv Damour : 

Lead .' . . . .56-61 
Sulphur .... 22-30 
Ar.senic . . . . 20 87 

Iron 0-32 

Copper . . . .0-22 
Silver 0-17 

BB fuses easily, j'ielding sulphurous and 
arsenical fumes and a globule of lead. 
Dissolves in acids. 

Localities St. Gotthard in small veins in 
Dolomite, with Realgar, Orpiment, Blende 
and Pyrites. Valley of Binnen in the can- 
ton of Valais, in Dolomite, with Realgar. 

Name, After Dufrenoy, late Professor of 
Mineralog}'' at the Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Paris. 

Brit. Mus., Case 11. 

DuNGiVEN Crystals. Yellow or smoky 
Rock Crystal, found in large, and sometimes 
very perfect, detached crystals, imbedded in 
the soil at Finglen Mountain, close to Dun- 
given, in the parish of Banagher, in Ire- 

DusoDiT.E. See Dysodile. 
Dyoxylite, Shepard. See Lanarkite. 
Dysclasite, Coiinel. This mineral was 
formerly supposed to be a variety of Meso- 
type, but was subsequently described as a 
distinct species by ConneL It is now re- 
garded as a kind of Okeuite. S.G. 2-362. 
Analysis by Connel : 

Silica 57-69 

Lime 26-83 

Protoxide of manganese . 0-22 

Potash 0-23 

Soda 0-44 

Peroxide of iron . . .0-32 


Locality. The Faroe Isles. 

Name. From ^i*?, difficultly, and ;sX«/&;, to 
break, in allusion to the time and labour 
required to break a mass into smaller frag- 
ments, in consequence of its extreme tougn- 


Dyskolite. See Saussurite. 
Dysluite. a Zinc-Manganese-and-Tron- 
Spinel of a yellowish-brown or greyish- 
brown colour, occurring at Sterling, in New 
Jersey, U. S., with Franklinite and Wille- 
mite. S.G. 4-55. 

Comp. (Zn Mn) (Al ¥q). 

Dyslytite, Shepard. Occurs as a black- 
ish-brown powder in many meteorites, of 
which it generally constitutes from 0-25 to 
225 per cent. It is supposed to be a phos- 
phide of iron, nickel, and magnesium. 

Name. From ^vo-xOto;, insoluble. 

D^SODILE, Cordier, Phillips. A combus- 
tible mineral, found in secondary limestone, 
at Melili, near Syracuse, in Sicily, of a yel- 
lowish or greenish- grej- colour, either com- 
pact or in foliated masses, composed of thin 
paper- like thin and flexible leaves, contain- 
ing impressions of fish and dicotyledonous 
plants. It is extremely fragile, and emits 
an argillaceous odour when breathed on. It 
burns with a crackling noise, and consider- 
able flame and smoke, and gives out a very 
fetid smell ; whence it has acquired the 
name of Stet-cus Diaboli or Merda del Diavolo 
in Sicily. Macerated in water, it becomes 
translucent, and its laminae acquire flexi- 
bility. S.G. 1-146. 

It is also found in France, at Chateau 
Neuf, near Viviers, Dept. du Rhone ; Saint- 
Amand, in Auvergne, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Narbonne. 

Dystomic Augitb Spak, Haidinger. 


Dystomic Habkonem Malachit, Mohs. 
See Erinite. 

Dyssnite, v. Kohell. A kind of Fowlerite, 
resembling Marceline, but less hard. It is 
an aluminate of iron and manganese, oc- 
curring in granular metallic masses, at 
Franklin, New Jersey, U. S. 

Dysyntribite, Shepard. A massive, 
granular, or slaty and tough variety of 
Agalmatolite, somewhat resembling Ser- 
pentine in appearance, but of very variable 
composition. Colour dark green, greyish, 
or yellowish, sometimes mottled with red 
and' black. Almost dull. Tough. Fracture 
even, splintery. H. 3 to 3-5. S.G. 2-76 
to 2-81. 

Analysis, by Smith §• Brush : 

Silica 44-80 

Alumina . . » . 34-90 
Peroxide of iron . . . 3-01 

Lime 0-66 

Magnesia . . . ,0-42 

Potash 6-87 

Soda 3-60 

I 4 


Protoxide of manganese . O'SO 
Water 5-38 

BB fuses in thin fragments to a white 
porcellaneous mass. 

Localities. Rossie and Natural Bridge in 
Diana, St. Lawrence co., New Yoi'k ; gene- 
rally with Specular Iron. 


Eagltc Stone. Pliny. According to Kir- 
wan a kind of iron ore, consisting of a 
reniform crust of the oxide investing an 
ochreous kernel, which is sometimes loose. 

Earth Flax, Woodward. See Amian- 
thus and Asbestos. 

Earth-foam, Phillips. See Aphrite. 

Earthy Biiumen. Occurs massive, of a 
dull, blackish-brown colour, and an earthj^ 
and uneven fracture. It has a shining streak, 
and is so soft as to receive an impression 
from the nail. Smell strongly bituminous. 
Feel greasy. Burns with a clear and brisk 
flame, emits an agreeable bituminous smell, 
and deposits much soot. H. 2. S.G. 1-15. 

Localities.— Scotch. Hurlet, near Glas- 
gow, with Calcite; and in freestone at 
Binney quarries, near Edinburgh, where it 
is so abundant that the workmen make 
candles of it, and use it for domestic pur- 
poses ; also in East Lothian, Caithness, the 
Orkneys, &c. — Foi-eign. Persia, between 
Schiraz and Bender Congo. The vallev of 
Travers, in Switzerland. The Harz;''and 
near Prague, in Bohemia. 

Analysis of a specimen from Auvergne, 
by Ebelmeyi : 

Carbon 76-13 

Hydrogen . . . .9-41 
Oxygen . . . .10-34 
Nitrogen . . . .2 32 
Ash 1-80 

Earthy Carbonate of Magnesia, 
Phillips. See Meerschaum. 

Earthy Cobalt, Phillips, or Asbo- 
LAN. A Wad, of which oxide of co- 
balt forms a large proportion. Colour vari- 
ous shades of brown, ash, and bluish-black. 
Amorphous, massive, mammillary, botry- 
oidal, disseminated as a coating,'^and pul- 
verulent. The fracture of the massive 
varieties is earthy and dull, but the streak is 
black, shining, and resinous. Soils some- 
what. Yields easily to the knife. H. 1 to 
1-5. S.G. 2-22. 


Comp. Protoxide of cobalt with Oxide of 

Analysis of ore from Saalfeld, by Ram- 
melsherg : 

Potash ^ 0-37 

Baryta 0-50 

Protoxide of cobalt . . 19-45 

Lime 4-35 

Protoxide of manganese . 40-05 
Oxygen .... 9'47 
Peroxide of iron . . • . 4-56 
Water . . . . . 21-24 

According to Hammelsberg, the foregoing 
analysis would give the formula (Co, Cu)2 if n 

+ 4 H for the ore from Saalfeld. 

BB on charcoal does not fuse ; with borax 
forms a deep cobalt-blue coloured globule. 

Dissolves in cold, strong, muriatic acid, 
with copious evolution of chlorine, forming 
a brown solution, which turns blue when 
heated, and becomes red on cooling. 

Localities. — English. Cornwall, at Huel 
Unity, Huel Gorland. Alderley Edge, in 
Cheshire, in red sandstone. — Scotch. Lead- 
hills and Preston, in Stirlingshire. — Irish. 
Roscommon Cliffs, in the peninsula of 
Howth, near Dublin, in clay-slate. — Foreign. 
It also occurs at Nertschinsk, in Siberia ; at 
Riechelsdorf, in Hessia; at Schneeberg and 
Saalfeld, in Saxony ; in Bohemia ; Swabia ; 
Kitzbiichl. in the Tyrol ; AUemont, in Dau- 
phine; the valley of Gistain, in Spain, &c. 

The brilliancy of the streak afforded by 
this mineral, or which its surface attains 
when rubbed against a hard body, is very 

Brit. Mus., Case 17. 

31. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 20. 

Earthy Manganese, P/u7Z//js. See Wad. 

Earthy Mineral Pitch, Jameson. See 
Earthy Bitumen. 

Ecume de Mer, Brochant. See Meer- 

Ecume de Terre, Brochant. See Aph- 

Edelforsite. See ^delforsite. 

Edelitk or Edelith. A variety of 
Prehnite, from Edelfors. 

Analysis bv Walmstedt : 
Silica .'.... 43-08 
Alumina .... 19-30 
Peroxide of iron . . . 6-81 
Peroxide of manganese . 0*15 

Lime 26-28 

Water 4-43 


Edenite, Breithaupt. A whitish alu- 
minous Hornblende, from Edenville, in the 
United States. S.G. 3-059. 

nalysis by Rammehberg 

Silica . 

. 61-67 


. 5-75 

Peroxide of iron 

: 2-86 

Lime . 

. 12-42 


. 23-37 

Soda . . 

. 0-75 

Potash . 

. 0-84 

Loss by ignition 

. 0-46 

Edingtonit, Haidinger, Hausmann, Nau- 
niann ; Edingtonite, Dana, Phillips, Greg §• 
Lettsom. Pyramidal, hemihedral : primary 
form an octahedron, with a square base. Oc- 
curs in extremely distinct, greyish-white, 
translucent crystals, noneof which are known 
to exceed f ths of an inch across. Lustre 
vitreous. Streak white. Brittle. Fracture 
imperfect-conchoidal, uneven. H. 4 to 4-5. 
S.G. 2-69 to 2-71. 

Fig. 171. 

Fig. 172. 

Comp. 3 Ba Si + 4A1 Si + 12 H= silica 
37-263, alumina 23-751, baryta 26-524, water 
12-462 = 100. 

Analysis by Heddle : 

Silica . 

, 36-98 


. 22-63 

Barvta . 

. 26-54 


. 0.22 


. 008 

Soda . 

. trace 

Water . 

. 12-46 


BB fuses with difficulty to a colourless 
glass, after having given off water, and be- 
come white and opaque. 

Locality. This rare mineral is met with 
near Old Kilpatrick, in Dumbartonshire, 
and is named after Mr. Edington, by whom 
it was first discovered in 1823. 

Brit. Mus., Case 28. 

Edler Opal, Werner. See Precious 

Edwardsite, Shepard. A variety of 
Monazite. Occurs in oblique rhombic prisms. 
Colour hyacinth-red. Transparent to trans- 


lucent. Lustre vitreous to adamantine. 
Streak white. H. 4-5. S.G. 4-2 to 4-6. 

Fig. 173. 

Comp. Sesquiphosphate 

of cerium. 

Analysis : 

Protoxide of cerium . 


Phosphoric acid . 









Silica . . . 



Glucina, magnesia, protoxide 

of iron 


BB in minute fragments, loses its red 
colour, and becomes pearl-grey, with a tinge 
of yellow, and fuses with difficulty at the 
edges to a transparent glass. 

In a powdered state si owl}' soluble in aqua- 

Locality. Disseminated through Buchol- 
zite, in gneiss, at the falls of the Yantic, in 
Norwich, Connecticut, U. S. 

Name. After Heniy W. Edwards, governor 
of the State. 
Brit. Mus., Case 57. 

Efflorescent Zeolite. Aname formerly 
given to Laumontite, in consequence of its 
efflorescing, and becoming opaque and crum- 
bling on exposure to the air, probably owing 
to the loss of water. 

Egeran. a variety of Idocrase, of a 
liver-brown colour, occurring in diverging 
groups of crj'stals, whose form is that of a 
right rectangular prism, having its lateral 
edges replaced. 

Analysis, by Karsten : 

Silica 39-70 

Alumina .... 18*95 
Protoxide of iron. . . 2*90 

Lime 34-88 

Protoxide of manganese . 0-96 
Soda 2-10 


BB fuses with intumescence to a greenish 
blebby glass. 

Localities. Haslau, near Eger (whence the 
name Egeran), in Bohemia ; sometimes ac- 
companied by Quartz and Tremolite. 

Brit. Mus., Case 35. 

Egyptian Jasper; Egyptian Pebble. 
A variety of Jasper occurring in roundish 
pieces scattered over the surface of the 
desert, chiefly between Cairo and the Red 
Sea. The surface of these masses is rough, 

122 EHLITE. 

and of a yelloiivish or chestnut-brown colour, 
but internally the brown colour forms irregu- 
lar concentric zones, between which are black 
spots, and small black dendritic markings 
in a base of a pale yellowish- brown colour. 
Towards the centre the colour becomes yel- 
lowish-grey, often passing into cream-yel- 
low. S.G/2-06 to 2-6. 

Egyptian Jasper, when cut and polished, 
is used as a brooch-stone and for other orna- 
ments. A specimen in the British Museum 
(Case 24) is remarkable for the resemblance 
which the markings on its fractured surface 
bear to the portraits of the poet Chaucer, the 
effect being similar to a drawing done in sepia. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos.565 to 567. 
See foot-note to Agate. 

Ehlite, Breithanpt, Hermann. A mineral 
nearly allied to Phosphorochalcite and to 
Libethenite. It occurs amorphous ; also in 
reniform or botryoidal masses, with a radi- 
ating foliated structure. Colour verdigris- 
to emerald-green. Lustre pearly. Streak 
paler than the colour. Fracture conchoidal. 
H. 1-5 to 2. S.G. 3-8 to 4-27. 

Comp. Cu5 P + 3 H = oxide of copper 66-9, 
phosphoric acid 240, water 9*1 = 100-0. 

Analysis from Tagilsk, by Hermann ; 
Phosphoric acid . . . 23*14 
Oxide of copper . . . 66-86 
Water 10-00 


BB in the matrass gives off water, and 
flies into powder with great vivacity. 

Locality. Ehl, in Prussia (whence the 
name). Nischne Tagilsk in concretionary 
masses, with a radiating concentric structure. 
Ehrenbkrgite, N'oggenrath. An amor- 
phous variety of Epistilbite, of a rose-i'ed 
colour. Fracture granular. 
Analysis by Schnabel .- 

Silica 56-77 

Alumina .... 15-77 
Peroxide of iron . . .1-65 
Protoxide of manganese . C-80 

Lime 2-76 

Magnesia . . . .1-30 
Potash and soda . . . 3-78 
Water and organic matter . 17-11 

Locality. Steinbruch, in Hungary, form- 
ing nodules in trachyte. The Siebenge- 
birge, near Bonn. 

Name. After Professor Ch. G. Ehrenberg, 
of Berlin. 
EiSENALAUN. See Halotriciiite. 


EisENAPATiT, Fuchs. See Zwieselite. 

EisENBLAu. See Vivianite. 

EiSENANATAs. The name given by Vol- 
ger to Martite, on the supposition that it is 
a pseudomorphous form of the deutoxide of 
iron, which he supposes to be isomorphous 
with Anat^se. 

EisENCHLORiTE. See Delessite. j 

EisENCHROM. See Chromic Ikox. 

EisENGLANZ. } See Hema- 

Eisenglimmer. Werner, j TITE, 

EisENGYMNiTE. See Hydrophite. 

EisENKiES, V. Leonhard. See Iron 

EiSENKiESEL, Werner. A variet}' of 
Ferruginous Quartz, found in Bohemia, in 
iron-stone veins in the Harz, and at Alten- 
berg in Upper Saxony. 


Safflorite. It is identical in composition 
with Chathamite. 

EiSKNMUi>M. An earthy variety of Mag- 
netite, occurring at the AUe Birke Mine, in 
the neighbourhood of Siegen, in Prussia, 
where a vein of Spathic Iron is broken 
through by basalt and partially converted 
into Magnetic Iron-ore. It is a black, pul- 
verulent mass, which attaches itself closely 
to anything on which it is rubbed, and is 
strongly attracted b}' the magnet. S.G. 3-76. 

Comp. F-e (Fe Mn) or Magnetite, in 
which about half the protoxide of iron is 
replaced by protoxide of manganese, which 
is isomorphous with it. 

Analysis, bv Genth : 

Peroxide" of iron . . . 66-20 

Protoxide of iron . . .13-87 

Protoxide of manganese . 17-00 

Oxide of copper . . . 0-09 

Sand, &c. . • . . . 1-75 

EisENNATROLiTH. An Iron-Natrolite 
occurring in dull green, opaque prismatic 
cr^^stals, and semicrystalline plates, Avith the 
Brevicite of Brevig in Norway. It has one- 
fourth of the alumina replaced by peroxide 
of iron. H. 5, S.G 2-35. 

Analysis, by C. Bergemann : 

Silica .... 46-54 
Alumina .... 18-94 
Peroxide of iron . . .7-49 
Soda (and a little potash) . 14-04 
Protoxide of iron . . . 2 40 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-55 
Water 9-37 



EiSENNicKELKiEs, ScJieerer. See Iron- 
nickel Pyrites. 

EisENNiERE, Werner. Clay Ironstone 
from Coal-measures. 

EiSENOPAL. Hausmann. A ferruginous 
variety of Opal. , 

EisENoxYD, Leonhard. See Hematite. 


EisENPECHERZ, Werner. See Tkiplite 
and PiTTiciTE. 
EisENPERiDOT. See Fayalite. 


EiSEN resin, Breithaupt. See Oxalite. 
Eisensinter. See Ironsinter. 
EiSENSPATH. See Chalybite. 
EisENRAHM. See Red Ochre. 
EisENRosEN, or Ikon-roses. See Ba- 


Ejsenrutil. See Gothite. 

EisENCHiJssiG KuPFERGRUN, Werner. 
See Chrysocolla. 

EisENSTEiNMARK. See Teratolite. 

EiSENTiTAN, Hausmann. See Rutile. 

EisEN Vitriol, Werner. See Copperas. 

Eis-SPATH, Werner. See Ice-spar. 

Eis-STEiN. (Ice-stone.) See Cryolite. 

Ekebergite, BerzAius. A massive and 
subfibrous variety of Scapolite of a greenish, 
greyish or brownish colour. Transparent. 
Lustre vitreous or resinous. Harder than 
Scapolite. S.G. 2-746. 

Analysis by Hermann : 
Silica . 

Peroxide of iron . 
Soda . 
Lime . 
Protoxide of manganese 

. 53-11 

. 27-97 

. 2-84 

. 0-86 

. 4-83 

. 9-73 

. 0-39 

. 0-27 


BB whitens and fuses to a blistered glass 
like Wernerite. 

Localities. Arendal in Norway. Hessel- 
kula in Finland. 

Name. After Ekeberg, the Sw^edish 

El^eolite. a variety of Nepheline, 
comprising the coarse massive kinds which 
have a greasy lustre. Primary' form a right 
rhombic prism. Colour dark- green, bluish- 
grey, or brick-red. Translucent. Fracture 
conchoidal. Frequently opalescent -when 
cut. H. 5-5 to 6. S.G. 2*5 to 2-6. 

Comp. k, 2Si + 4(Na, Si) + 5(A1 Si) = 
potash 6-13, soda 16-21, alumina 33-37, 
silica 44-29 = 100-00. 


Analysis of a brown specimen from 
Brevig, by Scheerer : 

Silica 44-59 

Alumina .... 32-14 
Peroxide of iron . . .0 86 

Lime 0-28 

Soda 15-67 

Potash 5-10 

Water 2-05 


BB fuses easily to a white enamel. 

When reduced to powder, completely de- 
composed by muriatic acid, and converted to 
a gelatinous mass. 

Localities. Brevig, Stavern and Frede- 
ricksvarn in Norway, imbedded in Zircon- 
syenite. Ilmengebirge in Siberia. United 
States, at Lichfield, Maine; Salem, Mass.; 
and the Ozark Mountains, Arkansas. 

Name. From s?^a.iov, oil, and ^/^«?, stone ; 
in allusion to its peculiar oily lustre. 

The pale blue varieties of Elseolite possess 
a slight opalescence like Cat's -eye, and are 
sometimes used for ornamental purposes. 

Brit. Mus., Case 31. 

Elasmose, Bendant (from l>.ix.trf/,os , a 
tear). See Nagyagite. 

Elastic Bitumen, Hatchett, Phillips; 
Elastic Mineral Pitch, Jameson; 
Elastiches Bergpech, Reuss; Elas- 
TICHES Erdpech, Werner; or Elaterite, 
Beudant, Hausmann. Occurs in soft reni- 
form or fungoid masses, which sometimes 
become harder on exposure. Colour various 
shades of blackish-brown, with a resinous 
lustre. Translucent at the edges. Flexible, 
and elastic. Effaces lead- pencil markings 
like India-rubber, whence it has obtained 
the name of mineral Caoutchouc. S.G. 
0-9 to 1-23. 

Analysis of a specimen from Derbyshire, 
by Johnston ; 

Carbon .... 85-474 
Hydrogen .... 13-283 


Burns readily with a lively yellow flame, 
and much smoke, giving out a bituminous 

Localities. British. — The Odin Lead- 
mine, at Castleton in Derbyshire. St. Ber- 
nard's Well near Edinburgh. Foreign — 
In a coal-mine at Montrelais, in France. 
Neufchatel. The island of Zante. 

Brit. Mus., Case 60. 

Elastic Quartz, Kirwan. See Fi^exi- 
BLE Sandstone. 

Electric Calamine. A name which 


has been applied to Smithsonite, or the 
sdliceous oxide of zinc, in consequence of its 
becoming electric by heat, and sometimes 
by friction. 

Electrum, Klaproth. A natural alloy 
of gold and silver in the proportion of two 
of gold to one of silver, or Gold 65, and 
Silver 36 = 100. It is distinguished by its 
silver-white colour. S.G. 14 to 17. 

BB fuses to a more or less pale-yellow 

Localities. It occurs in tabular crystals 
and imperfect cubes at Schlangenberg, in 
Siberia ; also at Kongsberg, in Norway ; in 
Transylvania ; near Mariposa in California, 
and in other mining districts. 

Brit. Mus., Case 3. 

Elhuyazite, Fuchs. A variety of AUo- 

Euasite. a mineral near to Pitch- 
blende, but differing widely from it in its 
lower specific gravity and large proportion 
of water. It occurs in large flattened 
pieces, sometimes half an inch thick, of a 
dull reddish-brown colour, approaching to 
hj'acinth-red at the edges. Lustre greas)' 
to subvitreous. Subtranslucent, Streak 
dull, Avax-vellow to orange. H. 3'5. S.G. 
4-086 to 4-237. 

Analysis, by F. Ragshy ; 

Peroxide of urani 

um . . 61-33 

Peroxide of iron 

. . 6-63 


. 1-17 

Protoxide of iron 

. 1-09 

Silica . 

. 5-13 

Lime . 

. . 3-09 


. 2-20 

Oxide of lead 

. 4-62 

Carbonic acid 

. 2-52 

Phosphoric acid 

. 0-84 

Water . 

. 10-68 


. trace 


BB like Pitchblende. 

Decomposed by muriatic acid. 

Locality. The Elias Mine, Joachimstahl ; 
with Fluor, Dolomite, Quartz, &c. 

Elie Ruby. A variety of Pyrope found 
in trap-tufa at Elie in Fife. 

Analysis by Connell : 

Silica 42-80 

Alumina .... 28-65 
Peroxide of iron . . .9-3 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-25 
Magnesia .... 10*67 

Lime 4*78 

Chromic acid , , . trace 



Ellagite, Nordenshidld. Colour yellow, 
yellowish- brown, to yellowish-red. Opaque 
or feebly translucent. Lustre of cleavage- 
surface pearly, shining. Streak white. 

Comp. Ca3 Si* + ^1 Si + 12 H. 

Locality. Aoland, in Finland. 

Embolite, Breithaupt. Cubical : in cubes, 
and cubo - octahedrons. Colour varying 
from asparagus- to gre3'ish-green. Lustre 
resinous. H. 1 to 1-5. S.G. 5-31 to 5*81. 

Comp. Chlorobromide of silver, or 3 Ag 
CK2 A g Br = chlorine 13*2, bromine 19*8, 
silver 670 = 100*0. 

Analysis, mean of three, by Domeyko : 
Chloride of silver . . . 51'6 
Bromide of silver . . . 48*4 


Localities. Abundant in Chili, at Quillota 
and Chanarcillo ; found also at Eulalia, in 
Chihuahua, Mexico ; and at Colula, in Hon- 

It is stated by Domeyko, that " the chloro- 
bromides vary in colour from greyish-green 
or yellow to asparagus- and pistachio-green. 
In general the specimens that have a yellow 
colour have more bromine, and consequently 
less silver, than those of a grey or pearly- 
green colour," 

Embrithite, Brochant. See Boulange- 

Emerald. Hexagonal. Colour green, 
passing into light blue, impure yellow, and 
white for the Beryl. Lustre vitreous, some- 
times resinous. Transparent to subtranslu- 
cent. Streak white. Brittle. Fracture con- 
choidal, uneven. H. 7*5 to 8 0. S.G. 2*67 
to 2-732. 


Fig. 174. 

Fig. 175. 

Comp. B + Al + 4 Si = (fi + Al) Si^ = glu- 
cina 14-1, alumina 19-0, silica 66-9 = 1000. 
Analysis of Emerald of Muzo : 

Silica 680 

Alumina .... 18'1 

Glucina 12-2 

Magnesia . . . .0*9 

Soda 0-6 

Tantalic acid .... trace 

In the above analysis, by M. Lewy, traces 
of chromium are reckoned with the mag- 
nesia, and perhaps there is a little Titanic 
acid with the alumina. In previous trials, 


he had found 1-65 to 2-15 of water, and 0-3 
to 0-35 carbonic acid, corresponding to some 
organic matter present. 

55 alone, unchanged or becomes clouded : 
at a high temperature, becomes rounded at 
the edges, and ultimately a vesicular scoria 
is formed. With borax forms a fine green 
glass, which is colourless for Beryl. Slowly 
dissolves with salt of phosphorus, leaving a 
siliceous skeleton, 

Not acted on by acids. 

Emerald and Beryl are varieties of the same 
mineral, under the former name being com- 
prehended the rich green transparent speci- 
mens, and those of other colours under the 

Until very lately, the colouring matter of 
the Emerald was supposed to be due to the 
presence of 1 or 2 per cent, of oxide of chro- 
mium. This has, however, been proved to 
be incorrect by M. Lewy's recent chemical 
investigations into the formation and com- 
position of the Emerald of Muzo. The quan- 
tity of chromic oxide obtained by anah^sis 
was so small as to be inappreciable, in fact, 
too minute to be weighed separately, and 
the beautiful tint of the Emerald is shown by 
M, Lewy to be produced by an organic sub- 
stance, which he considers to be a carburet 
of Hydrogen, similar to that called chloro- 
phylls, which constitutes the colouring mat- 
ter of the leaves of plants. 

Those Emeralds are of the darkest tint 
which contain the greatest amount of organic 
matter, and the colour is completely de- 
stroyed at a low red heat, which renders 
the stone white and opaque ; while, on the 
other hand, heat produces no loss of colour 
on those minerals which are coloured by 
oxide of Chrome. (See Ouwarovite ) The 
organic colouring matter of the Emerald is 
probably derived from the decomposition 
of the animals whose remains are now 
found fossilized in the rock which forms 
the matrix of the stone. This rock, which 
is a black limestone, with white veins, con- 
tains ammonites ; and specimens of Emerald 
in fragments of the rock, shewing ammonites, 
are exhibited in the mineralogical gallery 
of the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris. 

Besides the organic colouring matter, M. 
Lewy obtained from 1*65 to 2-15 of water; 
from which, in conjunction with the pre- 
sence of fossil shells in the limestone in 
which they occur, he has arrived at the 
conclusion that Emeralds have been formed 
in the wet way, that is to say, that they have 
been deposited from a chemical solution. 

According to the account of M. Lewy, Avho 
personally visited the mine at Muzo, the 


Emeralds, when first extracted, are so soft 
and fragile that the largest and finest speci- 
mens can be reduced to powder merely by 
rubbing them between the fingers, and the 
crj^stals often crack and fall to pieces after 
being removed from the mine, apparently 
from the loss of water. 

When they are first found, it is necessary 
to place them aside carefully for a few days, 
until the water has evaporated from them. 
M. Kuhlmann has endeavoured to prove 
that the hardening of rocks and minex^als is 
not owing solely to the evaporation of 
quarry-water, but that it depends upon the 
tendency which all earthy matters possess 
to undergo a spontaneous crystallization, by 
slow desiccation, which commences from the 
moment the rock is exposed to the air. 

The hardening of the Emerald by ex- 
posure to the air does not appear to have 
been known to the ancient inhabitants of 
the portion of America more immediately 
under consideration ; for their mode of test- 
ing the value of a stone was by striking it a 
smart blow with a hammer, when it was 
first taken from the mine. If it bore the 
blow without injury, it was considered a 
perfect stone, but if it broke, it was deemed 
worthless. Under this rude mode of experi- 
menting many valuable stones must neces- 
sarily have been destroyed. 

As a precious stone, the Emerald ranks 
next to the Ruby in value. It may be dis- 
tinguished from all the other gems by its 
colour, a pure green, without any admix- 
ture of blue or yellow. 

Tt appears to the greatest advantage when 
table-cut, and surrounded by brilliants, the 
lustre of which contrasts agreeably with the 
quiet tint of the Emerald. Imitations are 
made with great success, both with respect 
to colour and the flaws from which real 
stones are seldom free. The last are pro- 
duced by means of a sharp tool, after the 
paste imitation has been polished. 

The Emerald is more valued in India than 
in many other parts of the world, on account 
of its foreign origin. 

In the East, advantage is taken of the 
facility with which it may be broken at 
right angles to its axis ; and slices of prisms, 
sometimes polished, but frequently with the 
natural planes of cleavage preserved, are 
mounted, surrounded with diamonds. This 
was the usual mode of mounting them prior 
to 1456. 

The Emerald was believed by the ancients 
to be " excellent in its virtues." Amongst 
other good qualities attributed to it, it was 
supposed to be good for the eyes, on which 


account they Avere in the habit of wearing 
it about their persons engraved as a seal, 
that they might have it to look at. It is 
doubtful, however, whether the eyes of the 
ancients derived any other benefit from its 
use in this way beyond the pleasure they 
experienced in beholding such a beautiful 
object, and the assurance they conveyed of 
the possession of an ornament of such rarity 
and value as we are told the Emerald was 
in those days. 

It was, also, said to possess the peculiar 
property of causing water to appear of its 
own colour. " A stone of a middling size will 
do this to a small quantity only of the water 
into which it is put, a large one to the 
whole; but a bad one to no more than a 
little of it, which lies just about it." (Theo- 

Reduced to powder, and taken internally, 
in a dose of from 4 to 10 grains, it was ac- 
counted a certain antidote for poisons, and 
the bites of venomous animals, as well as a 
remedy for fluxes, the plague, infectious 
fevers, haemorrhages, and dysenterj^ 

Worn externally, as an amulet, it was 
also regarded by the ancients as a cure for 
epilepsy, to possess the power of assuaging 
terror, and driving away evil spirits ; and 
when tied to the belly or thigh of pregnant 
women, of dela3'ing or hastening deliver}- ; 
they also thought it an infallible preserva- 
tive of chastity, to the violation of which it 
possessed such an innate antipathy as to fly 
to pieces if worn in a ring on the finger of 
any person transgressing. 

Whether the Emerald has lost its virtues, 
or more powerful remedies have superseded 
it, at all events, amongst the more civilised 
nations of the world, it has long since ceased 
to be used as a medicine. By the more im- 
aginative people of the East, it is still be- 
lieved to be endowed with certain medical 
and talismanic properties, to avert bad 
dreams, cure palsy, and the cold and bloody 
flux, and to impart courage to the wearer. 

In the 'commentaries of the kings of 
Egypt, according to Theophrastus, it is re- 
corded that an Emerald four cubits in 
length and three in breadth was sent as a 
present from a king of Babylon : and that in 
their temple of Jupiter there was an Obelisk, 
composed of four Emeralds, which was 
forty cubits long, and in some places four 
and' in others two cubits wide. As, how- 
ever, the author describes the Emerald to 
be a stone both scarce and small, and 
speaks, elsewhere, of Bastard Emeralds or 
the pseudo-Smaragdus, most likely the 
Stones mentioned above were only Beryl, 


and not true Emerald. At all events 
there can be no doubt many stones (of a 
green tint) were confounded under the term^oe.y'B or Emerald, by Theophrastus and 
other old writers on minerals. 

Necklaces of Emerald have been found at 
Herculaneum and in the Etruscan tombs. 

The largest known Emerald is the pro- 
perty of the Duke of Devonshire. This 
magnificent stone, which was brought to 
England by Dom Pedro, measures two 
inches in length, and 2^, 23, and 1| inches 
across the three diameters. It is a six- 
sided prism, weighing 8 oz. 18 dwts, but 
there is a small piece of quartz attached 
to it, which would diminish that weight by 
3 or 4 dwts. Owing to flaws it is but parti- 
ally fit for the purposes of the jeweller. It 
was obtained from the mines at Muzo. A 
smaller but more splendid specimen is in the 
possession of Mr. Hope. It cost £500, and 
weighs 6 ounces. Emeralds of less beauty 
but of larger size are found in Siberia. A 
specimen in the Royal collection measures 
l^ inches in length and 12 in breadth, and 
weighs 1 6| lbs. Iroj. 

Mount Zabarah in Upper Egypt afibrds a 
less distinct variet}', and was largely worked 
by the ancient Egyptians. Theophrastus 
states that the ancient locality of the true 
Emerald was the copper mines of Cyprus, 
and an island over against Carthage. It 
was believed to be produced from the Jasper, 
for it was said there had been found in 
Cyprus a stone, one half of which was 
Emerald, and the other Jasper, as yet not 

In Ezekiel, chap, xxvii. 16, it is written : 
" Syria was thy merchant by reason of the 
multitude of the wares of thy making : they 
occupied in thy fairs with Emeralds, purple, 
and broidered work, and fine linen, and 
coral, and agate." (See also chap, xxviii. 
13.) In Exodus, chap, xxviii. 18, the 
Emerald is mentioned as occupying the 
fourth place amongst the twelve stones 
representing the twelve tribes of Israel, 
which formed the pectorate of the Jewish, 
high-priest, and was symbolical of the tribe 
of Judah, the name of which was engraved 
upon it. 

Localities. The most celebrated modern 
locality is the famous mine of Muzo in New 
Grenada. This mine is situated 4 miles 
west of Muzo (in iat. 5° 39' 50" N. and 76° 
45' west of Paris ), in the eastern Cordillera 
of the Andes, about 75 miles N.N.E. of 
Santa-Fe-de-Bogota. The matrix in which 
the Emeralds occur is a limestone contain- 
ing ammonites, and is composed of; 


Carbonate of lime . . 47*8 
Carbonate of magnesia . 16'7 
Carbonate of manganese . 0*5 

Silica 24-4 

Alumina 5'5 

Glucina . . . .0-5 
Peroxide of iron . . .2-6 

Pyrites 0-6 

Alkali 2-7 

Other localities are Columbia in a black 
bituminous limestone of comparative!}'- re- 
cent age. Cundina-Marca, N.E. of Santa- 
Fe in Old Columbia. Peru*, in the valley 
of Tunca, between the mountains of New- 
Grenada and Popayan. Norwa^^ The hill 
of Barat near Limoges. Canjargum in Hiu- 
dostan. Salzburg, imbedded in mica-slate. 
' Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

M.P.G. 'Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 818, 825 
to 835. 

Emkrald Nickel, SlUhnan, Jr. Occurs 
in the form of small stalactitic or mammil- 
lary crusts ; sometimes apoearing prismatic, 
■with rounded summits ; also massive and 
compact. Colour emerald-green. Lustre 
vitreous. Transparent to translucent. Streak 
yellowish-green. Brittle, with an un- 
even, somewhat scalv fracture. H. 8 to 
3-25. S.G. 2-57 to 2-69. 

Camp. Ni5 C + 6 H, or Ni C + 2(Ni, 3 H) 
= oxide of nickel 69-72, carbonic acid 11-66, 
water 28-62 = 100-00. 

Analysis from Texas, bv Silliman, Jr. : 
Oxide of nickel . ' . . 68-82 
Carbonic acid . . . 11-69 
Water 29-49 


Heated in a flask gives of water, and turns 

BB with borax yields a transparent glo- 
bule of a dark yellow or reddish colour 
when hot, but nearly coloui-less when cold. 

Readily soluble in muriatic acid, leaving 
a residue of chrome iron. 

Localities. This rare mineral is found 
forming a crust on Chromic Iron at Texas, 
Lancaster co., Pennysylvania, U. S. ; and 
at Swinaness, in Unst, one of the Shetlands. 

Brit. Mus., Case 49. 

• In the collections of the Museum of Natural 
Historv in Paris, there are Emeralds known to 
have formerly adorned the Ti ira ot Pope Julius II. 
(1503 to 1513), who died thirtv-two years before 
the conquest of Peru by Pizarro. 

EMERY. 127 

Emeraude Vert, Ha'dy. See Emeralu. 

Emeraude du Perou, Rome de Lisle, 
See Emerald. 

Emerald Copper, Phillips; Emerald 
MALACHirE, 3Iohs. See Dioptase. 

Emeril, Haily. Emery. An amorphous 
form of Corundum. Occurs massive, gran- 
ular, or compact. IMore or less impure. 
When compact, exceedingly tough. Frac- 
ture conchoidal to uneven. Streak white. 
H. 4-0 to 5-7. S.G. 3-89 to 4-28. 

Comp. Pure alumina, or Al. 
Analysis: a from Naxos; 6fromGumush- 
dagh, by J. Lawrence Smith : 

a b 

xa. . . 

S.G. . . 


. to 
. 3-75 


Alumina . 

. 68-53 


Peroxide of 


. 24-10 




. 3-10 




. 0-86 


Water . 


. 4-72 


101-31 99-48 

The column of hardness gives the eiFec- 
tive abrasive power of the powdered mineral, 
that of Sapphire being 100. 

BB unaltered both alone and with soda; 
fuses entirely with borax, though with great 
difficulty ; and also, if powdered, with salt 
of phosphorus. 

Not affected by acids. 

Localities. Emery-stone is said to occur 
in Jersey ; at Madron, in Cornwall ; and at 
the base of one of the Mourne mountains, 
CO. Down. — Foreign. In large boulders at 
Naxos, Nicaria, and Samos, in the Grecian 
Archipelago. In granular limestone in Asia 
Minor, near Gumush-dagh, 12 miles E. of 
Ephesus, associated with Margarite, Chloro- 
toid. Pyrites, Calc-spar, &c. ; also at Kulah, 
Adula, and Mauser, 24 miles north of 
Smyrna. With talcose- slate at Ochsenkopf 
in Saxony, of a dark blue or black colour, 
much resembling fine-grained basalt. Italy. 
Spain, &c. 

The Emery generall}'- used in this country 
is found in the Island of Naxos, in the 
Grecian Archipelago, where it occurs in 
large blocks imbedded in a red soil, and 
sometimes in white marble. These blocks are 
so abundant that, notwithstanding the im- 
mense quantities carried off, it is not yet requi- 
site to quarry the rock itself. This substance 
is of so much value in the arts, that an English 
merchant found it advantageous to obtain 
a monopoly of it from the Greek govern- 


ment, in consequence of which its price in 
this country has been greatly enhanced, and 
at one time was as high as 80Z. per ton. 

The largest quantity is used in grinding 
and polishing plate-glass, but it is also very 
extensively employed in the metal-trades, 
and for various other purposes. Its prepa- 
ration from the original blocks, as imported 
into this country, is effected by first break- 
ing with large hammers, and then reducing 
to grains with steel-headed stamps driven 
by steam power. It is afterwards passed 
through various sieves, which assort it into 
the different sizes required and known as 
"flour," " corn," and "grinding emery," &c. 
&c. Much of it is u.sed in the manufacture 
of emery-cloth and paper, in both, of w^hich 
articles it is frequently largely adulterated 
with iron slag, and other hard substances. 

Name. The name emery is derived from 
Cape Emeri, in the island of Naxos, where 
it is found. 

Brit. Mus., Casel9. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 782. 

Emkrylite, Smith. See Margarite. 

Emmo>^ite, Thomson. A snow-white 
variety of Strontianite, with an obscurely 
foliated structure, and a scjaly appearance, 
not unlike some varieties of Gypsum. Trans- 
lucent at the edges. Very easily reduced 
to powder. Fracture flat, and smooth, in 
the direction of the cleavage-planes. H. 
2-75. S.G. 2-94. 

It contains 82*7 per cent, of carbonate of 
strontia, and 12-5 per cent, of carbonate of 

Name. After Prof. Emmons, of William's 
College, Massachusetts, U. S. 

Enargite, Brdthaupt. Ehombic. Colour 
iron-black, with a metallic lustre. Streak 
black. Brittle. Fracture uneven. H. 3. S.G. 
4-36 to 4-45. 

Comp. (-&U, Fe, Zn) S+i(As, Sb)2 S^ 
= sulphur 32-6, arsenic 19-1, copper 48*4 = 

Analysis by Plattner : 

Sulphur . . . .32-22 
Arsenic .... 17-59 
Antimony . . . .1-61 

Copper 47-20 

Iron 0-56 

Zinc . . . . . 0-22 
Silver 0-01 

BB with borax, in the reducing flame, 

affords a globule of copper. 

Locality. In large masses, in limestone, 

associated with Tennantite, at Morococha, 

at an elevation of 15,000 feet in the Cordil- 
leras of Peru. 

Enceladite, T. Sterry Hunt. See War^ 


Named after Enceladus, one of the Titans 
of ancient mythology. 

Endellione, Bournon; Endellionite. 
This mineral was originally described by 
Count Bournon, and named by him after 
the locality, Endellion, in Cornwall, where 
it was first discovered. It Avas subsequently 
called Bournonite : which see. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 14, 
No. 647. 

Enhydros, J. Woodward. Enhydrite, 
(From iv, within, and (J^ca^, water), the name 
given to crystals or nodules containing 

Brit. Mus., Case 22. 

Entomous Cobalt Pyrites, Mohs. Ull- 
mannite (in part). • 

Ephesite, J. L. Smith. A mineral allied 
to Margarite. It has a pearly-white colour, 
and a lamellar structure, and resembles 
white Kyanite. Scratches glass. S.G. 3'15 
to 3-2. 

Analysis (mean of two), by Smith : 

Sihca 30-79 

Alumina .... 57-17 

Lime 2-00 

Protoxide of iron . . .1*17 
Soda and a little potash . 4-41 
Water 3-10 

Locality. The emery locality of Gumush- 
dagh, near Ephesus, on Magnetite. 

Epichlorite, Rammelsberg. A fibrous or 
columnar mineral between Schiller Spar and 
Chlorite. Colour dull leek-green ; bottle- 
green and translucent when in thin 
columns. Lustre greasy. Streak white to 
greenish. H. 2 to 2-5. S.G. 2-76. 

Comp. 3113 'isi + it2 'fc)'i5 + 9H. 

Analysis by Rammelsberg : 

Silica 40-88 

Alumina .... 10-96 

Peroxide of iron . . . 8-72 

Protoxide of iron . . . 8-96 

Magnesia .... 20-00 

Lime 0-68 

Water 10-18 

BB fuses with difficulty in thin fibres. 
Locality. Radauthal. Harzbugh in Bruns- 
wick . 

EriDOTE, Haiiy, Phillips. Comprises 


four groups: 1. Lime-and-iron-Epidote ; 
Arendalite ; Bucklandite ; Pistacite or Epi- 

Fig. 176. 

Fig. 177. 

dote proper; Puschkinite. 2.. Lime Epi- 
dote; Zoisite. 3. Maiiganesian Epidote. 
4. Cerium Epidote; Allanite; Thulite, 
Withamite. . 

These are described under their various 

The general formula for Epidote, accord- 
ing to Hermann, is (R^ ft) isi + « R H, as 
translated by Dana. 

BB fuses more or less easily, according to 
the amount of iron or manganese. In 
powder, after fusion or ignition dissolves in 
muriatic acid, and forms a jelly of silica. 

Name. From i-rl'bta-n, increase; because 
the base of the primary form undergoes an 
increase in some of the secondary forms. 

Epidote occurs in granite and other 
igneous rocks, and in various crystalline 
slates in attached crystals, generally 
grouped in druses, and in granular or 
columnar masses. Colour generally green, 
yellow and grey ; sometimes red and black. 
Semi-transparent to transparent at the 
edges. Lustre vitreous ; pearly on cleavage 
planes. Streak grey; except in the man- 
ganese variety from St. Marcel, which is red. 
Brittle. Fracture uneven— splintery. H. 6 
to 7. S.G. 3to3-5. 

Brit. Mus., Case 35. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1030 to 

Epistilbit, Rose ; Epistilbite, Phillips. 
Rhombic: primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Commonly occurs in macled crystals. 
Colour white, bluish or yellowish- white ; 
varying from transparent to translucent 
only at the edges. Lustre vitreous : on the 
faces of cleavage pearly. Fracture uneven. 
H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 2-249 to 2-363. 

fS^ I 

Fig. 178. 

Fig. 179. 

Comp. The same as that of Stilbite, with 


one atom less of water ; or, (Ca, Na) Si^ + 

^lSi3 + 5H = silica 59-3, alumina 16-8, 
lime 9-2, water 14-7 = 100-0. 

Analysis, from Berufiord, by Bose : 

Silica 58-59 

Alumina .... 17-52 

Lime 7-56 

Soda 1-78 

Water . . . . . 14-48 


When heated swells up strongly and 
evolves water. 

BB alone, becomes white, intumesces and 
yields a highly blistered enamelj which does 
not run into a globule : with soda fuses to 
a transparent blistered glass. 

Dissolves in concentrated muriatic acid, 
with separation of silica in the form of a 
granular powder. 

Localities. The Isle of Skye, in small 
flesh-coloured crystals, in cavities in amyg- 
daloid. In large distinct crystals in the trap 
rocks of Iceland (Berufiord), and the Faio 
Islands. Poonah in India. Bergen Hill, 
New Jersey, &c. 

Brit. Mus., Case 38. 

Epsomite, Beudant; Epsom Salt, 
Kirwan. Rhombic : primary form a rhom- 
bic prism of 90° 30' and 89° 30'. Occurs in 
botryoidal masses, and capillary efflores- 
cences. Colour and streak greyish-white. 
Transparent to translucent. 'Taste bitter 
and saline. Very brittle. H. 2-25. S.G. 

Comp. When pure, Mg S + 7H= mag- 
nesia 16-26, sulphuric acid 32 52, water 
51-22 = 100-00. 

BB dissolves very easily by the assist- 
ance of its water of crystallization, but is 
difficultly fusible. Soluble in less than 
double its weight of cold water. 

Localities. British. — Is a common in- 
gredient in many mineral waters, as in 
those of Epsom, in Surrey ; and appears as 
an efflorescence on the surface of certain 
rocks, as at the old coal-wastes and alum 
mines at Hurlet near Paisley, where it forms 
white capillary crystals. Foreign.—lhQ 
quicksilver mines of Idria in Carniola. The 
gypsum quarries of Montmartre, near Paris. 
Aragon and Catalonia, in Spain. The mines 
at Clausthal in the Harz. The Cordillera of 
St. Juan, in Chili. Mammoth Cave of 
Kentucky, adhering to the roof in loose 
masses like snowballs. 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 



When purified, the salt is used as a pur- 
gative medicine : the greater part of the 
Epsom salts of commerce, however, is 
manufactured from the Magnesian Lime- 
stone of Yorkshire. 

Ercinite. See Hakmotome. 

Erdiger Talc, Werner. See Nacrite, 

Erdiges Erdpbch, Werner. Erdiges 
Bergpech, Reuss. See Earthy Bitumen. 

Erdkobold, Werner. See Earthy Co- 

Erdmannite. a name which has been 
given to Zircon found near Brevig in Nor- 
way. It is composed of Silica 33-43, Zir- 
conia with some iron and manganese 65-97, 
loss by ignition, &c., 070 = 100-10. 

ErIdol, Werner. See Naphtha and 

Erdpech, Werner. See Bitumen. 

Erdwachs, Rammelsberg. See Ozo- 

Eremite, Shepard. A variety of Mona- 
zite, found in minute crystals in a boulder 
of albitic granite, in the north-eastern part 
of Watertown, Connecticut, U.S. Colour 
between clove- and yellowish-brown. Serai- 
transparent. Lustre resinous to vitreous. 
Streak paler than the colour. Brittle. 
Fracture conchoidal to uneven. H. 6 to 
5 55. S.G. 3-714. 

Fig. 180. 


Name. From £?»JA4''a, solitude, in allusion to 
the isolated manner of its occurrence with re- 
spect to other individuals of the same species. 

This name has been applied by Haidinger 
and Thomson to two minerals of very dif- 
ferent composition. 

Erinite, Haidinger. Occurs in mammil- 
lated crystalhne groups, consisting of con- 
centric coats, with a fibrous structure, and 
rough surfaces formed by the ends of very 
minute crystals. Colour brilliant emerald- 
green, inclining to apple-green. Dull. Faintly 
translucent at the edges. Streak same as 
the colour, but paler. Brittle. Fracture un- 
even, or imperfect conchoidal. H. 4-5 to 5. 
S.G. 4-043. 

Comp. Cu5 As + 2 H = arsenic acid 347, 
oxide of copper 59-9, water 5-4 = 100*0. 
Analysis, by Turner : 

Oxide of copper . . . 59*44 
Arsenic acid. . . . 33*78 

Alumina .... 177 
Water 5*01 

BB emits fumes of arsenic and melts. 
Soluble in nitric acid. 
Locality. County of Limerick, in Ireland. 
Name. The name bears reference both to 
the locality as well as to the characteristic 
emerald-green colour. 

Only two specimens of this mineral have 
been preserved, one of which is in the col- 
lection of Mr. Greg. 

Erinite, Thomson. A compact, fine-grain- 
ed variety of Bole, of a yellowish-red, or 
sometimes greenish colour. Lustre slightly 
resinous. Opaque. Feel soapv. Fracture 
small-conchoidal. H. 1-75. S.G. 2*04. 
Analysis, by Thomson : 

Silica ■47-0 

Alumina .... 18*0 
Protoxide of iron . . .6*4 
Water 25*0 

BB whitens, but does not melt. 
Localities. — Irish. In Co. Antrim, four 
miles east of the Giant's Causeway, in amyg- 
daloid ; Magee Island, at Dunluce Castle. 

Name. After Erin, the name for Ireland 
in the native language. 

Erlamite, Breithaupt; Erlan. Gene- 
rally occurs in small and fine granular con- 
cretions of a pale greenish-grey colour, with 
a dull or feebly shining lustre. Streak 
white and shining, with a resinous lustre. 
Fracture foliated, sometimes splintery. H. 5. 
S G. 3*0 to 3*1. 

Analysis, by Gmelin ; 

Silica . . . . . 53-16 
Alumina .... 14*03 
Lime ' . . . . 14*39 

Soda 2*61 

Magnesia .... 5*42 
Oxide of iron . . . 7*14 
Oxide of manganese . . 0*64 


BB fuses readily to a slightly coloured, 
transparent globule; with borax yields a 
clear greenish glass. 

Locality. The Saxon Erzgebirge, in gneiss. 

Erlamite strongly resembles Geblenite in 
appearance. It is probably only a mechani- 
cal mixture. 

Ersbyite. The name given by A. E. 
Nordenskiold to the anhydrous Scolecite of 
Nordenskiold, the father, from Ersby, in 

Erubescite, Dana. Purple Copper. Cu- 


bical. The crystals are generally cubes, of 
which the solid angles are replaced, and the 
faces are mostly curvilinear. Occurs both 
crystallized and massive. Colour of the lat- 
ter, when recently fractured, between copper- 
red and tombac-brown, but it soon acquires 
an iridescent tarnish. Lustre metallic. 
Streak greyish-black, and somewhat shining. 
Slightly sectile, Easih' frangible. Fracture 
imperfect conchoidal. "H. 3. S.Gr. 4-4, to 5. 

Fig. 181. 

Fig. 182. 

Comp, ^ reS4 2-e-uS, or (Fe,-€-u)S, (Ber- 
zeliu&)=iron 13"8, sulphur 23*7, copper 62'5 
= 100-0. 

Analysis of a crj'^stallized specimen from 
the Condurro Mine, in Cornwall, br Plattner i 
Sulphur . . . .^ 28-24 

Copper 66-76 

Iron ..... 14-84 


BB on charcoal acquires a dark tarnish,^ 
then becomes black, and, on cooling, red; 
at a higher temperature, fuses easily to a 
brittle globule, which is magnetic, and ap- 
pears greyish- red on the fractured surface. 
When roasted for a considerable time, and 
then treated with a small quantit}' of borax, 
affords a globule of metallic copper. 

Soluble in nitric acid. 

Localities. — English. Cornwall, crystal- 
lized at Carn Brea, Tincroft, Cook's Kit- 
chen, Dolcoath, HuelJewel, Huel Falmouth, 
South Tolgus; Somersetshire, massive at 
Broomfield Consols. — Irish. The copper 
mines of Kerry and Cork. — Foreign. Mas- 
sive and compact varieties occur at Arendal 
in Norway, Monte Catini in Tuscany, Siberia, 
Hesse, Silesia, Hungary, and the Bannat. 

Name. From " erubesco," to turn red; given 
by Dana in allusion to its tendency to be- 
come tarnished, and acquire a reddish hue. 

Brit Mus., Case 7. 

M. P. G. A. 51 in Hall ; mass from near 
Disco. Greenland. Principal Floor, Wall- 
cases 7 (British) ; 16 and 17 (Foreign), 

Erusibite. The name proposed by Prof. 
C. U. Shepard for a rusty, insoluble, ferric 
sulphatg, met with at the Ducktown Copper 
Mine, in Eastern Tennessee. 

Erythrine, Beudant. Cobalt Bloom. 
Oblique. Is found in small botryoidal masses, 


and acicular diverging crj'stals, modified at 
the edges, and whose form is a right oblique- 
angled prism. Colour carmine and peach- 
blossom red, sometimes whitish, or grevish- 
white, or greenish-grey. ^ Lustre pearly, on 
some faces inclining to vitreous. Varies from 
translucent to transpcrent. Streak the same 
as the colour, but paler. The dry powder 
deep lavender blue. Flexible. Sectile. H. 
1-5 to 2-5. S.G. 2-948. 

Fig. 183. 

Fig. 184. 

Comp. Co3 As + 8H = arsenic acid 38-43, 
oxide of cobalt 37-55, water 24-02 = 100 00. 
Analysis, from Joachimsthal, hy Lindaker : 
Arsenic acid .... 36-42 
Sulphuric acid . . . 0-86 
Oxide of cobalt . . . 23-75 
Oxide of nickel . . . 11-26 
Protoxide of iron . . 3-51 

Lime 0-42 

Water 2352 


BB on charcoal emits fumes of arsenic, 
and melts in the inner flame to a green glo- 
bule of arsenide of cobalt ; with fluxes yields 
a fine blue-coloured glass. 

Soluble in muriatic or nitric acid, forming 
a red solution. 

Localities. — English. Several Cornish 
mines ; at Eotallack, Polgooth, Huel Unity, 
Dolcoath, Huel Sparnon, Huel Trenwyth, 
&c. ; Wilsworthv Mine, Devonshire ; Tyne- 
bottom Mine, near Alston, in Cumberland. 
— Foreign. The principal foreign localities 
are Schneeberg, in Saxony (in micaceous 
radiating scales). Saalteld in Thuringia, 
and Riegelsdorf in Hessia(in minute aggre- 
gated crystals). Dopschau, in Hungary. 

The earthy peach blossom varieties are 
met with in Cornwall, Alston, Dauphine, 
and AUemont ; and a perfectly green variety 
occurs at Flatten, in Bohemia; sometimes 
tinges both of red and green may be ob- 
served on the same crystal. 

Name. From 6ff%«?, red. 

Cobalt-bloom is used for the manufacture 
of smalt. 

Brit. Mus., Case 56. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases 9 
(British) ; 20 and 40. 



Erythrite, Thomson. 

A. flesh-coloured 

Felspar, found in amygdaloid, near Kil- 

patrick, in Dumbartonshire 

S.G. 2-541. 

Analysis, by Thomson : 

Silica . 

. 67-90 


. 18-00 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 2-70 

Potash . 

. 7-50 

Lime . 

. 1-00 


. 3-25 


Name. From hvdpo?, red. 

Erz. German for Ore. 

EscARBoucLE, French. See Carbuncle. 

EscHENiTE, See ^Eschynite. 

EscHWEGiTE, Dufrenoy. A variety of 
Anthosiderite, occurring in brownish fila- 
ments, associated with Specular Iron. 

EsMARKiTE, Erdmann. A hyd rated lolite 
from Brakke, near Brevig, in Norway, cor- 
responding in composition to Iolite + 3 H. 
S.G. 2-709. 

It occurs in large rounded prisms, with a 
cleavage parallel to the terminal face. H. 
between Calc-spar and Fluor. 

BB fuses at the edges to a grey glass. 

Name. After M. Esmark. 

EsMARKiTE, Hausmann. See Datho- 

EssoNiTE, Haiiy. See Cinnamon Stone. 

Etain Oxyde, Haiiy. See Cassiterixe. 

Etain Pyriteux, "1 

^E^fs^L^KB, [seeTn,P™xES. 
Hauy. J 

Etain Vitreux, De Born. See Cassi- 


Etites. Kidney-form hydrous peroxide 
of iron. 

EuCAiRiTE, Berzelius. Massive ; in thin 
superficial black films, staining the calcare- 
ous spar in which it is contained. Colour 
between silver-white and lead-grey. Lustre 
metallic. Texture granular. Streak grey 
and shining. Soft; easily cut with the 
knife. Fracture fine-grained. 

Comp. Selenide of silver and copper, or 
■0-u Se + Ag Se = (-G-u, Ag) Se = copper 
25-3, silver 43-1, selenium 31-6 = 100-0. 
Analysis, by Berzelius : 

Selenium .... 26-00 

Copper 23-05 

Silver 38-93 

Gangue .... 8-90 
Carbonic acid and loss . . 3*12 



BB gives off a strong odour of selenium : 
on charcoal fuses readily to a grey metallic 
globule, which is not malleable. 

Soluble in boiling nitric acid ; on the 
addition of cold water to the solution a 
white precipitate is formed of selenite of 

Locality. This very rare mineral has 
only been met with in iS'orway, at the 
copper mine of Skrickerum in Smaoland. 

It was discovered and analysed by Berze- 
lius, Avho named it Eukairite'(from siT, well, 
and y-Kt^oi, opportune) in allusion to its dis - 
covery soon after the completion of his 
examination of the metal selenium. 

Brit. Mus., Case 4. 

EuoHROiTE, Breithaupt. Ehombic. Pri- 
mary form a right rhombic prism. Colour 
bright emerald-green, with a vitreous lustre, 
and considerable double refraction. Trans- 
parent to translucent. Streak pale apple- 
green. Rather brittle. Fracture uneven to 
small conchoidal. H. 3 5 to 4. S.G. 3-389. 

Fig. 185. 

Comp. Cu4 As + 7H = oxide of copper 
47-15, arsenic acid 34-15, water 18-70 = 100. 
Analysis, by Turner : 

Oxide of copper . . . 47-85 
Arsenic acid . . .33-02 
Water 18-80 


BB on charcoal fuses readily, giving off 
arsenical odours and deflagrating immedi- 
diately; after long continued blowing, it 
yields a globule of malleable copper, with 
white metallic particles disposed through it. 

Easily soluble in nitric acid. 

Locality. This rare mineral is found in 
large crystals at Libethen, in Hungary, in 
quartzose mica-slate. It bears considerable 
resemblance to Dioptase. 

Name. From t^xeo'''!', beautiful colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 56. 

EucHYsiDERiTE. See Pyroxene. 

EuCLASE. Haiiy, Phillips, Dana. Ob- 
lique. Primary form a right oblique-angled 
prism. Occurs in oblique four-sided prisms 
with each of the lateral edges bevelled, and 
variously modified and terminated. Colour- 
less and nearly transparent, or various shades 
of pale or bluish-green. Lustre vitreous. 


Possesses double refraction. Rendered elec- 
tric by pressure, a property which it retains 
for many hours. Very brittle. Fracture 
conchoidal. H. 7-5. S.G. 3-03 to 3-09. 

Comp. 2Be5 Si + ^1 Si2 = silica 
alumina 32-40, glucina 23-92 = 100. 



Fig. 186. 

nalysis, by Berzelius ; 


. 43-22 


, 30-56 

Peroxide of iron 

. 2-22 


. 21-78 

Oxide of tin 

. 0-70 


BB becomes opaque, swells up into a 
cauliflower-like mass, and then melts to a 
white enamel at the edges. 

Not acted on b}"^ acids. 

Localities. Eucfase was originally brought 
from Peru by Dombe3'; it has since been 
procured from Boa Vista and from Capao in 
the mining district of Villa Rica, in Brazil, 
where it occurs in chloritic slate resting on 
sandstone. It is also found in the gold- 
stream -works of the S. Ural, near the river 
Sanarka, associated with Emerald, red 
Corundum, Disthene, &c. Peru, 

Name. From £«> easily, and «A«/w, to 
break, in allusion to its easy frangibility. 
On that account, and from its rarity, it is 
very seldom used in jewelry, for which it is 
otherwise well suited from its hardness 
(which exceeds that of TopazJ and the 
high polish of which it is susceptible. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

EucLASTic Disthene Spar, Haidinger. 

EuDiALiTE. Stromeyer ; Eudyalite, 
Phillips, Hexagonal. Primary form an 
acute rhombohedron. Occurs in crystalline 
masses sometimes exhibiting a tolerably 
distinct double cleavage, and in crystals de- 
rived from a rhombohedron ; but the 
crystals are generally small and irregular. 
Colour red or brownish-red, presenting tints 
like those of different varieties of Almandine 
Garnet. Lustre vitreous. Sometimes trans- 
parent, but usually cracked in every direc- 
tion, and only transparent at thin edges 
Streak white. Fracture subconclioidal or 
splintery. H. 6. S.G. 2-9. 

Comp. 2K5 SiS + ^r fci2 


nalysis, by Damour : 

Silica .... 

. 50-38 

Tantalic acid 

. 0-35 


. 15-60 

Protoxide of iron . 

. 6-37 

Protoxide of manganese 

. 1-6) 

Lime .... 

. 9-23 

Soda .... 

. 13-10 


. 1-48 

Volatile matters . 

. 1-25 


BB fuses tolerably easily to a greyish- 
green enamel. 

When pulverized, soluble in muriatic acid 
with the formation of a thick jelly of silica. 
Locality. Kangardluarsuk on the west 
coast of Greenland, associated with Arfved- 
sonite and Sodalite, or imbedded in white 

Name. From vj, easily, and ^t«.Xvai, to 
dissolve ; in allusion to its easy solubility in 

Brit. Mus., Case 31. 

EuDNOPHiTE, Weibye. A variety of 
Analcime, found in white and greyish crys- 
tals on the island Lamo, in NorAvay. It 
occurs in syenite, associated with Leuco- 
phane and Mosandrite. H. 5-5. S.G. 2-27. 
Analysis (mean of two), by v. Borck ^ 
Berlin : 

Silica 55-00 

Alumina .... 24-36 

Soda 14 06 

Water .... 8-23 

Name. From i^, well, and yyo^o^, a cloud, 
or darkness. 

Brit. Mus., Case 28. 

EuGENEsiTE, See Selekpaltadite. 


Euklas, Werner. See Euclase. 

EuKLASTic Disthene Spar, Haidinger. 

EuKOLiTE, Scheerer. Is found in reni- 
form masses of a brown colour at Brevig, 
and at Rodkindholm, near Fredericksvarn, 
in Norwav. S,G. 3-01. 

6R + ife + 6Si. 
Analysis, by Damour : 
Silica . 
Tantalic acid 

Protoxide of iron . 
Lime . 

Oxide of cerium . 
Oxide of lanthanium 
Soda . 




11 -a9 


Protoxide of manganese 


Volatile matters . 



Eukolite is a variety of Eudialite, but dif- 
fering from it in containing small quantities 
of oxides of Cerium and Lanthanium. From 
its crystallographic and optical properties 
Descloiseaux regards it as hexagonal, and 
near Eudialite, the axis being negative, in- 
stead of, as in the latter mineral, positive. 

EuLYTiXE. Breithaupt. Cubical ; tetra- 
hedral. Usually occurs in minute trigonal 
dodecahedrons, ' or in implanted globular 
masses rarely exceeding a pin's-head in size. 
Colour dark hair-brown, yellowish-grey, 
greyish --white or wax-yellow. Lustre resi- 
nous or adamantine. Semitransparent or 
opaque. Streak yellowish-grev. Rather 
brittle. Fracture uneven. H. 4 5. S.G.5-9to 6. 

Comp. Bi2 bi^, with fluoride and phos- 
phate of iron. 

Analysis, from Schneeberg, by Kersten ; 
Oxide of bismuth . . 69-38 

Silica 22-23 

Phosphoric acid . . .3-31 
Peroxide of iron . . . 2-40 
Peroxide of manganese . 0-30 
Hydrofluoric acid and water 1-01 


BB decrepitates, gives off arsenical 
fumes, and fuses to a dark yellow mass. 

Localities. Braunsdorf, near Freiberg ; and 
theheighbourhood of Schneeberg in Saxony, 
in Quartz, accompanied by Cobalt and 
Native Bismuth. Schemnitz in Hungary, 
of a yellowish-green colour; disseminated 
in oxide of iron. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

EuMANiTE, Shepard. A variety of 
Brookite found in the albite vein at Ches- 
terfield, Massachusetts. 

EuPHOTiDE-jADiEX. The term applied 
by Brongniart to a mixture of Saussurite 
(the Jade of De Saussure) witli giass- 
green Smaragdite. 

EuPHTixiTE, Silliman, Jr. A pearly- 
white mineral, forming apparently hexa- 
gonal laminae, not so easily separated as in 
Mica. Laminae rather brittle, inelastic, and 
transparent. Lustre pearly ; of basal plane 
ver^' brilliant, resembling Heulandite. 
Colour of cleavage-face pure white, of sides 
grevish, sea-green or whitish. H. 3. S.G. 

(Jomp. R si -!- 2A15 Jiia + 3H. 


nalysis, by J. 

J. Crnoke: 

Silica . . 

. 39-04 


. 57-38 

Lime . 

. 3-19 


. 109 

Soda .. . 

. 0-87 

Water . 

. 4-56 


BB exfoliates 1 fuses at the edges of 
thin laminae, and emits a strong light. 

Localities. Unionville, Pennsylvania, asso- 
ciated with black Tourmaline and Corundum. 

Name. From ■■^- beautiful, and (fiOxxov, a 
leaf; in allusion to its beautiful foliae. 

Brit. Mus., Case 19. 

EuPYRCHRaiTE, Emmons. A compact, 
concretionary, and subtibrous variety of 
Apatite, found at Crown Point, Essex co., 
U. S. S.G. 3-053. 

EuTOMous Cobalt Pyrites, Mohs. See 

EuxENiTE, Scheerer, BufrHoy. Rhom- 
bic' Occurs in rectangular prisms, with 
the lateral edges replaced, but commonly 
massive, wathout any traces of cleavage. 
Colour brownish- black, with a metallic, 
waxy lustre. Streak reddish-brown. Trans- 
lucent in thin splinters, showing a reddish - 
brown colour, paler than the streak. Frac- 
ture conchoidal. H. 6 5. S.G. 4-6 to 4-76. 

Comp. About 4(Ca, Mg, Ce, La, Y, U) 

Ti, Ta. (Gnielin.) 

Analysis, by Scheerer : 

Titanic and columbic acid . 57-60 

Yttria 25-09 

Protoxide of uranium . . 6-34 
Protoxide of cerium . . 2*18 
Oxide of lanthanum . . 0*96 
Lime . • . , . . 2-47 
Magnesia .... 0-29 
Water 397 


BB infusible: with borax, in the outer 
flame, yields a brownish - yellow glass, 
which, if a sufiicient quantity of the mineral 
is dissolved, retains its colour on cooling, 
and also in the inner flame ; by flaming it 
is converted into a yellowish enamel. 

Localities. Norway, at Jolster, and near 

Name. The name Euxenite, from iv, wel- 
come, and |£»'e?, guest, was given by Scheerer, 
in allusion to its rarity. 

Brit. Mus., Case 38. 

Euzeolith. See Heulandite. 

Exanthalose, Beudant. A variety of 




yiauber Salt from Vesuvius, containing 
only two atoms of water instead of ten. 

Comp. XaS + 2H. 

Localities. Important deposits of this salt 
occur near Lodosa in Navarre, and other 
parts of Spain, especiallj"^ at Calataj'ud, in 
Catalonia; it also forms veins at the salt 
mines of Villafranca (Basses Pyrenees). 

Name. From elaiflsw, to effloresce, and «>^«?, 

Exitele, Beudnnt. From ll/ViiXe ?, vaporis - 
able. See Valentinite. 

Eye-Agate, or Eyestone. The name 
given to those kinds of circle- A gate in 
which the central part shows spots more 
highly coloured than the other portions of 
the mass- The name Eyestone is also ap- 
plied to stalactitic carbonate of lime, where 
slices, cut at right angles to the axis, 
display a darker coloured spot in the centre, 
presenting a fanciful resemblance to the 
pupil of the eye. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 387, from 
the Homan states. 

Fahl-ore, Jameson ; Faklerz, Werner. 
See Teteahedkite, 

Fahlles Rothgiltigerz, Hausmann. A 
variety of Miargyrite, from Andreasberg, in 
the Harz, in which part of the antimony is 
replaced by arsenic. 

Fahlunite. a hydrated variety of Tolite, 
occurring massive and in six-sided prisms. 
Colour dark reddish -brown, sometimes green 
or black, and opaque, but yellowish-brown 
by transmitted light, and translucent in 
thin fragments. H. 3. S.G. 274. 

Comp. 2(K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe), 2 Al, 5 Si, 

3H. (Gmelin.) According to Dana, Fahlun- 

ite is equivalent to (Iolite + 6 H), but the 

water is not a constant quantity. 

Analysis, from Terra Nova Mine, by 

Wachtmeister : 

Silica 44-60 

Alumina . . . . 3010 
Protoxide of iron . . . 3-86 

Potash 1-98 

Magnesia . . . . 6'75 
Protoxide of manganese . 2-24 

Lime 1"35 

Soda, hj'drofluoric acid . trace 

BB becomes colourless, cracks and swells 


up slightly, fusing at the edges to a glass ; 
with borax or salt of phosphorus melts 
slowly to a glass, which is slightly coloured 
by iron. 

Locality. Fahlun, in Sweden (whence the 
name, Fahlunite), with lolite, in Chlorite 

Brit. Mus., iCase 32. 

Fallow Copper Ore, Kirwan. See Te- 

False Topaz. A name given by lapi- 
daries to a light yellow pellucid variety of 
Quartz-crystal, ranking next to Amethyst 
in value. It may be distinguished from 
yellow Topaz (for which, when cut, it is 
frequently substituted), by the difference of 
its crystalline form, the absence of cleavage, 
inferior hardness, and lower specific gravity. 
The colour is of different degrees of inten- 
sity, and is frequently combined with a 
smoky brown, forming a tint of much 
warmth and richness when not in excess. 
In this respect it is equal to the Saxon 
Topaz, though inferior to the Brazilian. It 
is generally made into seals and brooches, 
and appears to the greatest advantage when 
cut in steps. The breadth of the table should 
be in porportion to the fulness of the colour, 
and, if deficient in the latter respect, it should 
be carefully set with a proper foil. (Mawe.) 

It is found in the Brazils, and is some- 
times called False Cairngorm of Brazil. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 509. 

Faroelite, Heddle, Greg §• Lettsom. A 
mineral intermediate in composition be- 
tween Soda-Thomsonite and Mesolite. Rhom - 
bic: primary form a right rhombic prisni. 
Colour white, bluish, yellowish, greyish. 
Lustre pearly or vitreous. Cleavage perfect. 

Comp. Mesolite with one equivalent less 

of silica; or (Na, 2Ca)2Si + 3(Ai Si)+8H 
= silica 42-45, alumina 28-27, lime 10'29, 
soda 5-75, water 13-24=100-00. 

Fig. 186*. 

Localities.— Scotch. Isle of Skye {fig. 
186*.) at Portree in confused white globules ; 
Storr in bluish-white implanted spheres with 
Mesolite; near Talisker in white radiated 
and implanted globules, with Laumonite 
and Tesselite ; at Uig, in white radiated 
globules, lining cavities in trap. 

Irish. Antrim ; at Agnew's Hill at 
Portrush in greenstone. Black cave near 
Larne, at the N.W. of Kathlin Island. 


Faroe in stalactites, sometimes 3 inches 

Name. From the locality where the finest 
specimens are found : Faroe, and >.idoc, stone. 

Faserzeolith, Werner. See Natro- 


Fassaitb. a variety of Pyroxene of a 
beautiful grass- green colour, with a high 
lustre. It is found in the Valley of Fassa, 
in the Tyrol, whence the name Fassaite. 

Brit. Mus.. Case 84. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1042. 

Fat Quartz, Kirwan. See Greasy 

Faujasite, Damour; Faujassite, Du- 
frenoy. Dimetric. Occurs in octahedrons. 
Colourless to brown, with a vitreous and 
uneven fracture. H. 5. S.G. 1-923. 

Fig, 187. 

Comp. K Si + :A1 Si2 + 9 H = silica 46, alu- 
mina 17, lime 5, soda 5, water 27 = 100. 

Analysis, by Damour : 

Silica 46-12 

Alumina . . . . 16-81 

Lime 4-90 

Soda 5-09 

Water 27-02 


BB intumesces and fuses to a white blebby 

Soluble in muriatic acid. 

Locality. Kaiserstuhl, in Baden, with 
black Augite. 

Name, by Damour, in honour of Faujas de 
Saint- Fond, a celebrated naturalist. 

Brit. Mus., Case 29. 

Fayalite, is a pure Iron-Chrysolite, or 
an anhydrous silicide of iron, in which a 
large quantity of the protoxide of iron is 
replaced by magnesia and other bases. It 
is sometimes fused and blistered, sometimes 
with a crystalline structure. Colour greenish 
or brownish-black. Sometimes iridescent. 
Opaque. Lustre semi-metallic in places. 
Strongly attracted by the magnet. H. 6-5. 
S.G. 4-188. 

Comp. (Of the soluble portion) Fe^ Si = 
protoxide of iron 70-4o, silica 29-55^ 100-00. 
Analysis, by Fellenberg : 

Silica 31-04 

Protoxide of iron . . . 62-57 
Lime 0-43 


Protoxide of manganese . 0-79 
Oxide of copper . , . 0-32 
Oxide of lead . . .1-71 
Alumina .... 3-27 
Sulphur and chlorine . . traces 


SB fuses very easily and quietly, with 
evolution of sulphurous acid, to a black me- 
tallic globule, which is magnetic. 

Strong-fuming nitric acid converts it into 
a jelly. 

Localities. — Irish. In small detached 
masses at Slievecarrach, one of the Mourne 
mountains. Tullybrick, Ballinascreen. The 
foot of Slieve Gallion, in Londonderry. It 
is also met with in volcanic rocks at Fayal, 
whence the name Fayalite. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Feather-aeum, or Federalaun. See 
Alunogen and Halotrichtte. 

Feather-ore, or Federerz. See He- 

Feather Zeolite. See Natrolite. 

Feldspath, Haiiy ; Feldspar; Feld- 
stein, Hausmann; Felspar, Phillips. 
Under this head are comprised several mi- 
nerals, varying much in appearance, and 
presenting numerous and complicated crys- 
talline forms. It has been divided into several 
species and varieties, the principal of which 
are described under the following names : — 
Adularia, Albite, Amazon-stone, Andalusite, 
Andesine, Anorthite, Cancrinite, Erythrite, 
Haiiyne, Labradorite, Lapis-lazuli, Leucite, 
Moonstone, Murchisomte, Nosean, Oligo- 
clase, Orthoclase, Petalite, Ryacolite, Soda- 
lite, and Variolite. The word Felspar is 
derived from the German name Feldspath, 
or field-spar, in allusion probably to the 
crystals being found loose on the surface of 
some parts of the country.* Several varieties 
of Felspar are used in jewelrj'; but all of 
them are indebted for this distinction, not 
on account of their possessing any trans- 
parency, but for their mutable reflection of 
light, or to their being chatoyant. 

Brit. Mus., Case 29. 

3L P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 944, 955 
to 959, 965, 972, 973, 1039. Upper Gallery, 
Wall-case 6, Nos. 3 & 3a. 

Feldspath Apyre, Haiiy. See Anda- 

Feldspath Argiluforme, Haiiy. See 

Feldspath Bleu, Haiiy. See Lazu- 



* Kirwan states that tlie word Felspar is de- 
rived from/u/5 (a rock), from the commou occur- 
rence of the mineral in granite. 


FeldspAth Opalin, Hauy, See Labra- 


Feldspath Tenace, Haily. See Saus- 


Felsobanyite. See Gibbsite. 

Feminine. See Gem. 

Fer. French for Iron. 

Fer Arseniate, Haiiy, See Pharma- 


Fer Arsenical, Haily. See Mispickel. 
(See also Leucopyrite.) 

Fer Arsenical Axotome, Dufrenoy. 
See Leucopyrite. 

Fer Azure, Haiiy -^ YrvaANiTE. See 
Blue Iron-earth. 

Fer Calcareo-siliceux, Haiiy. See 


Fer Carbonate, Dufrenoy, Levy. See 

Fer Carbure, Haily. See Graphite. 

Fer (Jhromate, Hauy^ brochant See 
Chromic Iron. 

Fer Hydro-oxibe, Bournon. See Limo- 


Fer Magnetique, Brochant, See Mag- 

Fer Muriate, Haiiy. See Pyrosmalite. 

Fer Natif, Haiiy. See Native Iron. 

Fer Oligiste, Haiiy^ See Specular 

Fkr Oxalate, Levy. See Oxalite. 

Fer Oxide, Berzelius. See Specular 

Fer Oxide Carbonate, Haiiy. See 

Fer Oxide Hematite, Haiiy. See 
Brown Hematite (Limonite). 

Fer Oxide Hydrate, Haiiy. See 
Goethite and Limonite. 

Fer Oxide Eesinite, Haiiy. See Pitti- 


Fer Oxide Rubigineux Massive, Haiiy ; 
Mo«Ass-ORE. See Bog Iron-ore. 
Fer Oxidule Titane, Haiiy. See Crich- 


Fer Oxydule, Haiiy. See Magnetite. 
Fer Oxydule Titanifere, Haiiy. See 


Fer Phosphate, Haiiy. See Yivtanite. 

Fer Spathique, Brochant. See Chaly- 

Fer Speculaire, Brochant. See Spe- 
cular Iron. 

Fer Sulfure, Haiiy. See Pyrites. 

Fer Sulfure Aciculaire Radie, Haily. 
See Marcasite. 

Fer Sulfure Arsenicalb, Haiiy. See 
Arsenical Pyrites. 

•Fer SuLFUiiE Aurifere, Haily. See 
Auriferous Pyrites. 


Fer Sulfure Blanc, Haiiy. See Mar- 

Fer Sulfure Capillaire, Haiiy. See 

Fer Sulfure Epigjene. See Hepatic 

Fer Sulfure Ferrifere, Haiiy. See 

Fer Sulfure Jaune, Dufrenoy. See 

Fer Sulfure Magnetique, Haily. See 

Fer Sulphate, Haiiy. See Copperas. 

Fer Sulphate Rouge, Dufrenoy. See 


Fer Titane, Cordier. See Ilmenite. 

Fergusonite, Haidinger. P^'rarnidal : he- 
mihedral. Occurs in pyramidal cr\ stals of 
a brownish-black colour. Opaque, but in 
thin laminae translucent, and of a pale 
liver-brown by transmitted light. Lustre 
dull externall}'; of fractured surfaces bril- 
liantly vitreous and submetallic. Streak 
pale brown. Fracture imperfect-conchoidal. 
H. 5-5 to 6. S.G. 5-8 to 586. 



Fig. 18S. 



Cnmp. 6(Y, Ce)Ta. 

Analysis, by Hartwall ,- 

Tantalic acid 

. 47'75 

Yttria . 

. 41-91 

Oxide of cerium . 

. 4-68 


. 3-02 

Oxide of tin 

. 1-00 

Oxide of uranium 

. 0-95 

Peroxide of ii 

on . 

. 0-34 


BB alone infusible, but becomes deep 
yellow, and subsequently pale yellow. Dis- 
solves slowlj^ in borax, forming a glass 
which is yellow while hot ; but if saturated, 
is rendered turbid by flaming, and acquires 
a dingy yellowish -red colour. 

Locality. This rare mineral was dis- 
covered by Giesecke, disseminated in 
Quartz at Kikertaursak, near Cape Fare- 
well, in Greenland. 

Name. In honour of Robert Ferguson of 

Ferrocobaltine. a variety of Cobaltine 
in which three-fourths of the cobalt is re- 
placed by iron. It is met with at the Ham- 
burg Miiae, Siegen, in Westphalia. 


Analysis of a plumose specimen 
Schnabel -• 


Cobalt . 



. 19-98 
. 42-53 

. 8-67 
. 25-98 
. 2 84 


Ferrotantalite. The name given to a 
varietj^ of Tantalite, in consequence of the 
large quantity of iron which it contains. 

Ferruginous Phosphate of Manga- 
nese. See Triplite, 

Ferruginods Quartz, or Iron Flint. 
A variety of Quartz forming the transi- 
tion to Jasper. It occurs both massive and 
in distinct crystals, Avhich are sometimes 
minute and aggregated into masses like the 
grains of sand in sandstone, and contains an 
admixture of about 5 per cent, of iron as 
red or yellow ochre, or Gothite It is opaque, 
and of various shades of red, yellow, or 
blackish-brown. Gives sparks with steel. 

Localities. St. Just and Marazion in 
Cornwall. Clifton, near Bristol. Stocking 
Moor, near Glasgow. Dunbar in Hadding- 
tonshire, in trap. Rathlin Island, N.An- 
trim. Massive and in minute yellow crys- 
tals at Benbradagh Hill, Londonderry. (See 


Brit. Mus., Case 21. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 525, 

Ferruginous Silicate of Manganese, 
Thomson. See Troostite. 

Ferruginous Zinc-spar. The name 
proposed by Monheim for the light-green 
varieties of Zinc-spar, rich in zinc. See 

Fetid Carbonate of Lime, Cleavelnnd. 
See Swinestone. 

Fetid Sulphate of Barttes, Cleave- 
land. See Hepatite. 

Fettstein, Werner. See El^eolite. 

Feuerblende, Breithaupt. See Fire- 

Feu EPSTEIN, Werner. See Flint. 

Fibroferrite, Prideaux. A variety of 
Copiapite, found investing Coquimbite.' It 
is warty, separates in scales, and is fibrous 
in a direction perpendicular to the plane 
of separation. Colour pale greenish grey, 
affording a yellowish powder. Fibres 
translucent. Taste rough and somewhat 
sour. S.G. 2-5 about. 


Sesquisulphate of iron or Fe2 fes 


Analysis, by Prideaux ; 

Peroxide of iron . . . 34*44 
Sulphuric acid . . . 28-89 
Water 36-67 


BB on charcoal, decrepitates violently; 
emits an odour of sulphur, and leaves 
peroxide of iron. 

Locality. Chili, South America. 

Fibrolite, Bournon. A fibrous, massive 
variety of Sillimanite. Colour whitish or 
greenish-grey, with a lustre approaching to 
adamantine. The fibres are obliquely tra- 
versed by cracks, and sometimes approach 
to distinct prisms. Acquires resinous elec- 
tricity by friction, and emits a reddish phos- 
phorescent light when two pieces are rubbed 
together. Rather harder than Quartz, giving 
sparks with steel. S.G. 3-214. 

Analysis, from the Carnatic, by Chenevix : 
Alumina .... 58-25 

Silica 38-00 

Iron 0-75 


BB infusible. 

Locality. The Carnatic, accompanying 
Corundum, and as a component part of the 
granite which is the matrix of the Corun- 

Name. From (?//3?»», a fibre, and A.'fo?, 
stone ; in allusion to its fibrous structure. 

Brit. Mus.. Case 26. 

Fibrous Brown Iron Ore. A variety 
of Brown Hematite. 

Fibrous Gypsum. See Satin-spar. 

Fibrous Quartz. The name given to 
Quartz possessing a fibrous structure. It is 
found in Cornwall at Huel Virgin, near 
Scorrier, and at Tolcarn, near Truro ; at the 
slate quarries at Bangor, in North Watee ; 
in South Stirlingshire at the Campsie Hills, 
in small fibrous tufts on Heulandite; and 
in Ireland at Holy Park, near Rathfarn- 
ham, S. Dublin. Adelicate variety occurs at 
Orange River, near the Cape of Good Hope. 

Fibrous Red Coppek-ore, Kirwan. 
See Chalcotrichite. 

Fibrous Tin: Fibrous Tin Stone, 
Kirwan. A fibrous and radiated variety of 
Cassiterite. See Wood-tin. 

Fichtelite, Bromeis. A fossil resin, 
occurring chiefly in the form of shining 
transparent scales between the annual rings 
of growth of a species of pine-tree (Pinites 
sylvestris), which have separated from one 
another, or are still loosely united. The 
scales form layers (often i of an inch thick) 

of a yellowish tinge, and lapping one over 
the other. If the wood is split in any direc- 
tion, numerous shining points appear, show- 
ing that it is completely saturated with the 
mineral. Distils without being decomposed. 
Boiling point above 320^0. (6O8OF.) 

Comp. C8 H7, or carbon 87-27, hydrogen 
12 73 = 100. 

Localities. The turf beds of Eedwitz. 
The Fichtelgebirge of North Bavaria. 

Figure Stone. A name given to 
Agalmatolite, from its being frequently 
carved into figures by the Chinese. 

FioRiTE, or Pearl Sinter. A hydrated 
form of silica (variety of Silicious Sinter), 
occurring in smooth and shining, globular 
or botryoidal masses with a pearly lustre. 
Colour Avhite, yellowish -white, or greyish. 
Translucent at the edges. Fracture flat 
conchoidal. H. not so hard as Quartz. 

Analysis, from the Geyser of Iceland, by 
Damour : 

Silica 87-67* 

Alumina and peroxide of iron 0-71 

Lime 0-40 

Soda ...... 0-82 

Potash trace 

Localities. Santa Fiora (whence the 
name Fiorite), in Tuscany, incrusting vol- 
canic tufa. The volcanic districts of Italy. 
Auvergne. Iceland. 

Fireblende, Dana. Oblique. Occurs 
in delicate crystals which are grouped like 
those of Stilbite. Colour hj-^cinth-red, 
with a pearly adamantine lustre. Trans- 
lucent. Sectile and somewhat flexible. 
H. 2. S.G. 4-2 to 4-3. 

Comp. Sulphur, antimony, and 62*3 per 
cent, of silver. 

BB like Pyrargyrite. 
Localities. Andreasberg, in the Harz. 
The Kurprinz mine, near Freiberg. 
Brit. Mus., Case 11. 

Fire Garnet. See Pyrope: also 
Fire Marble. See Lumachello. 
Fire Opal. A variety of Opal present- 
ing hyacinth-red and j^etlow reflexions. 
Analysis, from Faroe, by Forchammer ; 
Silica • . . . . 88-73 
Alumina .... 099 
Soda and potash . . .0-34 

Lime 0-49 

Magnesia . . . .1*48 
Water 7-97 

Localities. — English. 

Cornwall at Huel 


Spinster, Rosewarne Mine, and near St. 
Just. — Foreign. Zimapan in Mexico. Guate- 
mala. FarSe Islands. Washington co., 
Georgia, U.S. 

Brit. Mus., Case 24. 

Fischaugenstein,"! See Ichthyoph- 
Werner. I thalmite. From 

Fish-eye-stone, f a^y?. a fish, and 
Jameson. J e(pdciXfM;, an eye. 

Fischerite, Hermann. Rhombic, Oc- 
curs both crystalline and massive. Colour- 
less, and translucent ; dull green when mas • 
sive. S.G. 2-46. 

Comp. 'Lfi P + 8H = alumina 41-82, phos- 
phoric acid 28-88, water 29-29 = 100. 
Analysis, by Hermann ; 

Alumina .... 38-47 
Phosphoric acid . . . 29-03 
Peroxide of iron and man- 
ganese . . . .1-20 
Oxide of copper . . .0-80 
Phosphate of lime and gangue 3-00 
Water 27-50 


BB turns white, with blackish spots ; and 
gives off much water. 

Locality. Nischne Tagilsk, in veins in 
ferruginous sandstone and clay-slate. 

Name. By Prof. Tschurofl^ky, after 
Mons. Fischer of Waldheim, V. P. of the Im- 
perial Society of Naturalists of Moscow. 

Flabelliform Kouphone Spar, Hai~ 
dinger. See Mesoi-e. 

Fleches d'Amour. See Venus' Hair- 

Fleurs de Cobalt, Brochant. See 

Flew Coal. A kind of Coal resembling 
Flint-coal, found at Wedgebufy in Stafford- 

Flexible Sandstone. A fissile variety 
of Sandstone, thin slabs of which are some- 
what flexible. The flexibility of the Sand- 
stone occurring in thin layers at Villa Rica, 
in Brazil, is owing apparently to the dis- 
semination of small scales of Mica through 
the mass; a similar flexible Sandstone oc.- 
curs in the gold region of North Carolina. 
It is found also at Jujjur, about 120 miles 
N.W. of Delhi in India. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 731. 

Flkxible Silver Ore, or Flexible 
Sulphuret of Silver, Phillips. A variety 
of Sternbergite, occurring both massive and 
in small tabular crystals, which appear to be 
right oblique angled prisms. Colour dark 
externally, with a metallic lustre, which is 
less brilliant than that of Silver Glance. 

140 FLINT. 

Very soft, yielding readily to the knife, and 
easily separable into 'thin laminae, in 
which slate it is flexible. 

It consists of silver, sulphur, and a little 
iron. (Wollaston.) 

This rare ore has only been found in 
Hungary and Saxony. 

The crystal figured by Phillips from the 
Himmelsfurst mine at Freyberg is, according 
to Brooke and Miller, a distorted crystal of 
Silver Glance. 

Brit. Mus., Case 10. 

M. P. G. Wall-case 22. 

Flint. Kirwnn, Phillips. A variety of 
Quartz somewhat allied to Chalcedony, but 
more opaque and of dull colours,- which are 
of various shades of grey, yellow, and black. 
Translucent, the blackish varieties seldom 
more than translucent at the edges. Brittle 
when first extracted, but becomes tougher 
by exposure. Fracture perfect conchoidal, 
with sharp cutting edges and a feeble lustre. 
Slightly harder than common Quartz, which 
it scratches. It is often coated to a slight 
depth with a whitish crust, which in some 
instances appears to be the efifect of weather- 
ing. S.6. 2-59: 

Analyais, by Klaproth : 

Silica 98-0 

Lime . . . » . 0-50 
Alumina .... 0*25 
Oxide of iron . . . 0*25 
Loss 1-00 

J55 alone infusible; but whitens and be- 
comes opaque when exposed to heat. 

Localities. — British. Flint occurs in the 
Chalk formation of England, and the north 
of Ireland, mostly in layers which are pa- 
rallel with the stratification, and consist of 
irregularly shaped nodules, or flat tabular 
bands. The former is the most usual mode of 
occurrence, and the flints are in general most 
numerous in the Upper Chalk, where they 
contain the remains of sponges, alcyonia, 
echini, and other fossils, sometimes in a sili- 
cified state, sometimes in the form of casts. 

" We find numerous flints in the Chalk, 
and indeed in the gravels above it, which, 
when cut and polished, have a good appear- 
ance if worked into snuff-boxes and articles 
of the like kind, particularly when the 
spongiform bodies included in them are 
marked by any varieties of colour. In the 
Greensand the Chalcedony is often extremely 
beautiful, and pieces sufficiently large to 
form small cups or vases might be sometimes 
obtained. Portions of this mineral when 
worked into seals cannot be distinguished 

from the finest white Camelian, which, in 
fact, they then are. Both such flints and 
Chalcedony are found on the coast between 
Lyme Regis and Sid mouth, where also are 
discovered some varieties of Jasper (from the 
Greensand), many species of which closely 
approach to those known as Egyptian 
Pebbles, and, indeed, are quite as beau- 
tiful. Some of the siticified fossil wood is 
extremely handsome when worked into 
ornaments."' — Report on the Geology of 
Cornwall, Devon, and W. Somerset, by Sir 
Henry T. De la Beche, p. 496. 

Flints are also found forming tabular 
bands and irregular masses in the Purbeck 
strata, and in Portland Stone: in the former 
case inclosing remarkably perfect casts of 
freshwater, and in the latter of marine 
shells. The lower part of the Portland 
Stone of Dorsetshire consists in a great 
degree of Flint. Flint is also found (but 
rarely) in Scotland, on the shore by Burnt- 
island, S.W. of Fife. — Foreic/n. France. 
The Danish Islands of Rugeu and Zeeland. 
Spain ; and elsewhere. 

Flint, after having been calcined and 
ground, is often employed as a substitute for 
sand in the manufacture of glass, porcelain, 
and smalt. Formerly it was used in large 
quantities for making gun-flints; and be- 
fore tli^e invention of lucifer matches had 
superseded the old-fashioned tinder-boxes, it 
was in universal use for obtaining a light, by 
means of the sparks given off^ when it was 
struck against steel ; hence the French name 
of pierre a feu. In Chalk districts it is 
employed as a building material, either in 
its natural rottgh state or squared and 
dressed, good examples of which latter ap- 
plication are afforded by houses at Lewes in 
Sussex, and elsewhere. Flints also furnish 
an excellent road material; when employed 
for this purpose they should not be used 
immediately on being extracted from the 
quarry, as they acquire additional toughness 
by the evaporation of the water contained in 

Brit. Mus., Case 22: 

M.P.G Horse-shoe Case, No3.703 to 730, 
736, 739 to 748. Upper Gallery, Wall-case 
42, Nos. 1 to 16. 

Flint Coai-. A kind of Coal resembling 
Anthracite. It contains Bitumen, though 
not to so great an extent as is the case 
with Carinel Coal. 

Floatstone, Jameson. A variety of 
Quartz, of a spongy or porous description, 
which possesses the property of floating in 
water, until the air contained in its numer- 
ous cavities is displaced. 


Localities. It is found at Huel Alfred, in 
Cornwall; and in beds of Flint, in chalk, at 
St. Omer, St. Ouen, and Menil Montant, 
near Paris. 

Comp. According to Vauquelin it con- 
sists of carbonate of lime 2, silica 98 = 100. 

Florid or Cochineal Red Copper, 
Kirwan. See Red Copper Ore and Chal- 


Flos Ferri, or "Flower of Iron." 
The name given to the branching or coral- 
loid forms of Aragonite by the older mine- 
ralogists, by whom it was considered to be 
an ore of iron. It occurs in beds of iron- 
ore, and very beautiful specimens are found 
associated with Spathic Iron, in the Styrian 
mines of Eisenerz, and at Hiittenberg in 
Carinthia, coating the roofs and sides of 
considerable cavities. It is also found at 
Dufton, in Cumberland, and at Halwell 
Cavern, Broomfield, near Taunton in Somer- 

Brit. Mus., Case 42. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 429a to 

Fluate op Cerium. See Fi^uocerite. 

Fluate of Lime, Phillips. See Fluor. 

Fluate of Yttria and Cerium, Berze- 
lius. See Yttro-cerite. 

Flucerine, Beudant. See Fluocerite. 

Fluellite, Levy, Wollaston. Rhombic : 
primary form a right rhombic prism, whose 
base is to its height in the proportion of 1 
to 3. Occurs in small acute rhombic octa- 


hedronsj with the solid angles generally re- 
placed. White, and transparent or trans- 
lucent, with a vitreous lustre. H. 3. 

Localities. On a grey quartz-rock, asso- 
ciated with acicular Wavellite and Uranite, 
at Stenna Gwyn, near St. Austell in Corn- 

This is a very scarce mineral. It was 
discovered by Levy, but examined and 
named by Wollaston, according to whom it 
is composed of fluorine and aluminium. 

Brit. Mus., Case 58. 

Fluocerine, Hausmann. Generally 
found massive, but is supposed to show 
traces of a rhombic dodecahedron. Colour a 
fine yellow, with a tinge of red ; brownish- 
yellow when impure. Lustre vitreous or 
resinous. Streak yellow, browmsh. Sub- 
translucent to opaque. H. 4'5 to 5. 



Comp. Ce2 F3 + 3-6-6, H. = cerium 17-56, 
fluorine 10-88, peroxide of cerium 66-41, 
water 5-15 = 100-00. 

Locality. Finbo in Sweden. 

Fluocerite, Haidinger. Hexagonal, 
Occurs in hexagonal prisms and plates : 
also massive. Colour dark tile-red, or 
nearly yellow, with a feeble lustre. Sub- 
translucent to opaque. Streak white or 
slightly yellowish. H. 4 to 5. S.G. 4-7. 

Comp. Peroxide of cerium 82-64, yttria 
1-12, hydrofluoric acid 16-24 = 100-00. 

BE alone, infusible ; but darkens. Fuses 
slowl}'' but completely in borax and salt of 
phosphorus, affording a globule which is 
blood-red in the exterior flame, but becomes 
colourless on cooling. 

Localities. Finbo and Broddbo, near 
Fahlun, in Sweden; imbedded in Quarts- 
and Albite. 

Fluocerium Basisches. See Fluoce- 

Fluocerium K'eutrales. See Fluoce- 

Fluochlore, Hermann. See Pyro- 

Fluophosphate of Magnesia, Thorn' 
son. See Wagnerite. 

Fluor, Dana; Fluorid of Calcium; 
Fluorine, Beudant ; Fluok Spar ; Fluo- 
rid OF Calcium; Fluss, Haidinger, 
Hausmann, Werner; Fluss aurer-Kalic; 
Fluss Spath, Werner, Naumann. Cu- 
bical : primary form the regular octahedron. 
Occurs crystallized in cubes, octahedrons, 
rhombic dodecahedrons and their modifica- 
tions; also nodular, compact and earthy. 
Colour white, grey, iind various tints of blue, 

Fig. 192. 
green, yellow, purple 

Fig. 193. 
and red. Perfectly 

limpid and transparent to subtranslucent. 
Lustre vitreous; sometimes splendent; 

142 FLUOR. 

usually glimmering in massive varieties. 
Streak wbite. Brittle; fracture more or 
less perfectly foliated. Easily cleaved, into 
the tetrahedron, acute rhombohedron, and 
octahedron. H. 4. S.G. 3-14 to 3-2. Mean 
of 60 experiments by Kengott, 3-183. 

Fig. 194. 

Fig. 195. 

Fig. 196. 

Fig. 197. 

Comp. Fluoride of calcium or CaF = 
calcium 51-3, fluorine 487 = 1U0. 

When pounded and placed on ignited 
coal it exhibits a phosphorescent light, 
which ceases at a high temperature, but 
may be partially restored by an electric dis- 
charge. Fragments rubbed against each 
other in the dark become luminous. 

BB decrepitates and ultimately melts 
without addition to an opaque greyish- 
white enamel. 

Localities. — English. Cornwall at several 
mines ; at Huel Cupid and North Grambler, 
near Kedruth ; Huel Mary Ann, Menhenniot, 
in fine blue beveled cubes ; near St. Agnes in 
translucent crystals of a rich lilac colour, ^c^-s. 
190 and 197. Other Cornish forms are repre- 
sented in _/7^s. 194 and 195. Cumberland : at 
Cleator Moor, in fine, yelloAv, transparent 
crystals, the prevailing colours of which are 
lilac and green : at Alston in the cube and of 
the forms shown in Jigs. 196 and 192. A 
varietv occurs at this locality which appears 
green by transmitted light and blue by re- 
flected light. Crystals possessing a similar 
peculiarity also occur at Weardale, in 
Durham, but the colours exhibited by the 
latter are grey by transmitted and purple by 
reflected light. According to Professor Stokers 
this eff"ect, termed by him Fluorescence, is 
due to a peculiar refracting power of the first 
surface on Avhich the light falls. Cromford 
near Matlock Baths, Derbyshire. lu Derby- 
shire compact and granular varieties of Fluor 
are abundant : the finest specimens for orna- 
mental purposes come from Tray Clifi', and 

are called Blue John. Beeralston in Devon- 
shire, in cubic and octahedral forms, 193, 195, 
197, 194, and 191 ; also fibrous and compact. A 
— N. Welsh. Moel-y-Cria, and Halkin Moun- ■ 
tain, near Holy well. — Scotch. Balater House, 
Glenmuick, Aberdeenshire. Dumbarton; 
Gourock near Greenock in Renfrewshire. — 
Irish. Several mines in Clare county. The 
Glendalough lead-mines, both crystallized 
and massive, of a pale violet-blue colour. — 
Foreign. Mont Blanc and St. Gotthard ; on 
the latter in beautiful rose-coloured octa- 
hedrons in Dolomite. Saxony. TheBannat. 
Munsterthal in Baden, in hexakisocta- 
hedrons. Zinnwald in Bohemia, also at 
Schlackenwald in green octahedrons and 
violet-blue rhombic dodecahedrons — the 
latter with white stripes in the position of 
the longer diagonal. The Lombardian Alps 
at Monte Presolana, in the Val di Scalve, 
N.W. of Lago Palzone, in a vein 21 inches 
wide imbedded in the New Red Sandstone of 
Val Torgola, a branch of Val Trompia. 

Besides the use of Blue John in the manu- 
facture of ornamental articles, as tazzas, 
vases, obelisks, &c.. Fluor-spar is employed 
for etching on glass. This is effected by ex- 
posing a plate of glass coated with wax (on 
which the required design has been previously 
drawn with an etching point, as in the 
ordinary process) to the action of the gase- 
ous hydrofluoric acid obtained by treating 
Fluor-spar with sulphuric acid. Those parts 
of the plate which are covered with wax will 
remain unaffected, but wherever the wax 
has been removed the glass will be cor- 
roded, and in this manner drawings on glass 
may be produced without much difficulty. 

Fluor-spar is also used in considerable 
quantities as a flux for metallic ores : hence 
its name from the Latin Jluo, to flow, or 
probably the name may have originated in a 
belief that it Avas formed ex Jluido, or out of 

Ozone has lately been discovered by Prof. 
Schrotter, in the darkish blue variety of 
Fluor, which is found at Wulsendorf. The 
quantity was found to amount to 02 per 

Brit. Mus., Case 58. 

M. P. G. Vase on pedestal 35, in Hall, 
from Derbyshire. Horse- shoe Case, Nos. 
331 to 364. Wall-cases 27 and 30. 

Fluss-Saures Cerium, German. See 

FoAMi2iG Earth, Jameson. See Aph- 

Fcetid Quartz, Bakewell. A kind of 
Quartz yielding a peculiar odour of sulphu- 
retted hydrogen when struck with a hammer 


on the angles or edges. This property is 
destroyed by exposure to a red heat. In 
all other respects this variety resembles com- 
mon Quartz. It is found near Nantes in 
France, and in various parts of the United 

FoLiATKn Aeseniate of Copper. Cleave- 
land. See Chalcophyllite. 

Foliated Black Manganese Ore, 
Jameson. See Haus>lannite, 

Foliated Tellurium, Allan. See 

Foliated Zeolite, Jameson^ Werner. 
See Heulandite. 

Foliated Zeolite, Jameson. See Fo- 
liated Stilbite. 

gations of secondary rhorabohedrons of 
Calcite, which contain a large amount of 
sand, mechanically mixed with them. The 
similar variety of Calcite which occurs in 
great quantities in the sands on the African 
coast, between Sandanha Bay and Ichaboe 
Island contain as much as 15 or 20 per 
cent, of sand. 

FoRSTERiTE, Levy. A variety of Chryso- 
lite, occurring in small, brilliant, white or 
colourless, translucent crystals at Vesu- 
vius, where it is associated with Pleonaste 
and olive-green Pyroxene. H. about 7. 

Fig. 198. 

Fossil Copal, Phillips. Pee Copaline. 
Fossil Lightning. See Fulgurite. 
Fossil Oil, Jameson. See Naphtha and 

Fowlerite. The variety of Rhodonite 
which occurs in large crystals, with Frank- 
linite, at the Franklin Furnace, at Stirling, 
in New Jersey. It is often black externally 
from alteration, the action of the air con- 
verting the protoxide of manganese into 

Analysis, by TV. Camac : 
Silica .... 
Protoxide of manganese 
Protoxide of iron 
Oxide of zinc 

Lime . 



Name. After Mr. S. Fowler. 

, 42-20 
, 11-00 
, 4-15 
, 9-66 
. 5-27 
. S-56 



Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

pRANCOLiTE, Henry. A variety of Apa- 
tite, occurring in small compound crystal- 
line masses. At Fowey Consols in Cornwall 
it is met with in minute, white, and trans- 
parent crystals, and in thin plates, asso- 
ciated with Quartz and Chalcopyrite : also, 
in thin hollow cubes above an inch square, 
which, when discovered, are half filled with 
a transparent fluid. The colours of the 
specimens from Huel Franco, near Tavi- 
stock, were greyish-green to brown. 

Comp. 3Ca P + Ca Fe =lime 49-48, phos- 
phoric acid 41-34, calcium 3-96, fluorine 1-80, 
chlorine 3-42= 100. 

Mean of two analyses by Henry : 
Phosphoric acid . . , 41*57 

Lime 53-09 

Protoxide of iron and prot- 
oxide of manganese . 3-09 
Fluorine and loss . . . 2-25 
Chlorine .... trace 


Name. After that of the locality where it 
was first discovered, Huel Franco. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 313. 

Frankenburg Corn -ears, Nicol. See 
CuiVRE' Spiciforjie. 

Franklinite. Cubical. Occurs in grains 
or in granular masses, composed of imper- 
fect^ crystals, occasionally exhibiting the 
planes of the octahedron. The structure is 
lamellar, parallel to the face of the regular 
octahedron. Colour iron-black, with a me- 
tallic lustre. Opaque. Brittle. Fracture 
conchoidal. Acts slightly on the magnet. 

H. 6 to 6-5. S.G. 5. to 5 3. 

Fig. 199. 

Comp. (Fe, Zn)^ (Fe,l^tn)=iron 45-16, 
manganese 9-38, zinc 20-30, oxygen 25-16, 

Analysis (mean of three), by Rammels- 
herg : 

Peroxide of iron . . . 64-51 
Peroxide of manganese . 13-51 
Oxide of zinc . . . 25-30 

BB infusible : with borax forms a green 
glass, whicl), Avhen completely saturated, 
becomes red, and on cooling assumes a 


greenish-brown colour, and remains trans- 

Soluble, without effervescence, in heated 
muriatic acid. 

Localities. Extensive veins of Franklinite 
Ore are found in Sussex county, New Jersey, 
about seventy miles from New York. It is 
also said to occur, in amorphous masses, ac- 
companying ores of zinc, at the mines of 
Altenberg, near Aix-la-Chapelle, and in the 
mines of Breithek and Victoria, in Nassau. 

Franklinite strongl}' resembles Oxidulated 
Iron, but may be distinguished from it by 
yielding a dark reddish-brown streak, that 
of the latter mineral being black. Chemi- 
cally Franklinite differs from it by contain- 
ing the oxides of zinc and manganese. The 
per centage of zinc is very variable, ranging 
from 2i per cent., in the crystals, to as much 
as 26 per cent, in the massive ore. The per 
centage of iron varies from 55 to 65, that of 
manganese from 12 to 16. 

The oxides of zinc and manganese appear 
to exercise a very favourable influence upon 
the iron manufactured from this ore. Its 
tenacity is found to be very great, and it is 
stated to resist the attacks of oxygen (rusting) 
in a remarkable degree. It is also readily 
converted into steel, suited for the finest cut- 
lery and razors, a result which is probablj'' 
facilitated by the presence of manganese. 
In fact, the metal made from this ore is a 
coarse steel, and differs very greatly from 
ordinary pig-iron. It is also said that 
Franklinite smelted with Anthracite or Coal 
affords as good iron as can be made with 
charcoal, which is supposed to be caused by 
the zinc, when volatilized, carrying off with 
it any sulphur or phosphorus that the coal 
may contain. Franklinite pig-iron is repre- 
sented as capable of bearing a tensile strain 
of 40,000 lbs. per square inch, or to be nearly 
double the average strength of the iron used 
by the British Government for casting heavy 

Name. After the celebrated Benjamin 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Fraueneis, Werner. See Selekite. 

Freibergite. Argentiferous Tetrahe- 
drite ; the Polytelite of Glocker. 

Analysis, from Freiberg, by Rose ; 
Sulphur .... 21-17 
Antimony .... 24'6o 

Copper 14-81 

Iron 5-98 

Zinc 0-99 

Silver 31-29 


Freieslebekite, Haidinger. Oblique. Oc- 
curs in small deeply striated crystals, which 
are irregularly associated, but more often 
separate. Colour and streak pale steel-grey, 
inclining to silver-white ; also blackish lead- 
grey. Lustre metallic, externally shining 
and splendent. Yields readily to the knife, 
and is easilj' susceptible of mechanical divi- 
sion parallel to the planes of a right rhombic 
prism. Extremely brittle. Fracture con- 
choidal, uneven. H. 2 to 2-5. S.G. 6 to 64. 
Comp. Sulphantimonide of silver and 
lead, or (Pb, Ag) S + Sb^ S^. 
Analysis by Wohler : 

Sulphur .... 18-77 
Antimony .... 27*72 

Lead 30-00 

Silver . . . ". . 22-18 

Iron 0-11 

Copper 1-62 


BB emits copious white vapours, and a 
slight sulphurous odour ; deposits oxides of 
antimony and lead round the assay, and 
finally a small white globule of silver re- 

Localities. The Himmelsfiirst Mine, at 
Freiberg, in Saxony. Kapnik, in Transyl- 
vania. Ratieborzitz. Abundant at Hiende- 
laencina in Spain. 

M.P.G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 14 

Name. After Freiesleben. 

French Chalk. A white or greyish kind 
of Steatite, used for taking grease out of silk, 
and also for slate-pencils, which are made 
in a similar manner to ordinary lead-pen- 
cils. It is also used, in a state of powder, to 
make new gloves and boots slip on easily 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1055, 

Friable Lithomarge. Usually massive, 
also as a crust, and composed of fine shaly 
particles. Colour snow-white or yellowish- 
white. Lustre glimmering. Adheres to the 
tongue and feels greasy. 

Locality. Saxony, in tin-veins. 

Frugardit or Frugardite. A variety 
of Idocrase, fron Frugard, in Finland. 

Analysis, by Nordenskiold : 

Silica 38-53 

Alumina .... 1740 
Protoxide of iron . . .3-90 

Lime 27-70 

Magnesia . ' . . . 10-60 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-33 



Brit. Mus., Case 35. 

FucHsiTE. A variety of Mica, in which a 
portion of the alumina is replaced by sesqui- 
oxide of chromium. It is found in compact, 
licaly, and likewise regular slaty masses, 
frequently accompanied by pure Quartz. 
Colour emerald-green, passing into dull yel- 
low. Hardness between Gypsum and Eock 
Salt. S.G. 2-86. 

Comp. 38(3 K, Si) + 2(3 Na, bi) + 360(A1, 
Si) + 24(-e-r, 3 Si) + 18(Mg, Si) + 12(Fe, 3 Si> 
+ 9 Ca F (Schaffhautl). 
Analysis, by Schaffautl : 

Silica 47-95 

Alumina .... 34*45 
Peroxide of iron . . .180 
Oxide of chromium . . 3'95 

Lime 0-42 

Potash 10-75 

Soda 0-37 

Magnesia . . . .0-71 
Fluoric acid .... 0*35 

100 75 

BB with soda, swells up and fuses to a 
yellowish-brown globular slag, which, after 
continued exposure to the flame, acquires a 
dull green colour, and is slightly affected by 
the magnet. 

Dissolves slowly in borax, forming a clear 
globule, which is yellow while hot (from the 
presence of peroxide of iron), but a fine yel- when cold, owing to the pre- 
sence of chromium. 

Locality. Schwarzenstein, in the Tyrol. 

Name. After Professor Fuchs, of Got- 

Brit. Mus., Case 32. 

Fulgurites. (From fulgur, lightning.) 
Vitrified tubes, produced by the action of 
lightning on sand. They are found some- 
times in the sand and sand-hills on the 
coasts of Cumberland and Lancashire and 

Brit. Mus., Case 21. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall- case 42. 

Fuller's Earth, Kirwan. Massive. Co- 
lour usually greenish-brown, or greenish- 
grey, sometimes blue. It is opaque, soft, 
dull, with a greasy feel and an earthy frac- 
ture. Yields to the nail, and affords a shin- 
ing streak. Scarcely adheres to the tongue. 
Becomes translucent when placed in water, 
and falls into a pnlpy impalpable powder, 
without forming a paste with it. S.G. 1'7 
to 2-4. 


Earthy hydrous silicate of alu- 
mina, or AlSi + H; consisting, when pure, 
of silica 45, alumina 20, water 25 = 100-00. 
Analysis, from Reigate, by Klaproth : 
Silica . . . . . 53 00 
Alumina . . . .10-00 
Peroxide of iron . . . 9'75 
Magnesia . . . .1-25 

Lime 0-50 

Potash trace 

Muriate of soda . . . O'lO 
Water . . . . . 24-00 


BB fuses to a porous slag, and ultimately 
forms a white blebby glass. 

Localities. — English. Fuller's earth is 
found in several places in the United King- 
dom ; at Nutfield, near Reigate, and at 
Bletchingly, in Surrey, in Lower Greensand : 
Debtling, near Maidstone, in Kent ; Tilling- 
ton and Petworth, in Sussex ; Apsley and 
Wavendon, near Woburn, in Bedfordshire ; 
Catsgrove, near Reading, in Berkshire ; the 
Downs, south of Bath, in Somersetshire, at 
the base of the Great Oolite. — Scotch. Quarry 
Wood, in Morayshire ; Bridgehouse, in Pee'- 
bles-shire. — Foreign. It is also found at 
Rosswein, in Upper Saxony; at Rittenau, 
in Alsace ; Osmundburg, in Sweden ; Vahls, 
near Aix-la-Chapelle; Zwikowetz, in Bo- 
hemia, &c. &c. 

This substance was formerly used in large 
quantities by cloth manufacturers for cleans- 
ing woollen cloth, on accouut of its great 
capacity for absorbing oil and grease. The 
operation is called "fulling," hence the 
name, FuUer^s Earth, was given to the sub- 
stance employed. At the present day, how- 
ever, the consumption of Fuller's Earth has 
very much fallen off, in consequence of the 
adoption of other substances for effecting the 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

FuLLONiTE. See Onegite. 

FuNKiTE. A variety of green Coccolite, 
found in lamellar limestone at Bodksater, in 
Gothland. It occurs in rounded grains of a 
clear olive-green colour, with a glassy lus- 
tre. H. scratches glass. 

BB fuses with difficulty. 

FusciTE. Crystallized Pyrargillite, from 
Arendal, in Norway. 

Fusible Quartz, Jameson. See Obsi- 




GABRO^'lTE, Beudant, Dufrenoy. A variety 
of Scapolite, found only at Arendal, in amor- 
phous masses, with a compact or slightly 
lamellar texture. Colour stone-yellow. Lus- 
tre greasy. S.G. 2-74. 

Name. From its resemblance in colour 
to the rock called Gabhro. 

Gadolinite, Jdmeson, l^hillips, Haiiy, 
Mohs. Oblique : when crystallized, usually 
in imperfect, oblique rhombic prisms, the 
primary form. Colour iron-black; dull ex- 
ternally, internally black and shining. Lus 
tre vitreous, inclining to resinous. Opaque 
or feebly translucent at the edges, when it 
appears blackish-green. Streak greyish - 
green. Brittle. Fracture conchoidal. No 
distinct cleavage. H. 6-5 to 7. S.G. 4-097 
to 4-226. 

. Fig. 200. 

Comp. Y^ Sij but in all varieties of Gado- 
linite, a portion of the yttria is replaced by 
several other bases. 

Analysis, from Ytterby, by Berlin : 

Silica 24-85 

Glucina .... 4-80 

Yttria 51-46 

Oxide of cerium, with oxide 

of lanthanum . . . 5-24 
Protoxide of iron . , . 13-01 

Lime 0-50 

Magnesia and protoxide of 

. 1-11 


BB the Karafvet variety decrepitates and 
^. fuses, when strongl}' heated, to an opaque 
^pearl-grey or reddish glass; that from 
Ytterby exhibits a vivid glow, and loses its 
colour, but does not fuse. With borax all the 
varieties melt readily to a globule, more or 
less tinged with iron. 

Gelatinises in muriatic acid. 
Localities. — British. In one single instance 
only, in the county of Galway, in trap. — 
Foreign. It occurs principally in Sweden, at 
the quarries of Karafvet and Finbo,nearFah- 
lun, where, as well as at Ytterby, near Stock- 
holm, it is found indistinctly crystallized, 


and in amoi-phous masses, which are often 
encircled with a yellow crust, and are im- 
bedded in coarse-grained granite. It has 
also been been met with at Disko, in Green- 
land; in granite, in Ceylon; at Finbo and 
Broddbo ; and at Krageroe and Hitteroe, in 
the southern part of Norway. 

Name. After the Eussian chemist, G«- 
dolin, by whom it was first noticed in 1794. 
He discovered in it the new earth Yttria. 

Brit. Mus., Case 38. 

Gagates, Dinscorides. The name by 
which Jet was known to the ancients. It 
was so called from Gagis, a town in Lycia, 
where it was said to have been originally 

Gahnite, Beudant, Hausmann. A name 
for Automalite, after the discoverer Gahn. 


Galactite, Haidinger. Occurs radiating 
and compact at the Campsie Hills, Stirling- 
shire, and in long acicular crystals, with 
Prehnite, at Bishoptown, Renfrewshire. Re- 
cent analyses, by Heddle and Kenngott, 
have proved it to be Natrolite. 

Name. From yoiXa, ya.Xa.KTo?^ milk, because 
when immersed or triturated in water, it 
gives the colour of milk. 

Galapectite, Dufrenoy. A variety of 
Halloysite occurring in greenish-white 
masses which are opaline in places, and 
analogous in that respect to certain kinds of 
opaline Quartz. Slightly hard. May be 
cut with a knife. Fracture conchoidal. 

Galena, Kirwan, Brooke 8f MUler, 
Phillips, Greg §• Lettsom ; GaljeNE, Beu- 
dant; Galknit, v. Kobell; La Galene 
Commune, ^rocAani. Cubical. Occurs crys- 
tallized in the cube, octahedron, and in 

Fig. 201. 



Fig. 203. 


Fig. 204. 

numerous combinations of these with planes 
of other figures : also in amorphous masses 
with a lamellar structure ; frequently granu- 
lar ; sometimes almost compact, yielding a 
flat-conchoidal fracture, and presenting 


little lustre. Colour lead-grey, which in 
some varieties inclines to blackish lead- 
grey. On the surface sometimes shows an 
iridescent tarnish. Lustre metallic. Opaque. 
Structure lamellar. Cleavage parallel with 
the planes of the cube, highly perfect and 
easily obtained. Streak rather more shin- 
ing than the surface of fracture. Seotile. 
Easily pulverised, and externally easilvfran- 
gible. H. 2-5 to 2-75. S.G. 7-25 to 77. 

Comp. Protosulphide of lead, or Pb S = 
lead 86-6, sulphur 13-4=100. 

Silver and other metals are frequently 
present, as will be perceived by the follow- 
ing analysis of a specimen from Bottino, by 
C. Bechi : 

Sulphur .... 12-840 
. 80-700 
. 3-307 
. 1-377 
. 0-440 
. 0024 
. 0-325 

Iron , 
Zinc . 
Silver . 


BB decrepitates, then melts and emits a 
sulphurous odour, and, when the sulphur 
has been driven off, affords a globule of pure 
lead, from which a grain of silver may fre- 
quently be obtained by cupellation. The 
proportion of silver varies considerably, and 
those varieties, the fractured surfaces of which 
exhibit a granular structure, often contain 
more silver than the more compact lamellar 
varieties. Formerly it Avas not considered 
profitable, in the north of England, to sepa- 
rate the silver from the lead, unless the 
former amounted to 6 ounces in the ton, and 
in Wales unless it amounted to 12 ounces to 
the ton. By the improved process, intro- 
duced by Mr. Pattinson, it is now, however, 
found profitable to extract the silver when 
the lead does not contain more than 3 ounces 
to the ton, at the same time that the cost of 
refining is reduced from 60s. to 30s. per ton, 
and the lead, after the separation of the 
silver, is rendered much more valuable, 
being less hard and brittle than before. 

Galena occurs in irregular deposits and 
in veins in igneous and sedimentarj' rocks. 

Localities. — English. The largest crystals 
of Galena ever met with have been found at 
the Laxey and Foxdale Mines in the Isle of 
Man, some of which measure as much as 
10 inches across. Fig. 202 represents the 
prevailing form, but combinations of the 
cube, octahedron, and dodecahedron also 
occur. Octahedral crystals, of very large 
dimensions, have also been found at Dufton 

GALENA. 147 

and Alston, in Cumberland, and large cubic 
cr^'stals at Brownly Hill, in the same county ; 
Cornwall and Devonshire, in veins travers- 
ing clay-slate (Killas), Cumberland, Derby- 
shire, Durham, Northumberland, Yorkshire 
and Flintshire, in limestone. — Scotch. Lead- 
hills,inLanarkshire ; Wanlock Head ; in Dum- 
friesshire ; and Monaltiie, in Aberdeenshire, 
in granite ; Strontian, in Argyleshire, iu 
gneiss; Isla, in limestone; Coll, in gneiss. 
— Foreign. Freyberg, in Saxony. Spain, 
in the granite hills of Linares'; also in 
Catalonia, Grenada, and elsewhere. Ros- 
mininhal, in Portuguese Estreraadura. Sala, 
in Sweden. Clausthal, Neudorf, and Pfaffen- 
berg, in the Harz. Przibram, Miess and 
Joachimsthal, in Bohemia. Schemnitz in 
Hungary. Bleiberg, in Carinthia. The 
Daouria mountains of Siberia. Algeria. 
Cape of Good Hope. Australia. In the 
United States extensive deposits of this ore 
exist in Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, and Wiscon - 
sin. The lead region of Wisconsin is stated 
by D. D. Owen to extend 87 miles from east 
to west, and 54 miles from north to south. 
Within this area there is scarcely a square 
mile in which traces of lead may not be 
found. Although the diggings are seldom 
more than 25 or 30 feet deep, as much as 
1835 tons of ore have been raised from a 
single spot not more than 5 yards square. 

Galena is the most abundant ore of 
lead, and that from which the greatest 
amount of the metal is obtained. In Hunt's 
Mineral Statistics for 1859, a list of all the 
lead mines in the United Kingdom will be 
found, together with the quantities of ore 
raised from each, and lead produced. The 
total produce of the United Kingdom dur- 
ing the year 1859 appears to be 91,735 tons 
of ore, the value of which was £1,268,677. 

" Galena is distinguished from Plumbago 
by its weight, and by its not affording dis- 
tinct traces on paper; from Sulphuret of 
Molybdena also by its structure, which is 
never foliated; and from the brilliant me- 
tallic varieties of Blende, by the surfaces of 
its crystals resuming their lustre instantly 
when breathed upon, while those of Blende 
remain dull for some time." — (Allan.) See 
also Blue Lead and Specular Galena. 

Name. From y»>^y'v^, tranquillity, from its 
supposed effects in mitigating the violence 
of disease. 

Brit. Mus., Case 8. 

M. P. G. From the Grassington Mines, 
in the Hall. Principal Floor, Casfe 15 (Isle 
of Man and Ireland); Wall-cases 14, 25 
L 2 


to 33, and 43 to 45 (British) ; 41 (Newfound- 
and); 21 (Foreio-u). 

Gale:«^a de Bismuth, Brochant. See Bis- 


Gallicinite ; Gallitzenstein. Rutile. 
See Galltzixite. 

Gallitzixite. Leymerie ; Gallizen- 
STEix; Gallizinite, Beudant. See Gos- 
t^akite, 01- Sulphate of Zinc. Named 
after Prince Gallitzin. 

Gallizinite. a variety of Nigrine from 
Spessart, near Aschaffenburg in Franconia. 

Analysis, by Klaproth : 

Oxide of titanium . . .22' 
Oxide of iron . . . .78 


Galmei, Hausmann. See Calamine. 

Galimei, Naumann. See Smithsonite. 

Galmey, Werner. Refers both to Cala- 
mine and Smithsonite, or to the Carbonate 
and the siliceous oxide of Zinc. 

Ganomatite ; Ganse-Kothig-erz. From 
y6c\o?, brightness. See Chenocoprolite. 

Garbenstilbit. See Stilbite. 

Garnet. Cubical. Occurs in rhombic 
dodecahedrons and icositetrahedrons ; also 
massive, granular, and lamellar. Cleavage 
dodecahedral ; sometimes distinct. Lustre 
vitreous, inclining to resinous. Colour black, 
red, brown, yellow, green, -white. Trans- 
parent to opaque. Streak white-grey. Frac- 
ture subconchoidal, uneven. H. 6-5 to 7*5. 
S.G. 3T to 4-3. 

Comp. A silicate of different bases, repre- 

Fjg. 205. 

Fig. 206. 

Fig. 207. 

sented by the formula R'' Si + S Si=(R3 + 

it) Si, where R may be lime, magnesia, oxide 

of iron, and Jr is alumina. 

Garnet has been divided into six sub- 
species, viz. : — 

I. Alumina-lime Garnet, consisting of sili- 
cates of alumina and lime. 

II. Alumina-magnesia Garnet, consisting 
of silicates of alumina and magnesia. 

III. Alumina-iron Garnet, consisting of 
silicates of alumina and iron. 

IV. Alumina-manganese Garnet, consist- 
ing of silicates of alumina and manganese. 


V. Iron-lime Garnet, consisting of sili- 
cates of iron and lime. 

VI. Lime-chrome Garnet, containing lime 
and oxide of Chromium. 

I. Lime-garnet or Grossular, consists of 

Ca5 Si+Al Si-(Ca3 + Al) Si = silica 40-1, 
alumina 22-7, lime 37-2 = l00-0. 

Colour pale greenish, clear red, and red- 
dish orange ; also cinnamon colour. H. 6'5 
to 7. S.G. 3-43 to 3-73. 

BB fuses to a slightly greenish glass or 

Soluble, when powdered, in concentrated 
muriatic acid. 

This section comprises Cinnamon -stone 
or Essonite, Grossular or Wiluite, Roman- 
zovite, Topazolite, and Succinite. 

II. Magnesia-garnet. 

Comp. (Mg Fe3) Si + Al Si = (Mg Fe^ + 

Al) Si. 

Colour deep coal-black. Lustre slightly 
resinous. H. 6-5 to 7. S.G. 3-157. 

BB easily fusible, forming, with intumes- 
cence a dark greyish -green globule, which 
is non-magnetic. 

III. Iron-garnet. 

Comp. Fe3Si+Ai Si-(Fe3 + Ai) Si= 
silica 36'3, alumina 20-5, protoxide of iron 

S.G. 3-7 to 4-21. 

BB fuses rather easily, with an iron re- 

This section comprises Allochroite, Al- 
mandine or Precious Garnet, and Common 

IV. Manganese-garnet or Spessartine. 

Comp. (Mn5+Al)Si. 
Colour brownish-red. H. 7 to 7-5. S.G. 
3-7 to 4-2. 

BB gives a manganese reaction. 
See Spessartine. 

V. Iron-lime Garnet. 

Comp. Ca5 Si + ffe Si = (Ca^ + Fe) si. 

Colour dark red, brownish -black, black. 
Lustre dull or shining, sometimes resinous 
(Colophonite). H. 7. S.G. 3-6 to 4-0. 

This section includes Aplome (S.G. 3*45 
to 3-85), Colophonite (S.G. 3-896), Melanite, 
and Pyreneite. 

VI. Lime-chrome Garnet or Ouvarovite. 
Colour emerald-green. 

Comp. Ca3 Si + (-G^r, Al) Si = (Ca^ + -e-r 


Arl) Si, part of the lime being replaced by 

Fe, Mg, and part of the ^B-r bv M. 

H. 7-5 to 8-0. S.G. 3-4184/ 

BB infusible alone : with borax yields a 
fine chrome-green glass. 

Pyrope, also, comes under this head, 
according to Rammelsberg. 

BB many of the Garnets are easily fu- 

Localities. Cornwall, in perfect detached 
dodecahedrons in the Crown's Rock (green- 
stone), at Botallack, in St. Just ; and near 
Camborne, Jig. 206. On Dartmoor, in 
Devonshire. Cumberland at Saddleback, 
and near Keswick. Also in Ireland, Scot- 
land, and various other countries, generally 
in granite, dolomite, or mica- slate. 

The Garnet varies greatly in transparency, 
fracture, and colour, but when the colours 
are rich, and the stone is free from flaws, it 
constitutes a valuable gem, which may be 
distinguished by the following properties. 

The colour should be blood- or cherrj'- 
red, on the one hand, often mixed more or 
less with blue, so as to present various shades 
of crimson, purple, and reddish violet ; and, 
on the other hand, with yellow, so as to 
form orange-red and hyacinth-brown. 

In size the stones vary from the smallest 
pieces that can be worked to the size of a 
nut. When above that size, they are scarcely 
ever free from flaws, or sufficiently trans- 
parent for the purposes of the Jeweller. 

The Garnets of commerce are procured 
from Bohemia, Ceylon, Pegu, and Brazil. 
By Jewellers they are classed as Syrian, 
Bohemian, or Cingalese, rather from their 
relative value and fineness than Avith any 
reference to the country from which they 
are supposed to have been brought. 

The most esteemed kinds are called Syrian 
Garnets, not because they come from Syria, 
but after Syrian, the capital of Pegu, 
and formerly the chief mart for the finest 
Garnets. The colour of the Syrian Garnet 
is violet-purple, in some rare instances rival- 
ling that of the finest Oriental Amethyst, 
from which it may be distinguished, how- 
ever, by acquiring an orange tint by candle- 
light. The Syrian Garnet may be also dis- 
tinguished from all the other varieties of 
Garnet in preserving its colour (even when 
of considerable thickness, and unassisted by 
foil), unmixed with the black tint which 
usually obscures this gem. The Bohemian 
Garnet is generally of a dull poppy-red 


colour, with a very perceptible hyacinth- 
orange tint, when held between the eye and 
the light. When the colour is a full 
crimson, it is called Pyrope or Fire-Garnet, 
a stone of considerable value, when perfect, 
and of large size. 

The best manner of cutting Pja-ope is en 
cabflchon, with one or two rows of small 
facets round the girdle of the stone. The 
colour appears more or less black when the 
stone is cut in steps, but when cut en cabochon 
the point on which the light falls displays a 
briliant fire-red. 

Garnet is easily worked, and, when facet- 
cut, is nearly always (on account of the 
depth of its colour) formed into thin tables, 
which ai-e sometimes concave or hollowed 
out on the under side. Cut stones of this 
latter description, when skilfully set Avith 
bright silver foil, have often been sold for 

The Garnet, after having long been out 
of fashion, appears to be coming into favour 
again. About a century and a half ago, a 
fine set of Garnets was considered a mag- 
nificent ornament for ladies of the highest 

The Garnet may be distinguished from, 
the Corundum or Spinel by its duller colour. 

Coarse Garnets, though of inferior hard- 
ness to emery, are sometimes used as a sub- 
stitute for it. When reduced to poAvder, they 
afford a material superior to sand for giving 
a smooth surface to metal and stone-work, 
preparatory to polishing, and for cutting- 
gems. S 

The Carbunculus Garamanticus, or Gara- 
mantine Carbuncle of the ancients (the 
avflgai, of Theophrastus) was the true Garnet 
of the moderns. 

Name. The word Garnet is derived from 
the Low Latin name Garanatus, which was 
given to the mineral from its red colour, 
resembling that of the seed of the pome- 

Brit. Mus„ Case 36. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 880 to 
904. Upper Gallery, Wall-case 1, No. 93. 

Garnsdokffite. a name for Pissophane, 
from its occurrence at Garnsdorff", near 

Gay - LussiTE, Boussingault. Oblique : 
primary form an oblique rhombic prism. 
Occurs in detached prisms, and aggregated 
crystals disseminated in clay. The less 
perfect of these bear a strong resemblance 
to Selenite ; but the more perfect and smooth 
have rather the aspect of Calcareous Spar, 
L 3 


being yellowish-white and translucent and 
doubly refractive in a high degree. Lustre 
of fractured surfaces vitreous. Streak grey- 
ish. Extremely brittle. Fracture conchoi- 
dal. H. 2 to 3. S.G. 1-92 to 1-99. 

Comp. Hydrated carbonate of lime and 

soda, or Na C + Ca C + 5 H= carbonate of 

soda 35-9, carbonate of lime 338, water 30-3 

= 100. 

Analysis, hy J. B. Boussingault : 

Carbonate of soda . ' . 34-5 

Carbonate of lime . . 33-6 

Water 30-4 

Clay 1-5 . 


Decrepitates slightly when heated, and 
becomes opaque from loss of water. 

BB fuses rapidly to an opaque globule, 
(Avhich when once formed, is no longer fusible, 
on account of the escape of carbonic acid,) 
and has a strong alkaline taste. 

Eeadily soluble in nitric acid with effer- 
vescence. Soluble in water, to a trifling 
extent, when reduced to powder; yielding 
a solution which reddens turmeric paper, 
and is precipitated by oxalic acid. 

Localities. This mineral is found abun- 
dantly at Lagunilla, near Merida, in Mara- 
caibo, in crystals disseminated in a bed of 
■^-lay, covering Trona at the bottom of a small 
iake. The natives call the crystals of Gay- 
Lussite clavos or nails, in allusion to their 
elongated forms ; and in contradistinction 
to the Trona, which they term urao. It is 
also met with at Sangerhausen in Thuringia. 

Name. The name was conferred upon it 
by Boussingault, in honour of the French 
chemist Gav-Lussac. 

Brit. IMus. Case 46. 

Gediegex Arsenik. See Native Arse- 

Gehiegen Antimon. See iSTATivE An- 

Gediegen Blei. See Native Lead. 

Gediegen Eisen. See Native Iron. 

Gediegen Gold. See Native Gold. 

Gediegen Kupfer. See Native Copper. 

Gediegen Platin. See Native Pla- 

Gediegen Quecksilber. See Native 

Gediegen Spiessglanz. See Native 

Gediegen Silber. See Native Silver. 

Gediegen Silvan, Werner. See Native 

Gediegen Tellur, Hausmann. See 
Native Tellurium. 


Gediegen Wismuth. See Native Bis- 

Gedrite. a variety of Hornblende re- 
sembling Anthophyllite. It is fibrous and 
somewhat laminar. Colour violet-brown, 
with a semi-metallic lustre. S.G. 3*26. 

Comp. 8Fe, 6Si + Al, Si + H. ? 
Analysis, by Dufrenoy : 

Silica 38-81 


Protoxide of iron 
Lime . 


lOIOo ^ 
Locality. Valley of Heas, near Gedre in 
the Pyrenees ; whence the name Gedrite. 
Brit. Mus , Case 34. 

Gehlenite, Fuchs. Pyramidal. Usually 
occurs in rectangular four-sided prisms, 
which are sometimes tabular, or nearly ap- 
proach the form of the cube. The surfaces 
of crystals commonly rough and dull. 
Colour grey, frequently with a greenish or 
3'ellowish tinge. Lustre resinous, inclining 
to vitreous. Opaque ; fragments feebly 
translucent at the edges. Streak white 
to greenish white. Fracture uneven and 
splintery. H. 5-5 to 6. S.G. 2-9 to 3-06. 

Comp. 3K3 si + i^5 Si, or (Ca, Mg)5 (¥e 

Al) 2Si. 

Analysis, from Fassa by Rammehherq 

Silica .... 

. 29-78 


. 22-02 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 3-22 

Protoxide of iron . 

. 1-73 

Lime . 

. 37-90 


. 3-88 

Protoxide of manganes 

e . 0-19 

Water and loss . 

. 1-28 

BB with difficulty fusible : with borax or 
microcosmic salt melts slowly to a glass 
coloured by iron. 

Completely decomposed by muriatic acid, 
with separation of gelatinous silica. 

Localities. Principally on Mount Mon- 
zoni, in the Valley of Fassa in the Tyrol,_in 
crvstals which are either isolated and in- 
ve'sted by Cale Spar, or aggregated irregu- 
larly in' groups. It also occurs massive, 
forming an extremely tough, difficultly 
frangible rock in the same locality. 

Name. In honour of the chemist Gehlen. 

Brit. Mus„ Case 36, 

Gekrosstein, a contorted variety of 


Anhydrite, found principally at Bochnia and 
Wieficzkain Poland. 

Gelbbleierz; Gelbes Bleierz, Wer- 
ner. See WULFENITE. 

Gelbeisenerz. a potash-Copperas re- 
lated to Jarosite, met with in reniform and 
in compact earthy masses in Bohemia, and 
at Modum in Norway. Colour ochre-yellow. 
Opaque. Lustre weak. H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 
2-7 to 2-9. 

Analysis, from Brown Coal of Kolosoruk 
in Bohemia, by Rammehberg : 

Silica 82-11 

Peroxide of iron . . . 46*74 

Lime 0*64 

Potash . ■ . . . . 7-88 
Water 13-55 


Gelbeisenstein. See Yeli^ow Ochre. 

Gelberde. See Limomite. 

Gelberz. See Sylvanite. 

Analysis, by Klaproth : 

Tellurium .... 47*75 

Gold 26-75 

Silver 8-50 

Lead . . . . . 19-50 
Sulphur .... 0-5 

Gelbes Rauschgelb, Werner. See Or- 


Gelf, Kirwan. The name given in Hun- 
gary to " a particular sort of Argentiferous 
Copper Pyrites." 

Gelfekz. See Chalcoptrite. 

Gem. According to Piiny the ancients 
included under the term Gem all stones of 
beautiful colour, which were found in small 
quantity, and of a suflScient degree of hard- 
ness to be engraved as seals. By Gems the 
moderns understand those stones which, in a 
small compass, combine hardness and fire 
or lustre, with vivid, soft, or agreeable 
colours, and divide them into two kinds, 
real gems or jewels and precious stones. 
The real Gems comprise Diamond, Sapphire, 
Euby, Spinelle, Emerald, Beryl, Topaz, Zir- 
con, Garnet, Chrysoberyl, Tourmaline, Ru- 
bellite, Essonite, Cordierite, lolite, Cyanite 
(Sappare), Chrysolite, and the varieties of 
Rock Crystal. 

Precious stones are supposed to possess 
the same characters as the Gems, only in a 
minor degree. They are also generally only 
translucent or semitransparent, and occur 
in larger amorphous masses. Lapidaries 
and jewellers name Gems according to their 
colours, rather than with reference to their 
chemical composition, or their relative de- 



grees of hardness and density. Thus the 
Corundum-ruby (Oriental Ruby), Spinelle 
or Topaz, are all, when red, called Ruby ; if 
green, Emerald; if blue, Sapphire; and if 
yellow. Topaz. 

The term Oriental is applied in the same 
way to the finest stones, whether found in 
the East or not ; having been used, perhaps, 
originally to denote those stones which were 
really brought from the East, and were 
more highly valued in consequence, than 
the produce of other countries. In the 
same way the ancients called the most 
highly coloured stones masculine, and those 
of more subdued tints /emmme. 

Gemma Pellucidissima, Walkrius. See 

Genesee Oil. A kind of Petroleum. See 
Seneca Oil. 

Geocronite, Dana, Greg §• Lettsom. 
Geokronite, Svanberg, Nicol. Rhombic. 
Usually occurs massive ; also granular or 
earthy. Colour and streak pale lead-grey. 
Lustre metallic. Brittle: fracture uneven. 
H. 2 to 3. S.G. 6-4 to 6-6. 

Fig. 208. 



Comp. Sulphantimcyiite of lead, or 5 Pb S 
+ (Sb, As) S5 = sulphur 16-5, antimony 16-7, 
lead 66-8 = 100. 

Analysis, from Merido, by Sauvage: 
Sulphur . . . . 16-90 
Antimony .... 16-00 

Lead 6489 

Copper . . . .1-60 


B3 fuses readily, giving off fumes of 
antimony and sulphur, and colouring the 
charcoal around yellow. 

Localities,— Irish. Kilbricken, co. Clare. 
See Kilbrickbnite.— Fore/pfn. The silver 
mines of Sala in Sweden, at which locality 
a portion of the antimony is replaced by 
arsenic. In Spain, at Meredo in Gallicia ; 
and in the valley di Castello, near Pietro 
Santo in Tuscany, 

Name. The name Geocronite is derived, 
from 7'?, earth, and Kpo'vc?, Saturn, the alche- 
mistic name for lead. 

Brit. Mus., Case 11. 

Geodes. Are net, strictly speaking, 
distinct minerals, but hollow nodules, fre- 


quently containing crystals of Quartz, Cal- 
cite, &c., coating their interior. Of such a 
kind are the geodes of common occurrence 
in the New Red Marl of Somersetshire and 
Gloucestershire, to which the name of "po- 
tato-stones" has been locally given, from 
their external resemblance to the root of 
that name. Specimens of these from tlie 
neighbourhood of Bristol will be found in 
the Upper Gallery of the Museum of Practi- 
cal Geology. See Wall-case 44, Nos. 35 
to 37. 

Gersdorffite, Haidinger. Cubical ; pyri- 
tohedral. Occurs in octahedrons, sometimes 
with the faces of the pentagonal dodecahe- 
dron, and cubo-octahedron. Colour tin- 
white inclining to lead-grey ; often with a 
grey or greyish-black tarnish. Lustre 
metallic. Streak greyish-black. Fracture 
uneven. H. 5-5. S.G. 67 to 6 9. 

Comp. Ni, S2 + Ni, As = nickel 35-54, 
arsenic 45-18, sulphur 19-28 -=100. 

Analysis, from Schladming, by Pless : 
Arsenic .... 39-40 

Cobalt . 




Decrepitates strongly when heated in a 
flask. Heated to redness, yields a strong 
sublimate of fused, yellowish-brown sul- 
phide of arsenic, while a mass like copper- 
nickel is lefc behind. (Berzelius.) 

Dissolves in nitric acid, depositing sulphur 
and arsenious acid. 

Localities. Loos, in Helsingland, Sweden. 
Albertine mine, near Harzgerode in the 
Harz. Schladming in Styria. Hamsdorf, near 
Lobenstein in Thuringia. Near Ems, in 
fine crystals. (See also Amoibite.) 

Brit. Mus., Case 6. 

Geyserite. a loose hydrated form of 
silica. It is held in solution by the hot 
water of the Geysers of Iceland, and de- 
posited by them on the ground around in 
light, porous, concretionary or cellular 
masses, somewhat resembling cauliflowers 
in appearance. 

GiBBSiTE, Torrey, Cleveland, Phillips, 
Nicol. (See also Hydra rgillite.) Hexa- 
gonal. In small crystals with the lateral 
edges replaced, and a perfect basal cleavage. 
Generally occurs in aggregations of irregular 
stalactites, or small mammillary incrusta- 
tions, with smooth surfaces. Structure in- 
distinctly fibrous, the fibres radiating from 
the centre. Colour greyish-, greenish-, or 
reddish-white. Translucent. Lustre faint. 

When breathed on gives ofi'.a strong argil- 
laceous odour. Tough, but easily reduced 
to powder. H. 3 to 3-75. S.G. 2-3 to 2-4. 

Comp. Terhydrate of alumina or A\, H^ 
= alumina 65-56, water 34-44=100. 

Analysis, from Richmond, U.S., by Smith 
§• Brush : 

Alumina . . . . 64-24 
Water . . . .33-76 

Silica 1-33 

Phosphoric acid . . .0-67 
Magnesia .... 0*10 
Protoxide of iron . . trace 


In a matrass yields much water. 

BB alone infusible, but becomes white : 
on charcoal decrepitates, becomes opaque, 
crystals exfoliate ; phosphoresces. 

Entirely soluble in concentrated sulphuric 

Localities. Stalactitic, at Richmond, Massa- 
chusetts, U.S., in a bed of Limonite; and at 
the Clove Mine, Duchess co. New York. Cry- 
stallized (Hydrargillite) in the Schischim- 
skian Mountains, near Slatoust in the Ural. 
Gumush-dagh in Asia Minor, with Corun- 
dum. Unionville, Pennsylvania, U. S. 
Brazil, resembling Wavellite, 

Name. After Colonel George Gibbs. 

Brit. Mus., Case 19. 

GiBSONiTE, Haidinger. A mineral crystal- 
lizing in right rhomboidal prisms, partly 
aggregated in little kidneys, and bearing- 
some resemblance to Prehnite. Colour rose- 
white or pale rose. 

Locality. Hartfield in Renfrewshire. Fig. 

Fig. 209. 

GiESECKiTE ; GiSECKiTE, Stvomeycr. A 
pseudoraorphus form of Elseolite, from which 
it chiefly differs in containing 4-88 per cent, 
of water. It occurs in regular six-sided 
prisms of a brownish colour externally; in- 
ternally greenish and blackish-green inter- 
mixed. The colour of the Diana specimens 
varies from pea- green to leek-green. Lustre 
greasy. Opaque, but translucent in small 
fragments. Structure granular, sometimes 
waxy ; bearing a greater resemblance to a 
pseudomorphous steatitic mineral than a 
crystalline substance. Yields to the knife, 
but scratches glass. Affords a white powder, 
H. 3 to 3-35, S.G. 2-73 to 2-85. 

Comp. (R5i&)8 gi4 + 3H. 

Analysis (mean of three), from Diana, by 
Prof. Brush : 

Silica 45-67 

Alumina .... Sl'ol 
Peroxide of iron . . 0-27 

Protoxide of iron . . . 0-77 

Lime 2-20 

Magnesia . . . * . 3-48 

Soda 0-88 

Potash 8-21 

Carbonate of lime . .0-32 
Water 6-97 


BB becomes opaque and fuses to a white 

Localites. Akulliarasiarsuk in Greenland, 
imbedded in. compact Felspar. United 
States, at Diana, Lewis co., N. Y., in gra- 
nular limestone with Pyroxene and Mag- 
netic Pyrites. 

Name. After Sir C. Gies^cke, by whom it 
was first brought from Greenland. 

GiFTKiEs. See Mispickel. 

GiGANTOLiTE. The name given by Xor- 
denskiold to a hydrated lolite (correspond* 

ing to lolite + 31i), found in gneissoid 
granite at Tamela in Finland. It is of a 
greenish -grey colour, with a vitreous and 
waxy lustre, approaching to submetallic. 
S.G. 2-862 to 2-878. 

BB fuses with intumescence to a light 
greenish slag. 

Analysis, from Tamela, by 3Iarignac : 

Silica . 

. 42-59 


. 26-78 

Peroxide of iron . 


, 14-21 

Potash . 

. 5-44 


. 2-72 

Protoxide of manganese 

. 1-07 

Water . 


. 5-70 

Brit. Mus., Case 32. 

GiLBERTiTE, Thomson. 


hydrous Mus- 

covite ; a varietv of Margarodite. H. 2-7 

S.G. 2-6 to 2-8. 

Analysis, from Cornwall 

bv Lehunt : 

Silica . 

. 45-15 


. 40-11 


. 1-90 

Lime . 

. 4-17 

Protoxide of iron . 

. 2-43 

Water . 

. 4-25 



Locality. Stenna Gwynn, near St. Austell, 
in Cornwall, in considerable masses, of a yel- 
lowish-white colour, with granite and Fluor. 
M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1001. 
GiLLiNGiTE. The name given by Her- 
mann to the varieties of Hisingerite from 
Gillinge and Orijerfvi in Finland. 

Analysis, from Gillinge, by Rammelsherg : 

Silica 82-18 

Peroxide of iron . . 30"! 

Protoxide of iron . .8-63 

Lime 5-50 

Magnesia 4-22 

Water .... 19-37 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

GiOBERTiTE, Beudant. A variety of 
Magnesite from Baumgarten, in Silesia ; 
named after Giobert, who first pointed out 
the presence of carbonate of magnesia in 
the earthy varieties of Magnesite. 
Analysis, by Stromeyer : 

Magnesia .... 48-36 
Carbonic acid . . . 50-32 
Peroxide of manganese . 0-21 
Water .... 1-39 


GiPSiTE, Beudant. See Gibbsite. 

GiRASOL. The name given by the French 
to Fire-opal, and by Walkrius §■ De Born 
to milk-white translucent Opal. The name 
Girasol is derived from gyro, to turn, and 
Sol, the sun, because it constantly reflects a 
reddish colour when turned to the sun or 
any bright light. Sometimes it strongly 
resembles a translucent jelly. 

GiSMONDiNE, Beudant, "Phillips. Pyra- 
midal. Occurs in octahedrons, either separate 
or clustered into mammillated forms with a 
drusy surface. Colour bluish-white, greyish, 
reddish. Lustre splendent. Transparent to 
translucent. H. 4-5. S.G. 2-265. 

BB whitens, intumesces, and melts to a 
milky glass : at 100° C. (212° F.) loses one- 
third of its water. 

Easily dissolves in acids and gelatinises. 

Comp. (Ca, K)2 Si + 2 Al Si + 9H. 

Analysis by Marignac : 

Silica ..... 35-88 " 
Alumina .... 27-23 

Lime 13-12 

Potash 2-85 

Water 21-10 

Locality. Capo di Bove, near Pome; 
associated with Phillipsite. 


The faces of the crystals never have the 
striae of those of Phiflipsite, and the mam- 
millated specimens are not columnar within : 
moreover, Phillipsite does not lose any of 
its water below 100° C. (212° Fah.). 

Name. After Charles-Joseph Gismondi, 
Professor of Mineralog3'- at Rome. 

Brit. Mus., Case 29. 

Glace de Marie. Selenite. See Pierre 
A Jesus. 

Glance -Blende, Mohs. See Mangan- 

Glance Coal, Jameson. See Anthra- 

Glance Cobalt, Jameson. See Cobal- 


Glance Copper. See Copper Glance. 
Glanz, Haidinger. See Galena. 
Glanzarsenikkies. See Leucopyrite. 
Glanz BR AUNSTEiN, Hausmann. See Haus- 


Glanzkobalt; Glanzkobold, Werner. 
See Cobaltine. 

Glanzkohle, Wenner. See Anthra- 

Glaserite, jETawsmaJiw. Rhombic. Occurs 
in thin tables and in blades made up of 
aggregated crystals; also massive, or im- 
perfectly mammillary, apparently formed 
in successive layers, and in crusts. Colour 
v/hite or yellow, sometimes with a bluish or 
greenish stain. Lustre vitreous, inclining 
to resinous. Transparent to translucent or 
opaque. Taste saline and bitter. Cleavage 
and fracture indistinct. 

Camp. Sulphate of potash or K S= pot- 
ash 54*1, sulphuric acid 45-9 — 100. 
Analysis, from Vesuvius: 

Sulphate of potash . . 71-4 

Sulphate of soda . . . 186 
Chloride of sodium . . 4-6 

Chloride of ammonium, cop- 
per and iron . . .6-4 

BB fuses without intumescence. 
Localities. In delicate white cr^'^stalHza- 
tions, and in m.asses, often an inch or more in 
thickness, sublimed on lava round the fuma- 
roles of Vesuvius and other volcanoes. 


GlASERZ, Hausmann, Werner. Silver 
glass. See Silver Glance. 

Glass-schorl or Glastein, Wiedenman. 
See Axinite. 

Glassy Felspar. See Sanidine. 

Glassy Quartz, Kirwan. See Greasy 

Glatte. See Plumbic Ochee. 

Glauber-salt, Kirwan; Glaubersalz, 
Werner. Obuque : primary form an oblique 
rhombic prism. Usually occurs in efflo- 
rescent crusts and in an earthy form, of a 
grejMsh or yellowish-white colour. Lustre 
vitreous on fresh fractures, dull at the sur- 
face. Translucent or opaque. Extremely 
efflorescent, falling spontaneously into 
powder. Brittle; easily frangible. Has a 
cooling, and then a bitter, saline taste. H. 
1-5 to 2. S.G. 1-48. 

Comp. Sulphate of soda, or Na S + 10 H 
= soda 19-3, sulphuric acid 24-8, water 55-9 
= 100. 

Analysis, from Nova Scotia, by H. Haw : 
Sulphate of soda . . . 44*54 
Water .... 65-46 

In the matrass melts in its water of com- 

BB behaves like Epsomite, but its solu- 
tion does not afford a precipitate with lime- 

Localities. Eger, and in the hot springs 
of Carlsbad and Seidlitz, in Bohemia. Old 
salt mines at Ischl and Hallstadt, in Upper 
Austria. Altenberg, in Styria. Hungary. 
Switzerland. Italy. Near Aranjuez, in 
Spain ; and in enormous quantities near 
Lodoso, on the borders of Navarre and 
Old Castile ; also in the mountains at San- 
tander, and Alcanadra. Egypt. On the 
banks of many Siberian salt lakes. A 
cavern on Hawaii, one of the Sandwich 
Islands. With Hayesine in cavities in the 
Gypsum of Nova Scotia, &c. 

Name. After Glauber, a German chemist, 
who first discovered the artificial salt. 

When purified, Glauber Salt is used as a 
purgative medicine. 

Glauberite, Brongniart, Haiiy, Jameson, 
Phillips. Oblique : primary form an oblique 
rhombic prism. Occurs crystallized in the 
form of oblique and extremely flat rhombic 
prisms, of a pale yellow or grey colour. 
Lustre vitreous. Translucent, rarely trans- 
parent. Streak white. Brittle. Fracture con- 
choidal. Taste slightly saline. When im- 
mersed in water becomes opaque, and is 

partly dissolved. H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 2-6 
to 2-85. 

Fig. 211. 

Comp. Sulphate of soda and lime, or 

CiNa + ^Ca) S = sulphate of soda 51-1, sul- 
phate of lime 48-9=100. 

Analysis, from Atacama, by Hayes : 
Sulphuric acid . . . 67-22 

Soda U-32 

Lime 20-68 

Iron . . . . . 0'14 

BB decrepitates and then melts to a clear 

Localities. In crystals, imbedded in Rock 
Salt and clay, at the salt mines of Villa 
Rubia, near Ocana; and Aranjuez, near 
Madrid, in Spain. Aussee and Ischl, in Upper 
Austria. The salt mines of Vic, in France 
(see PoLYHALiTE DE Vic). The province of 
Tarapaca, in Peru, with Hayesine, &c. 

Name. Glauberite is so called in conse- 
quence of its containing a very large amount 
of Glauber's salt. 
Brit. Mus., Case 52. 

Glaucodot or Glaucodote, Breithaupt. 
A cobaltic variety'- of Mispickel, with which 
it nearly agrees in crystallization, and also 
in composition, except in the replacement of 
one-third of the cobalt by iron. It is of 
a greyish, tin-white colour, with a metallic 
lustre. Streak black. H. 5. S.G. 5-97 to 6. 
Cojnp. (Co, Fe ) As + (Co, Fe) S^ = sulphur 
19-4, arsenic 45-5, cobalt 23-8, iron 11-3 = 100. 
Analysis, from Huasco, in Chili, by Plattner : 
Sulphur . . . .20-21 
Arsenic .... 43 20 
Cobalt . . . .24 77 
Nickel .... trace 

Iron 11-90 

Silica trace 


BB gives the reaction of cobalt, iron, sul- 
phur, and arsenic. 

Gives only a trace of arsenic when heated 
in a glass closed at one end. 

Localities. In mica-schist, associated with 
Cobaltine, in the province of Huasco, in 
Chili : and at Orawitza, in the Bannat, with 

Name. From /Aav^o,-, grey. 

Brit. Mus., Case 12. 


Glaucolite, Fischer. A massive variety 
of Scapolite of a lavender-blue or indigo-blue 
colour, occasionally passing into green, some- 
what resembling blue Cancrinite. Lustre 
vitreous. Translucent at the edges. Frac- 
ture splintery. H. 6 to 6. S.G. 2 65 to 2-67. 

Comp. R3 Si2+2A1 Si. 

Analysis, from Lake Baikal, by Von Rath : 

Peroxide of iron 
Lime . 

Carbonate of lime 
Soda . 
Water . 



BB whitens and fuses with difficulty. 
Dissolves slowly with effervescence in borax 
and salt of phosphorus. 

Localities. In veins in granite, in the 
vicinity of the river Sludianka, beyond Lake 
Baikal, in Siberia. Laurvig, in Norway, 
accompanied by Elaeolite. 

Name. From ykoiuxos, sea-green, and A/0«f , 

Glauconite. Occurs in green grains, or- 
in small greenish masses, in the green sand- 
stone of various countries, as in the Upper 
Greensand of the south of England and 
Havre ; in the Greensand of Biiderich, near 
VVerl, in Westphalia; Ga}-- Head, Massa- 
chusetts, U. S., &c. 

Some of these varieties (as the first-men- 
tioned) may be referred to Augite, others to 
Green Earth or Chlorite. 

Analysis, from Gay Head, by S. L. Dana: 
SiHca . ■ . . . . 56-70 
Alumina .... 13-32 
Protoxide of iron . . 20-10 
Magnesia . . . .1-18 
Lime 1-62 


Name. From y^^u^o?, sea-green. 

Glaucophane, Hausmann. Probably 
the same as Wichtyne. Occurs in indis- 
tinct, long, and thin six-sided prisms, longi- 
tudinally striated; also granular-massive. 
Colour blue, lavender- blue, bluish-black, 
greyish. Lustre vitreous to pearly. Trans- 
lucent to opaque. Streak greyish- blue. 
Powder slightly magnetic. Brittle. H. 5'5. 
S.G. 3-108. 

Comp. (iR3 + ji^) Si3. 


A.nalysis, bv Schnedermann : 

Silica .' . . . . 56-49 
Alumina .... 12-23 
Protoxide of iron . . . 10-91 
Protoxide of manganese . O'oO 
Magnesia .... 7*97 

Lime 2-25 

Soda, with traces of«potasli . 9-28 


Locality. — The island of Syra, one of the 
Cyclades, in mica-slate. 

Name. From y^MvyM, bluish-green, and 
cpocivco, to appear. 

Glaucosiderit. See Vivianite. 

The name is derived from yXavxi;^ bluish- 
green, and a-iSr,oo;^ iron. 

Glimmer, Kirwan, Jameson, Werner. See 
Mica. The name is confined bv Haidinger 
and Hausmann to the variety called Mus- 

Glixkite, JRomanowski. A greenish va- 
riety of Chrysolite, found in talcose slate at 
Perm, in Russia ; and at Tunaberg, in gneiss, 
with Augite and Garnet. 

Analysis, by v. Beck : 

Silica 39-21 

Magnesia .... 44-06 
Protoxide of iron . . . 15*45 

Globular Quartz. A variety of com- 
mon Quartz, found of a black colour, in 
chalk, at Dover ; and at Knockmahon Cop- 
per Mines, near Bunmahon, S. Waterford, 

Glottalite, Thomson. A variety of 
Analcime, occurring in small aggregated 
and irregular, white or colourless cr^^stals, 
somewhat like fig. 212 ; in greenstone At 
Port Glasgow in Scotland. Lustre vitreous. 
H. 3 to 4. S. G. 2-18. 

Fig. 212. 

Comp. 3Ca3 Si2 + 3AI Si2 + 24H. 

Analysis : 

Sil'ica . . . . • . 37-01 
Alumina .... 16-31 
Peroxide of iron . . .0-50 

Lime 23-93 

Water 21-25 

• Name. From Glotta, the river Clyde, and 
>^id9;, stone. 

Gmelinite, Brooke. Or Soda-Chabasite, 


withwhichit is heteromorphous. Hexagonal: 
primary form an obtuse rhombohedron. Oc- — 
curs in flat six-sided prisms, terminated atw 
both extremities by truncated six-sided. ^ 
pyramids. Fig. 212*. Colour white or yel- 
lowish-white passing into flesh-red. Lustre 
vitreous. Translucent. Surface of the 
prisms striated horizontally. Streak white. 
Brittle. Fracture uneven. H. 45. S.G. 
2-04 to 2-12. 

Fig. 212*. Fig. 213. 

Comp. Like that of Chabasite, but dis- 
tinguished from it by having a portion of 
the lime replaced by a corresponding quan- 
tity of soda: (Na2, Ca)3 si2+3Al Si^ + 

18H = silica 47-57, alumina 19'85, lime 3-67, 

soda 8-05, water 20-86. 

Analysis, from Glenarm, by Connel: 

Silica 48-56 

Alumina .... 18'05 
Peroxide of iron ... . 0-11 

Lime 5-13 

Soda 3-85 

Potash 0-39 

Water 21-66 


When held in the flame of a candle flies 
off in minute scales. In the matrass yields 
water and falls to powder. 

BB shrinks up and fuses to a blistered, 
slightly translucent enamel. 

Forms a jelly of silica with muriatic 

Localities. Coating cavities in araygda- 
loidal rocks in the trap districts of the N. 
E. of Ireland, and at Talisker in Skye. Also 
in a similar manner at Montecchio Mag- 
giore, and at Castel in the Vicentine. 

Name. The name Gmelinite was proposed 
by Sir David Brewster in compliment to 
G. C. Gmelin, professor of chemistry in the 
University of Giessen. 

Brit. Mus., Case 27. 

GoETHiTE, Phillips. GoTHiTE, Beudant, 
Dana, Greg §• Lettsom. Khombic : primary 
form a right rhombic prism : occurs in 
prisms longitudinally striated, and often 
flattened parallel to the shorter diagonal : 
also fibrous, reniform, and in minute laminaa 
or tables modified at their edges by oblique 
facets. Colour reddish and blackisli- brown, 
yellowish by reflected light, and often 



blood-red by transmitted light. Lustre 
adamantine. Streak brownish -vellow. Brit" 
tie. H. 5 to 5-5. S.G. 4 to 4-4. 


Fig. 214. 

Comp. Hydrated 

Fig. 215. 

peroxide pf iron, or 
•89, water 10-11 

3?e H = peroxide of iron 

= 100. 
Analysis, from Eisenfeld in ]N^assau, bv 

V. Kobell: 

Peroxide of iron . . . 86-35 

Silica 0-85 

Oxide of copper . . . 0-91 

Lime trace 

Peroxide of manganese . 0*51 
Water 11-38 


BB behaves like Limonite. 

Localities. — English. The finest and most 
perfect crystals hitherto found occur ' in 
Quartz at Restormel iron-mine near Lost- 
Avithiel in Cornwall ; it is also met with in 
the same county, at Botallack, near St. Just, 
and at Tincroft, Illogan, in fibro-crystalline 
specimens ; at Carn Brea and Huel Beau- 
champ near Redruth, in translucent plates 
of a hyacinth-red colour. In Gloucester- 
shire it is found in diverging tufts of needle- 
shaped crystals in the interior of geodes ; 
in Somersetshire at the Providence iron- 
mines near Bristol, associated with very 
fine amethystine Quartz. — Scotch. Gou- 
rock in Renfrewshire, and at Burn of the 
Sail, Hoy, in the Orkneys. — Foreign. The 
principal foreign localities are Eiserfeld in 
Siegen, Prussia; Oberkirchen in Wester- 
wald; Zwickau in Saxony ; Przibram, &c. 

Name. After the German poet and 
mineralogist, Goethe. 

Brit. Mus., Case 16. 

M.P.G. Principal floor, Wall-cases, 49, 
27 and 43 (British). 

For varieties of Goethite, see Lepido- 


GLiMMER, Sammetblende, and Stilpno- 


GoKUMiTE. A variety of Idocrase from 

Gold. Primary form the octahedron. 
Often occurs in grains or scales {Granos), 
and in rolled masses {Pepitas, Nuggets^ 
in alluvium and gravel. The crystals, 

GOLD. 157 

usually small and imperfect, are sometimes 
cubes or octahedrons (frequently with trun- 
cated edges or angles) ; dodecahedrons 
with rhombic faces, and solids with twenty- 
four trapezohedral faces. Colour and streak 
various shades of gold- yellow, sometimes 
inclining to silver -white. Lustre metallic. 
Opaque. Very ductile, flexible, and malle- 
able. Fracture hacklv, affording no trace 
of cleavage. H. 2-5 to'3. S.G. 15-6 to 19'5. 

fig- 216. Fig. 217. 

Gold is almost always found native, but 
seldom perfectly pure, being alloyed with 
minute quantities of other metals, which 
sometimes considerably affect its colour. 
Sometimes it occurs in combination with 
silver, constituting Electrum ; with tellu- 
rium, in Native Tellurium ; with silver and 
tellurium, in Graphic and Yellow Tellurium ; 
and with lead and tellurium, in Foliated 
Tellurium. A native amalgam of gold has 
been found in California, especially near 
Mariposa and in Columbia, and an alloy of 
gold and bismuth in Rutherford County, 
North America. It sometimes occurs in 
small quantities in metallic sulphides, as in 
Galena, Iron Pyrites, and Copper Pyrites, 
and IS occasionally alloyed with Palladium 
(see Porpesite) and Rhodium. 

Gold being one of the most widely diffused 
of minerals, a iQv^ only of the principal loca- 
lities can be given here. It was probablv 
discovered by the aboriginal inhabitants of 
the British Islands at a very early period, 
long prior to their invasion by the Romans, 
most of the fibulse, torques, and other gold 
ornaments found in the barrows of this 
country and in the peat bogs of Ireland 
having been obtained from native sources. 
At a subsequent period, the Romans, always 
anxious to avail themselves of the natural 
resources of their colonies, carried on opera- 
tions in a more systematic manner, and are 
supposed to have had works at North 
Molt on in Devonshire, as well as at Gogofau, 
near Caio, in Caermarthenshire,in the neigh- 
bourhood of a place now called Pumpsant.* 
Since that time various attempts have been 

* See " Note on the Gogofau, or Ogafau, Mine 
by Warington W. Smyth, M.A.," in Memoirs of 
the Geological Survey of Great Britain, vol. i. 
p. 480. 

158 GOLD, 

made to work mines supposed to contain 
gold, but it has never been found in these 
islands in sufficient quantity to render such 
undertakings remunerative, and all these 
schemes have been attended by the loss of 
the capital employed. The most important 
of these explorations for gold were those 
carried on in the County Wicklow, in Ire- 
land, to which attention was directed in 
1795 by the discovery of lumps of gold in a 
valley situated on the flanks of the Crog- 
han Kinshela Mountain. Although these 
washings never proved permanently profit- 
able, considerable quantities of gold were 
obtained, the greater part of which was 
made into articles of jewelry. During the 
last occasion when the works were brought 
into active operation by the Government, 
gold to the value of £3675 was raised. 
Lumps of large dimensions were sometimes 
met Avith : one was found weighing 22 oz., 
a model of which is placed in the collection 
of Trinity College, Dublin : other specimens 
of two or three our.ces weight were not un- 
trequently discovered, while several were 
procured exceeding an ounce — the latter 
occurring in sand covered with turf, adjacent 
to a rivulet. The gold from this locality is 
from 21| to 217 carats fine, the alloy being 

More recently the search for gold was re- 
sumed near North Molton, in lodes tra- 
versing the Devonian rocks. Gold is also 
found in veins of Quartz and Calc-spar, tra- 
versing Cambrian grits and talcose schists 
belonging to Lower Silurian Lingula flags, 
between Dolgelly and Barmouth in Me- 
rionethshire. The principal explorations 
have been made at Cwm-eisen, Tyddyn- 
gwladis,Dol-y-frwynog, the Prince of Wales, 
the Cambrian, and the Vigra and Clogau 
Mines. At the latter, within the last few 
months (Feb. 1861), above 200 ozs. have been 
extracted from about 10 fathoms of driving, 
where the better veinstutf yielded, in large 
lumps, "at the rate of 150 ozs. of gold to the 

Gold has been occasionally met with in 
the tin-streams of Cornwall, at the Carnon 
stream-works, and at Crow Hill. It has 
also been found in the gossan at Nangiles 
and other Mines. The largest Cornish 
specimen yet found weighed 2 oz. 3 dwts. 
The Pyrites from the London Clay is said 
to contain a minute quantity of gold.* 

Gold is found in the sediments of the 
Ehine, mostly in thin scales, lying among 

* Specimens of British gold are contained in 
Wall-case 14, at the Museum of Practical Geology, 

GOLD. ^ 

quartzite and other pebbles, often beneath 
but not in the loess. It is also found in 
Spain and Portugal. The Tagus, in the 
time of the Carthaginians, bore gold with 
its sands, derived from the reefs of Auri- 
ferous Quartz which traverse the Silurian 
rocks of Portuguese and Spanish Estrema- 
dura, where the traces of ancient working.s 
of the Phenicians, the Carthaginians, the 
Romans, and subsequently of the Moors, 
still remain. Many of the Roman pro- 
consuls are said to have obtained almost 
fabulous sums from the produce of the mines ] 
in Iberia (Spain and Portugal). In fact 
those countries, especially the former, were ' 
to the Carthaginians and Romans what 
Peru was to the subjects of Charles V. and 
Philip II. " Natura regionis circa se omnis 
aurifera, miniique, et chrysocolleeet aliorum 
colorum ferax. Itaque exerceri solum jussit. 
Sic Astures et latentes in profundo opes suas 
atque divitias, diim aliis quserunt, nosse ) 
cceperunt." — Florus, lib. iv. cap. 12. 

The principal sources of gold in Africa are 
those of Kordofan, between Darfour and 
Abyssinia ; the desert of Zaara, in Western 
Africa, from the mouth of the Senegal to the 
Cape of Palms; and the south-east coast, 
between the twenty-second and twenty-fifth 
degrees of south latitude, in the country of 
Sofala, opposite to Madagascar. Large 
quantities of gold are procured by washing 
the alluvial deposits in Brazil, particularly 
near Villa Rica, in the neighbourhood of 
Cocaes. The gold of Chili and Caracas, as 
well as that obtained at Choco,- Antioquia, 
and elsewhere in New Grenada, is the pro- 
duct of the washings established in alluvial 
grounds. The gold of Mexico and Peru is 
mostly extracted from ores of other metals. 
Japan, Formosa, Ceylon, Java, Sumatra, 
Borneo, the Philippines, and some other 
islands of the Indian Archipelago are rich 
in gold streams.f 

In India gold is found in two different 
localities, in grains, as stream-gold, and in 
lumps in alluvial deposits. It is also ob- 
tained from the washings of the sands of the 
Riviere du Loup, in Canada. 

Gold was originally discovered in Califor- 
nia by some of the Jesuits who accompanied 
the Spanish settlers to that colony; and 
there is in the Royal collection of Minerals 
in Madrid a large nugget, which was sent 
from that country as a present to the Em- 
peror Charles V. Although it was stated 
by Jamieson, as early as the year 1816, that 

t See Ure's Diet, of Arts, Manufactures, and 
Mines (article, Goldj, vol. ii. 

*' on the coast of California there is a plain, 
14 leagues in extent, covered with an allu- 
vial deposit, in which lumps of gold are dis- 
persed," * it was only through the accidental 
discovery of gold in cutting a mill-race, on 
the river Americanos, that the attention of 
the world was drawn to the enormous 
quantities of the metal in question contained 
in that country.f 

The gold produced in California in 1857 
amounted to £13,110,000 ; in 1856 to 

Subsequently, however, to the re-discovery 
of gold in California, public attention was 
directed to Australia, where it had been 
foretold by Sir R. Murchison that the metal 
in question would, most probably, be found 
in as large quantities and under the same 
conditions as in Russia, California, and other 
great gold-producing countries, which asser- 
tion proved, on examination, to be correct. 
The Legislative Council of New South 
Wales voted a sum of £10,000 to Mr. Har- 
greaves for his discovery of the gold region.J 

The quantity of gold exported from Aus- 
tralia in 1857 amounted to £11,764,299. 

More recently auriferous deposits have 
been discovered in Tasmania, and in British 
Columbia. In the latter country paying 
diggings have been found on the Eraser 
River, extending from Fort Hope almost to 
Port Alexander, a continuous distance of 
nearly 400 miles. 

(lold is stated, by Professor Hochstet- 
ter, to be found in beds of quartz-gravel in 
the rivers and creeks which flow down from 
both sides of the Coromandel range in N ew 

Gold to the annual value of nearly three 
millions sterling is obtained in Russia, 
chiefly "from local detritus or alluvia, 

* Jatnieson's Mineralogy, vol. iii. p. 13, 1816 

t A large portion of a vein ofCalifornian gold- 
bearing Quartz, together wi h some richer frag- 
ments of auriferous Quartz, from the Grass Val- 
ley, Nevada co., are contained in the entrance 
hall cf the Museum of Practical Geology. 

The discovery of gold in New South Wales 
■was originally made by Count Strzelecki, but the 
colonial government of that day kept the circum- 
stance a secret, in the belief that the existence of 
a gold-seeking population would lead to the de- 
moralisation of the colony. 

t A model of the mines worked by the Clunes 
Mining Co., and of the machines of the Port 
Phillip Gold Mining Co., Victoria, as they ap- 
peared in December, 1H58, will be found on the 
Principal Floor of the Museum of Practical 
Geology. This model, constructed on a scale of 
5 of an inch to a foot, shows in a very instructive 
manner the mode of occurrence of the gold-bear- 
ing Quartz veins (or reefs, as they are called by 
the miners), and the manner in which they are 

GOLD. 159 

usually called * gold-sand,' but for which (as 
far as Russia is concerned) the term shingle 
would be much more appropriate." — Sir 
JR. I. Murchison. 

Of the above produce about half a million 
sterling is obtained from the eastern flank 
of the Ural, and the remainder, amounting 
to considerably more than two millions and 
a quarter, from the governments of Tomsk 
and Yeniseisk in Siberia.§ 

The quantit}'- of gold extracted from the 
gold mines of Eastern Siberia, in 1859, 
amounted to upwards of 1134 poods (of 
near 34 lbs each). This was 87 poods less 
than in 1858. The number of companies 
occupied in extracting gold was 160, and 
there were employed 26,112 men and 572 
women belonging to the government of 
Siberia, and 5081 men and 29 women from 
Great Russia. The total number was nearly 
5000 fewer than in the preceding year, and 
the falling off was caused by the'dearness 
of provisions. The number of horses em- 
ployed was 12,284:.— Irkutsk Gazette. 

The only work in the Ural Mountains at 
which subterranean mining for gold in the 
solid rock is still practised, is at Beresow, 
where (according to Murchis(m) the matrix 
is "a mass of apparently metamorphosed 
and crystalline rock, called ' beresite,' resem- 
bling a decomposed granite with veins of 
quartz, in which some gold is disseminated." 
At the Soimonofsk Mines, south of Miask, 
the gold is obtained from the vast deposits 
of ancient drift-gravel, or shingle, which 
cover and fill up inequalities in the eroded 
surface of highly inclined crystalline lime- 
stones, supposed to be of Silurian or Devo- 
nian age. 

In Europe the gold mines of Salzburg, 
near Gastein, have been worked for cen- 
turies, as have also those of Hungary and 
Transylvania. In Hungary the principal 
mines are those of Schemnitz, Kremnitz, 
Felsobanya, Konigsberg and Telkebanya 
to the south of Kaschau : in Transylvania 
those of Vorospatak, Kapnik, Oficnbanya, 
Zelatna and Nagy-ag. 
Brit. Mus , Case 3. 

M.P.G. In Hall, a large mass of gold- 
bearing Quartz from Grass Valley, Nevada 
CO., California. Principal floor. Wall-cases 
14 (British); 23 (Foreign); 37 (N, S. 
Wales) ; 40 (Queen Charlotte's Island, N. 
Pacific Ocean). Case 11 (Nuggets of Native 
Gold and models of remarkable nuggets from 
various diggings in Victoria and N. S. 

§ See Mus. Pract. Geol, Wall-case : 


Gold Amalgaji, H". Schneider, A Native 
Amalgam of gold has been found in the 
platinum district of Columbia, associated 
AYith a platinum-ore, in small white globules 
of the size of peas, and easily crushed by- 

Comp. (Au, Ag)2 Hg5. 

Analysis, by Schneider : 

Mercury .... 57-40 

Gold 38-39 

Silver 5-0 


The amalgam of gold is also reported to 
occur in California, especially in the neigh- 
bourhood of Mariposa. 

GoNGiLYTE, Thoreld. An altered mine- 
ral. Occurs massive, with a cleavage in 
two directions. Colour yellow or yellowish- 
brown. Subtranslucent. Lustre greasy. 
Streak white. Fracture conchoidal. H. 4 to 
5. S.G. 2-7. 

Comp. (Mg K)5 Si2 + 3A1 Si2 + 4iH, or 

2li si + 3fi Si + 3H (Nordenskiold). 

BB yields water, and fuses to a blebby 

Locality. Yli Kit Kajarvi, in Finland. 

GosHENiTE, Shepard. A variety of Beryl. 
Occurs in large round transparent grains 
and in short six-sided prisms, with their 
alternate angles replaced by single planes. 
Colour bluish-white, rarelj' rose-red. S.G. 
2-35 to 2-76. 

Locality. Goshen, Massachusetts, U.S. 

Goshenite, when cut and polished, forms 
a brilliant gem, 

GosLARiTE, Haidinger. Rhombic. Pri- 
mary form a right rhombic prism : crystals 
generally produced artificially. Usually 
occurs massive, stalactitic, botrj'oidal, reni- 
form and investing. Slightly efflorescent 
on the surface. Colour grejash, reddish, 
bluish, and greenish-white. Lustre vitre- 
ous. Transparent or translucent. Taste 
astringent, metallic and nauseous. Streak 
white. Brittle. Fracture conchoidal. H. 2 
to 2-5. S.G. 1-9 to 2-1. 

Fig. 218. 

Comp. Zn S + 6H= oxide of zinc 28-2, 
sulphuric acid 279, water 43-9 = 100. 


Analysis, from Goslar, by Klaproth : 
Sulphuric acid . . .22-0 
Oxide of zinc . . . 275 
Oxide of iron * . . .0*4 
Oxide of manganese . .0-7 
Water 50-0 


In a matrass yields water. 

BB fusible with intumescence, gives off 
sulphuric acid, and covers the charcoal with 
a white coating of oxide of zinc. 

Easily soluble in water. 

This salt, supposed to result from the de- 
composition of Blende, with which it is fre- 
quently associated, is principally found in 
deserted galleries of old mines, in small 
crystalline tufts composed of minute intei-- 
laced needles, usually yellow, but sometimes 
coloured blue by sulphate of copper. 

Localities. — British. Holywell in Flintshire, 
and occasionally in the Cornish mines : iu 
acicular crystals at the Tresavean and Tre- 
thellan Mines, near St. Day. — Foreign. 
Rammelsberg Mine in the Harz, and par- 
ticularly where much Blende occurs. Spitz 
in Austria. Schemnitz in Hungary. Salz- 
burg. Fahlun and Sahlberg in Sweden, &c. 

This salt, in its manufactured state, is 
extensively used in medicine and for d^'eing. 
(See White Vitriol.) 

Name. From one of its localities, Goslar, 
in the Harz. 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

GoTHiTE, Dana, Beudant, Greg §" Lett- 
som. See Goethite. 

GoTTHAKDTiTE, Rammelsherg. See Du- 

Gouttes d'Eau. a name sometimes 
given to pebbles of Topaz, in allusion to 
their limpidity. The Brazilian variety, 
when cut in facets like the diamond, closely 
resembles it in lustre and brilliance. 

Godtte de Sang. Fine cochineal-red 
or blood-red Spinelle. 

Gramenite, Krantz. A mineral analo- 
gous to Pinguite and Xontronite, which has 
resulted from the decomposition of some fels- 
pathic rock, and by the substitution of per- 
oxide of iron for alumina. It occurs in thin 
aggregated laminse of a fine grass-green 
colour, like that of Pinguite. Lustre greasy. 
H. 1. S.G. of dried mass 1-87. 

Comp. Silicate of peroxide of iron. 

Analysis, by Bergemann : 

Silica 38-39 

Alumina .... 6-87 
Peroxide of iron . . , 25-46 
Protoxide of iron . . . 2-80 


Protoxide of manganese 

. 0-67 


. 0-75 

Lime .... 

. 0-56 

Potash .... 

. 1-14 

Water .... 

. 23-36 


In a tube becomes dull brown, giving off 
much water. 

BB behaves like Pinguite ; becomes mag- 

Completely decomposes in acids, but with 

Locality. Menzenberg, in the Siebenge- 

Name. From gramen, grass, because of its 
green colour. 

Gkamimatite (from y^x,u.,u.7], a line). A 
variety of Tremolite, from Aker in Sweden. 

Grasijmite. See Wollastonite. 

Granat, IVerner, Mohs, Haidinger, Haus- 
mann. See Garnet. 

Granatit, Werner. Staui-otide. See 

Granular Corundum. See Emery. 

Granular Epidote, Phillips. See 


Granular Hea-vtt Spar. Tha name 
given to fine-grained varieties of Barytes. 
It is found massive, in beds accompanying 
Galena, at Peggau, in Styria; also in the 
mining district of Freyberg, in Saxony, 
and at Schlangenberg, in Siberia, where it 
is associated with Copper- Green (Chryso- 
colla), and Native Copper. It may be dis- 
tinguished from limestone, to which it bears 
a striking resemblance, in possessing less 
lustre and hardness, and in being much 

Granular Iron Ore, Kirwan. See 


Granular Quartz. Massive quartz-rock 
of a granular texture. Its colours are vari- 
ous, but always dull. 

Graphic Gold, Graphic Tellurium, 
Phillips. See Sylvanite. 

The name bears reference to the particular 
appearance produced by the aggregation of 
the capillary crystals, which are frequently 
disposed in rows more or less resembling 
graphic delineations. 

Graphite, Dana, Greg §* Lettsom, Jame- 
son. Hexagonal, primary form a reg-ular 
six-sided prism. Occurs crystallized in flat 
six-sided tables, having the basal planes 
striated parallel to the alternate edges. 
Commonly in kidney-shaped concretions, 
OE in imbedded, foliated, or granular masses. 
Colour iron- or dark steel-grey. Lustre me- 


tallic. Opaque. Soils paper. Feels greasy. 
Sectile. Very flexible in thin laming. 
Streak black and shining. Not very brittle. 
Fracture granular and uneven. H. 1 to 2. 
S.G. 2-089. 

Conip. C or carbon, with a variable 
quantity of iron, &c. mixed with it. 

It always contains a small quantity of 
iron, often amounting to 5 per cent., but 
some specimens (as in those from Barreros 
in Brazil), scarcely contain a trace. The 
iron is, therefore, to be considered merely 
as an accidental admixture, and not as an 
essential constituent of the mineral. 

Graphite, from Wunsiedel in Bavaria, 
yields only 0-38 per cent, of ash, consisting of 
potash, silica, and oxide of iron : it is there- 
fore nearly pure carbon. — ( Fuchs.) Graphite, 
from Germany (S.G. 2-273), contains 95-12 
per cent, of carbon, and 5-73 per cent, of 
ash, chiefly consisting of grains of Quartz. — 
(Begnault.) Graphite, from Bustletown, in 
Pennsylvania, contains 954 per cent, of 
carbon, 0-6 of water, 2-6 of silica and alu- 
mina, and 1-4 of the oxides of iron and man- 
ganese. — ( Vanuxem.) The purest Graphite, 
from Ceylon, yields only 1-2 per cent, of ash : 
other varieties 6 to 37-2 per cent., consisting of 
oxide of iron and earthy matters. Graphite, 
from the Himalaya Mountains, contains 71-6 
per cent, of carbon, 5-0 of iron, 15 of silica, 
and 8-4 of alumina, &c. — {J. Prinsep.) 

Analysis (a) from Borrowdale, (&) from 
Spain, by Schrdder ; 

(a) (b) 

Carbon . . . 85-25 88-7 

Protoxide of iron . 5-80 7-1 

Silica . . . 3-50 1-5 

Alumina . . . 2-30 1-2 

Oxide of copper . . 0-00 1-0 

Oxide of titanium . 3-15 1-5 

100-00 100-00 

At a high temperature, burns without 
flame or smoke, leaving usually some red 
oxide of iron. 

BB becomes yellow or brown after long 
continued heat, but is infusible both alone 
and with reagents. 

Unaltered by acids, which only afiect the 
iron or other impurities. 

Localities. — British. Graphite is found in 
nests of trap, occurring in clay-slate at Bor- 
rowdale, in Cumberland * ; at a mine near 

* " The Plumbago, from Borrowdale, in Cum- 
berland, has long been celebrated for its fine 
quality ; it is found in detached pieces, called, ac- 
cording to their size, sops or bellies, so that the 
supply is very irregular, the miners being fie- 


Keswick, now nearly exhausted, a single 
mass of Graphite was found, about fifty years 
ago, which yielded about 70,000 lbs of the 
purer black-lead, worth about 30s. a lb. 
Graphite is also found at Bannerdale, near 
Keswick ; in Cornwall, near Penryn, and at 
Grampound and Boscastle ; at Beary, in the 
Isle of Man ; in detached pieces, fit for com- 
mon uses, at Killimore, in the Island of Mull. 
— Irish. Kilkenny. — Foreign. It also occurs 
in Greenland. At Pargas, in Finland. Aren- 
dal, in Xorway. Passau, in Bohemia. Prus • 
sia. France; at Pontivy, in Brittany; in 
I'Aveyron, &c. Spain. Constantine, in 
Algeria. Ceylon. ' Travancore. Canada, at 
Grenville and Burgess. Mines are worked 
for this mineral in the United States, at 
Sturbridge, Massachusetts ; Ticonderoga and 
Fishkill, N.Y., Brandon, Vt., and Wake, 
N.C. There is also a large deposit at St. 
John's, New Brunswick. 

Name. The name Graphite is derived 
from ye.a.(^ii, to write, in allusion to the pur- 
poses to which it is frequently applied. 

Graphite is largely employed under the 
name of Plumbago, or Black - lead, for 
brightening iron, and protecting it from 
rust, and for diminishing friction in ma- 
chinery. Crucibles are also made of it, 
which are capable of sustaining intense 
heat, and possess greater tenacity and ex- 
pansibility than those made from ordinary 
clays. Its principal use, however, is in the 
manufacture of black-lead pencils. 
Brit. Mus., Case 4. 

31. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall -cases 

39 (Ceylon and Travancore) ; 41 (Canada). 

Horse-shoe case, Nos. 17 to 54 

GpwAubraunstein, Haus 

Hausmann, Werner. 
Graucobalterz. See Syepoorite. 
Grauerz. See Galena. 
Gkaugiltigerz. a dark grey copper 
(Tetrahedrite), rich in silver, from Wolfach, 
forming dodecahedrons with tetrahedral 
and cube-faces. S.G. 5-007. 


■) M 



ouently en^jaged for a long period m seeking for 
the graphite. So'iie years since a very large quan- 
tity of plumbago was obtained from Borrowdale ; 
this has been stored by the proprietors, and sold 
in small parcels from time to time. The mine 
has not been worke 1 for several years; it was 
examined by some skilled miners since the cessa- 
tion ofthe work, and theiropinions were not such as 
would lead us to believe that any large quantity of 
black lead would be discovered' by any extension 
of the workings." — R. Hunt's Descriptive Guide. 
Workings have been again commenced, and, it 
is said, with some prospect of success. 

Comp. (3Zn S, 4Fe S, 5Ag S) + 12 Cu2 S 
+ 6SbS5 = 4[(j|Zn,3|Fe,^Ag) S] Sb S^ 
+ Cu2 S, Sb S3. (Gmelin.) 
Analysis, by H. Rose : 

Zinc . . . , . 3-10 

Iron 3*72 

Silver 17-71 

Copper 25-23 

Antimony .... 26-63 
Sulphur .... 23-52 

Graukijtferez. See Tennantite. 
Graulite. See Tectizite. 
Grausilber. See Selbite. 
Grauspiessglanzerz, "^ 
Hausmann. I Grey Antimony. 

Grauspiessglaserz, j See Stibnite. 
Werner. J 

Greasy Quartz. Those varieties of 
Milk-Quartz which display a greasy lustre. 
Green Calamine, Patrin. Aurichalcite, 
found in cavities near Klopinski. 

Green Carbonate of Copper, Phillips. 
See Malachite. 

Green Diallage, Haidinger. Consists 
in some cases of laminae of Amianthus, 
alternating witli iaminas of Augite, both 
frequently of bright green colours, and 
forming a curious mixture in some of the 
rocks of Corsica, Monte Rosa, and the 
Bacher. In some specimens the passage 
from black crystallized Hornblende into 
white, silky Asbestos is distinctly visible. 

Green Earth, Kirwan, Jameson, Phil- 
lips, Greg §■ Lettsom. An altered form of 
Pyroxene, produced by the action of alka- 
line carbonates in solution ; in which case 
alkalies take the place of the removed bases, 
and an alkaline silicate of alumina, or of 
iron and alumina, is formed. Green Earth is 
met with in small masses of an earthy or 
minutelv crvstalline appearance in, or lining 
cavities "of, amygdaloid. Colour dark olive- 
green, with an unctuous feel. The Green 
Earth from Mount Baldo approaches to apple- 
green. Opaque. Soft: yields to the nail. 
Fracture generallv earthy, glimmering, 
dull. S.G. ^279 to 2-83. 

Analysis, from Fassa, by Rammelsherg , 
Silica . 

Protoxide of iron . 
Lime . 

Potash and soda . 
Water . 




Localities. — Scotch. Near Old Kilpatrick, 
S. Dumbarton. Kinnoul Hill near Perth. 
Little Cambray in the Isle of Arran. — 
Irish. In the trap and amygdaloidal rocks 
of Antrira.^ — Foreign. Faroe Isles. Saxony. 
Bohemia. Fassa in the Tyrol. Monte Baldo 
near Verona, &c. The Green Earth of 
Iceland occurs with Zeolites, and affords a 
trace of Vanadium. (S.G. 2-677.) 

Brit. Mus., Case 32. 

Gkeen Iron Earth, Phillips. See Hy- 

Green Iron Ore ; Green Iron Stone, 
Earsten. A mineral of similar nature to 
Dufrenite (which see). 

Analysis, from Siegen in Prussia, by 
Karsten ; 

Peroxide of iron . . , 63-45 
Phosphoric acid . . . 27*72 
Water 8-56 


Green Lead Ore, Jameson. Mimetite. 

Green Malacolite. See Pyroxene. 

Green Martial Earth, Kirwan. See 

Green Vitriol, Allan. See Copperas. 

Greenlandite. The name given to the 
Precious Garnet of Greenland. 

Analysis, by Karsten : 

Silica 39-85 

Alumina .... 20-60 
Protoxide of iron . . . 24-85 
Proto:^de of manganese . 0-46 
Magnesia .... 9-93 
Lime 351 


Comp. Sulphide of cadmium, or Cd S = 
cadmium 77-77, sulphur 22-23=100. 
Analysis, by Connel : 
Cadmium .... 77-30 
Sulphur .... 22-56 



Greenlandite. The name given by 
Breitliaupt to Columbite crystals from the 
Cryolite vein of Greenland. 

Greenockite, Brooke §• Connel, Brei- 
thaupt, Greg 8f Lettsom, Dana. Hexagonal ; 
hemimorphous, that is to say, with the op- 
posite extremities of the crystal dissimilar. 
Colour honey -yellow, orange-yellow, brown, 
veined parallel with the axes. Translucent, 
sometimes transparent or opaque. Lustre 
adamantine inclining to resinous. Streak 
between orange -yellow and brick-red. 
Strong double refraction : index of refrac- 
tion 2 688. H. 3 to 3-5. S.G. 4-8 to 4-9. 

Decrepitates, when heated, somewhat 
strongly. Becomes carmine-red whenever 
it is heated, recovering its yellow colour on 

BB on charcoal decomposed, and a yel- 
loAvish-red ring of oxide of cadmium is de- 

Soluble in strong muriatic acid, with vio- 
lent evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and without separation of sulphur. 

Localities. — Scotch. This rare mineral was 
first found in short hexagonal crystals in a 
railway cutting, at Bishoptown, near Pais- 
ley, in Renfrewshire. It occurred in small, 
but very perfect and brilliant, short hexa- 
gonal crystals, in a porphyritic greenstone, 
on Prehnite, and associated Avith Calcite 
and Natrolite. It has also been met with 
on the north of the Clyde, at Bowling- 
quarry, near Old Kilpatrick, and elsewhere. 
It has also been obtained as a furnace pro- 

Name. In compliment to Lord Greenock, 
now Earl Cathcart, by whom it was first 

Brit. Mus., Case 6. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 12, 
Nos. 543, 544 (British). 

Greenovite, Dufrenoy. A dark rose- 
coloured variety of Sphene, from St, Marcel, 
in Piedmont, in which a portion of the lime 
is replaced by protoxide of manganese. 
S.G. 3-527. 

Fig. 221. 

Fig. 219. 

Fig. 220. 

Analysis, by Delesse : 

Silica .... 

. 30-4 

Titanic acid . 

. 42-0 

Protoxide of manganese 

. 3-6 

Lime .... 

. 24-3 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. ^^^"^ 

Grenat, Brochant, Haiiy. See Garnet. 

The French word Grenat is in allusion to 
the resemblance of the stone in colour to 
the seeds of the pomegranate. 

Grenat Blanc, Dufrenoy. See Leucite. 


Grenat Beun, &c., Haiiy. Common 

Gkenat Manganese, Brochant. See 
Manga:sesian Garnet. 

Grenat Melanite, Brochant. See Me- 


Grenat Xoble, Brochant. See Alman- 
BiNE, Precious Gaenet. 
Grenat Xoir, Ha'ny. See INIelanite. 
Grenat Kesinite, Haiiy. See Colopho- 


Grenat Rouge de Feu Granuli- 
roRME, Haiiy. See Pyrope. 

Grenat du Vesuye, Bufrenoy. See 
Leu cite. 

Grenatite, Jameson. A name given to 
Staurotide, in allusion to its (occasional) 
garnet colour. 

Grengesite, Hisinger. A dark green 
variety of Delessite, occurring in hemi- 
spherical masses, Ti'ith a radiated structure. 
Streak greyish-green. H. 2. S.G. S'l. 
Analysis, by Hisinger : 

Silica 27-01 

Alumina .... 14*S1 
Peroxide of manganese . 2-18 
Protoxide of iron . . . 25*63 
Magnesia . . . . M-31 
Water ..... 12-53 


Name. After the locality where it is 
found, Grengesberg, in Dalecarlia. 

Grey Antimony, Jameson. See Stibnite. 

Grey Cobaet, Allan. See Smaltine. 

Grey Copper, Phillips. \ See 

Grey Copper-ore, Jameson, > Tetra- 
Kirwan. J HEDRITE. 

Grey Manganese, Allan.'] 

Grey Manganese - gee, I 
Jameson. \ ggg 

G REY Ore of Manganese, )■ ^^^ qj^^^f. 

Grey Oxide of Man 

GANESE, Phillips. 

Grey Silver Ore, Jameson. See Sel- 


Grinding Spar. A name applied in 
Madras to Corundum. 

j&ROPPiTE, Svanberg. A mineral sug- 
gested by L. Ssemann to be altered Parga- 
site. Colour rose-red to brownish red. 
Translucent in thin splinters. Streak paler 
than the mineral. Fracture splintery. H.2-5. 
S.G. 2-73. 

Comp. K3 Si2 + 2"^1 Si + 3H (Svanberg)*, 
or K2 si +ii bi + 2H (Rammelsberg). 
* See Ottrelite. 


nalysis, by Svanberg ; 

Silica . 

. 45-01 


. 22-55 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 3-06 

Lime . 

. 4-55 


. 12-28 

Potash . 

. 5-28 

Soda . . . 

. 0-22 

Water . 

. 7-11 

Undissolved . 

. 0-13 

BB becomes white, and on thin edges 
shows only incipient fusion. 
Dissolves in borax, with intumescence. 
Locality. In limestone, at Gropptorp, in 
Sweden, whence the name Groppite. 

Groroilite, Berthier. A variety of Wad, 
occurring in roundish masses, of a brownish- 
black colour, and with a reddish -broAvn 
streak. H. sometimes 6 to 6'5. 
A.nalysis, by Berthier : 
Protoxide of manganese . 62*4 

Oxygen 12-8 

Peroxide of iron . . .6-0 

Water 15-8 

Clay 3-0 

Localities. Yicdessos and Cautem, in 

Name. After a locality in Groroi, in 

Grossulae, Phillips ; Gnossuf aeite. A 
variety of calcareous Alumina-Garnet. Co- 
lour pale olive-green or greenish - white. 
Translucent. Brilliant. Hard. Fracture con* 
choidal, with a vitreous lustre. S.G. 3-42. 

Comp. CaS Si + Al Si. 

Analysis, from the Sludianka River, by 
N. V. Iwanow : 

Silica 49-99 

Alumina .... 14-90 
Peroxide of iron . . . 10'94 
Protoxide of manganese . trace 

Lime 32-94 

Magnesia .... 0-98 

BB like Almandine, but aflFords a brown- 
ish-coloured glass. 

Localities. Kear the river Wilui, in Si- 
beria, in a greenish-coloured serpentinous 
rock. (See Wiluite.) Tellemark, in Norway. 
Name. From grossula (a gooseberry), in 
allusion to its colour, which is similar to 
that of a green gooseberry. 


Brit. Mus., Case 36. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 901. 

Grunauite, Nicol, Dana. Cubical. Oc- 
curs in very small crystals, also granular 
and_ disseminated. Colour pale steel-grey, 
inclining to silver-white, with a yellow or 
greyish tarnish. Lustre metallic. Streak 
dark grey. Brittle. H. 45. S.G. 5-13. 

Comp. Ni S (Ni S3, Bi S3), or Bi S + 
4Ni S5 = nickel 45'40, bismuth 1576, sul- 
phur 38-84=100. (v. Kobell.) 

Analysis, (a) by v. Kobell, (h) by Schna- 



Nickel . 

. 40-65 


Bismuth . 

. 14-11 


Sulphur . 

. 38-46 


Iron . 

. 8-48 



. 0-28 



. 1-68 


Lead. . 

. 1-58 


100-24 100-00 

BB gives off sulphurous odou:rs, and fuses 
to a brittle, magnetic globule, colouring the 
charcoal yellow ; with borax gives a nickel- 

Forms a green solution in nitric acid, 
the sulphur being precipitated. 

Locality. Griinau, in Sayn-Altenkirchen, 
in Prussia, usually mixed with Quartz and 
Copper Pyrites. 

Griinauite is distinguished from Arsenical 
Iron, which it greatly resembles, by lower 
specific gravity, and very easily by'its be- 
haviour with acids. 

GRtJNBLEiERZ, Hoffmann, Werner. See 
Pyromorphite, and'MiMETiTE. 

Grxjne Eisenbrde, Werner. See Hypo- 

GRiJNEiSENSTEm. See Green Iron- 

GRtJNERDE, Werner. See Green Earth. 

GrIjnerite. a pure Iron-Augite. S.G. 

Comp. Fe^ Si2= protoxide of iron 54-3, 
silica 57-1 = 100. 

Analysis, from Collobriferes, by Griiner : 
Silica . . . . .43-9 
Alumina . . . .1-9 
Magnesia . <. . .1-1 

Lime 0-5 

Protoxide of iron . , .52-2 

Locality. Collobrieres, Dept. de I'Aude, 

Name. After Griiner, by whom it was 



GRtJNES Uranbrz. See Chalcolite. 

GuANiTE, E. F. Teschemacher. See Stru- 

The name Guanite is in allusion to its 
occurrence in guano. 

GuARiNiTE, G. Guiscardi. A mineral 
nearly allied in composition to the Sphene 
of Piedmont (Greenovite). It occurs in 
pyramidal crystals, with a difficult cleavage. 
Colour honey-yellow. Translucent to trans- 
parent. Lustre subadamantine : adaman- 
tine on cleavage faces. H. 6 to 6-5. S.G. 
3-487. . 

Comp. Silica 33-64, titanic acid, 33-92, 
lime 28-01, iron and peroxide of manganese 
trace = 95*57. 

Locality. Vesuvius. 

Name. After Prof. G. Guarini, of Naples. 

Gum-lead. A name given to Plumbo- 
Resinite, because of its resemblance, in ap- 
pearance, to gum-arabic. 

GuMMi FuNERUM, Serapion, See As- 

Gummikrz, Breithaupt. An amorphous 
variety of Pitchblende, containing Vana- 
dium and Selenium. Colour hyancith-red, 
yellowish, and reddish-brown. Lustre resi- 
nous. Soft : breaks between the fingers. 
Fracture conchoidal. H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 
3-9 to 4-18. 

Comp. # + 4H (Dufre'noy ) ; Ca^ P + 44f 

H ? (Kersten). 

Analysis, by Kersten : 
Peroxide of uranium . .72-00 
Peroxide of manganese . 0-05 

Silica 4-26 

Phosphoric acid . . . 2 30 

Lime 6-00 

Arsenic .... trace 
Hydrofluoric acid . . trace 
Water 14-75 

Locality. Johanngeorgenstadt, in Saxony. 
Name. The name is in allusion to its 
gum-like appearance. 
Gummispath. See Gum-lead. 
GuRHOFiAN. Gurhofite. A snow-white 
and subtranslucent compact variety of Dolo- 
mite, bearing, in some resi)ects, a strong 
remblance to Semi-opal. Fracture flat-con- 
choidal, with sharp edges. 
Analysis, by Klaproth : 

Carbonate of lime . . 70-50 

Carbonate of magnesia . 29-50 

Locality. Near Gurhof, in Lower Austria, 
M 3 


in veins traversing Serpentine ; whence the 
name Gurhoftan. 
Brit. Mus'., Case 47. 

GuRHOLiTE, Anderson. See Gtrolite. 
GuYACANiTE, F. Field.. A variety of 
Enargite, from the Cordilleras of Chili. H. 
3-5 to 4. S.G. 4-39. 

Name. The name Guyacanite was given 
to this variety in consequence of its having 
been first brought to the large copper-smelt- 
ing works of Guyacana. 

GuYAQUiLLlTE, James, F. W. Johnston. 
An acid-resin. Amorphous. Colour pale 
yellow, with a lustre not resinous, or imper- 
fectly so. Opaque. Yields easily to the knife, 
and may be rubbed to powder. S.G. 1-092, 
Camp. C20 H13 05 = carbon 76-665, hydro- 
gen 8-174, oxygen 15-161 = 100. 

Very slightly soluble in water, and largely 
in alcohol, giving a yellow solution, which 
has an intenseli/ bitter taste. 

Melts at 157° Fahr., but remains viscid, 
and does not flow easily until heated to 
nearly 212°. The action of liquid ammonia 
on this substance is very characteristic : the 
pale yellow solutions, by the addition of a 
few drops of aiumonia, becoming gradually 
dark, and ultimately dark brownish-red. 
Locality. Guyaquil, in S. America. 
Guyaquillite, like Amber, is probably of 
vegetable origin ; it occurs on the site of 
ancient forests of resiniferous trees. 

GyjNINITe. The name given by Thomson 
to Deweylite, from yvf^vo;^ naked, in allusion 
to the locality, Bare Hills, Maryland, U.S. 
Analysis, from Bare Hill, by Thomson : 

Silica . 

. 40-16 


. trace 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 1-16 


. 36-00 

Lime . 

. 0-80 

Water . . . 

. 21-60 

Gyps, Jameson, Haidinger, Hausmann. 
Gypsum, Kirwan, Phillips. 

Comp. Bihydrated sulphate of lime, or 

Ca S + 2H=:lime 32-56, sulphuric acid 46-51, 
water 20-93 = 100. 

There are several varieties of Gypsum, 
which are described under their respective 
names. The transparent crystals are called 
Selenite, the fibrous varieties Satin Spar, 
and the fine massive kinds Alabaster. See 


Satin Spar and Alabaster are manufac- 
tured largely into ornamental articles, and 
works of art. Gypsum is also used in the 
manufacture of glass and porcelain, and the 


coarser kinds are employed in agriculture 
as a top-dressing for grass-lands. Perhaps, 
however, the largest consumption of Gyp- 
sum is in the form of Plaster of Paris (or 
stucco), a name which is derived from the 
circumstance of its being found in large 
quantities in the Paris Basin. 

Gypsum loses its water far below a red 
heat, splitting into layers, and crumbling to 
a Avhite powder, which is Plaster of Paris. 
Moderately burned Gypsum, when ground 
up and mixed with water, forms a paste in 
the first instance, but this quickly hardens 
(into what is called stucco), heat being 
evolved, and the water passing into the 
solid condition of water of crystallization. 
The harder the Gypsum is before it is burnt, 
the more solid it becomes when subsequently 
mixed with water. 

Localities. — English. Staffordshire ; Not- 
tinghamshire ; Chellaston Hill, and else- 
where, in Derbyshire; on the coast of 
Glamorganshire, as well as in the cliffs 
between Pennarth and Lavemock; in the 
New Red Marl of those counties, and in the 
salt districts of Cheshire and Worcester- 
shire, It occurs also in the New Red Marl 
of the vicinity of Watch et, in Somerset- 
shire, where it is occasionally collected on 
the coast, and sent to Bristol,' Swan sea, and 
some other places in the Bristol Channel. 
The Isle of Purbeck, in Dorsetshire, 
forming large concretions in the Lower Pur- 
beck Beds. — Foreign. Prance, in the lacus- 
trine basins of Aueergne and Aix, in the 
latter containing an admixture of eight per 
cent, of carbonate of lime ; in the fresh-water 
clays of the Paris basin, at Montmartre, 
Pantin, ^c, with Sulphate of Strontia. 
Spain : near Madrid, in tertiary clays, ac- 
companied by beds of Chert and of Magne- 
site ; abundantly in the sandstones under- 
lying Jurassic limestones both near Malaga 
and near the Sierra Nevada, in Andalusia. 
The Alps and P3Tenees, interstratified with 
crystalline schists. Switzerland, at Bex. 
The south foot of the Harz : Salzburg salt 
formations in Austria. Sicily with Sulphur. 
Italy, at Pomarance, Matarano, and Jano, 
in Tuscany, where Serpentine is found 
piercing limestones. Bologna, in miocene 
clays with flints, sulphates of baryta, and 
strontia, together with Pyrites and Sul- 
phur. Algiers, associated with crystalline 
limestone, gneiss, Amphibolite, and Serpen- 
tine. Sweden, at Fahlun, associated with 
Dolomite and Serpentine in the chloritic 
bands of the oldest crystalline rocks of 
Scandinavia. Asia Minor. Nova Scotia, in 
rocks of the carboniferous series, with sul- 

phate of soda and Boro-calcite. America : 
the oldest Gypsums in America occur near 
the base of the Palaeozoic series in the so- 
called Calciferous Sand-rock of Canada ; it is 
occasionally met with in the Clinton and 
Niagara groups, and in the Onondaga 
salt-group in the Upper Silurian rocks of 
Canada and New York, sometimes accom- 
panied by sulphur.* 

Name. The word Gypsum is derived from 
yu-^og, the name by which the substance, 
both in its burnt and native state, seems to 
have been known to the ancients, who ob- 
tained tlieir supplies chiefly from Cyprus, 
Phoenicia and Syria, and applied it to the 
same purposes as the moderns. Theo- 
phrastus says, "The stone from which 
Gypsum is made, by burning, is like 
Alabaster ; it is not dug, however, in such 
large masses, but in separate lumps. Its 
viscidity and heat, when moistened, are very 
wonderful. They use this in buildings, 
casing them with it, or putting it on any 
particular place they would strengthen. 
They prepare it for use, by reducing it to 
powder, and then pouring water on it, and 
stirring and mixing the matter well together 
with wooden instruments : for they cannot 
do this with the hand because of the heat. 
They prepare it in this manner immediately 
before the time of using it ; for in a very 
little while after moistening, it dries and 
becomes hard, and not in a condition to be 

" This cement is very strong, "and often 
remains good, even after the walls it is laid 
on crack and decay, and the sand of the 
stone they are built with moulders away : 
for it is often seen, that even after some 
part of a wall has separated itself from the 
rest, and is fallen down, other parts of it 
shall yet hung together, and continue firm 
and in their place, by means of the strength 
of this matter which they are covered with. 

" This Gypsum may also be taken off from 
buildings, and by burning, again and again, 
be made fit for use. It is used for the 
casing the outsides of edifices, principally in 
Cyprus and Phoenicia; but in Italy, for 
whitening over the walls, and other kinds 
of ornaments within houses. Some kinds 
of it are also used by painters in their 
business ; and by the fullers, about cloths. 

" It is also excellent, and superior to all 
other things for making images ; for which 
it is greatly used, and especially in Greece, 

* See Memoir on the Formation of Gypsum 
and Magnesian Rocks, by T. Sterry Hunt. Am. 
Jour. Science and Arts, vol. xxviii. 


because of its pliableness and smoothness." 
— Theophrastus, cxii. to cxvi. 

Brit. Mus., Case 54. 

J/. F. G. (See Alabaster, and Arago- 
NiTE),Case 10 in Hall. Horse-shoe Case,Nos. 
216, 281 to 311, No. 286 specimen from Rein- 
hardtsbrunn in Gotha, presented by H.R.H. 
Prince Albert. Upper Gallery, Wall-case 
40, Nos. 83 to 42. 

Gypsum Selenites, Wallerius. See Se- 


Gyrasolb of Kirwan. A variety of 
Oriental Sapphire. " Its colour is white 
with a slight tinge of red, and a still lighter 
of blue, which gives it some resemblance to 

Gyrolite, Greg §• Lettsom, Brooke §• 
Miller. Gyrolith, v. Kobell, Naumann. 
Occurs in spherical lamellar radiations, 
which are translucent when first found, but 
soon become opaque, or are only translucent 
in thin plates. Colour white, with a vitre- 
ous lustre when, fresh, which turns to pearly 
on exposure to the air. Yery tough, H. 
3 to 4. 

Comp. 3Ca Si + 4H = silica 53-29, lime 
32-86, water 13-85 = 100. 
Analysis, by Anderson ; 

Silica . . . : . 50-70 
Alumina .... 1-48 

Lime 33-24 

Magnesia .... 0-18 
Water 14-18 

Localities. — British. The Storr, nine miles 
from Portree, in Skye, in the cavities of a 
very compact basalt; also Quirang and 
Lyndale;. near Loch Screden, in Mull. — 
Foreign. Greenland, at Karartut; Disco 
Island, near Godhavn; and at Niakomak, 
Omensnaksfiord, Faroe. 

Name. The name, derived from yt^e?, a 
circle, and ^'^"f, stone, has reference to the 
spherical disposition of the mineral. 
Brit. Mus., Case 28. 


Haar Salz, Werner. Magnesia- Alum. 
See Alunogen. See also Hair Salt. 
Haarpormiges Rothkupfererz, Wer- 
ner. See Chalcotrichite. 

Haarkies, 3Iohs, Werner. See Mille^ 

Habroneme, from ot,Qeo;, delicate,a.nd v^^a, 
thread or Jibre. 

Hacked Quartz, Bakewell. A variety 
M 4 


of Quartz presenting incisions, as if pro- 
duced by hacking it in various directions 
with a knife or other sharp instrument. 
These indentations are occasioned by laminse 
or laminar crystals of other minerals once 
imbedded in the Quartz, the casts of which 
only are now left, the included minerals 
themselves having decomposed or been 
otherwise removed. 

HiE^LACHATES (from o-W, hlood, and 
"A;t;ar-/)?, agate), the name given by the 
ancient Greeks to Agate sprinkled with 
spots of red Jasper. 
HEMATITE. See Hematite. 
Haf:nefjordite. A variety of Oligo- 
clase from Hafnefjord, in Iceland. 
Analysis, bv Forchhammer : 

Silica ." . . . . 61-22 
Alumina .... 23-32 
Peroxide of iron . . .2-40 

Lime 8-82 

Magnesia .... 0-36 

Soda 2-56 

Potash trace 

Haide^gerite, Berthier. See Berthie ■ 

Haidingerite, Turner. Rhombic: pri- 
mary form a rectangular four-sided prism. 
Usually occurs in minute crystals aggre- 
gated into botrj'oidal forms and drusy 
crusts. Colour and streak white, with a 
vitreous lustre. Transparent to translucent. 
Sectile. Slightly flexible in thin laminae. 
H. 1-0 to 2 5. S.G. 2- 

Fig. 222. 

Comp. Di-arseniate of lime or Ca^ As + 

3H = lime 28-28, arsenic acid 58-08, water 

13-64 = 100. 

Analysis, by Turner : 
Arseniate of lime . . 85*68 
Water 14-32 

Dissolves readily in nitric acid. 
BB it is almost entirely volatilized with 
a dense white arsenical vapour. 
. Locality. Joachimsthal, where it occurs 
associated with Pharmacolite, from which it 
may be distinguished by its form and lustre ; 
and by containing only half the quantity of 


Name. After Herr W. Haidiuger of 
Vienna, by whom it was first noticed. It 
is a very rare mineral. 

Hair Pyrites, Jameson. See Mille- 


Hair Salt, Jameson. Magnesia Alum. 
See Alunogen. 

. Comp. Tersulphate of alumina, or Al 

S3 + 18H. 
Analysis, from Bilin, by Rammelsberg : 
Silica . . ... . 35-31 

Alumina . . . . 15*86 

Water 48 83 


Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

Hair Stone. Rock Crystal inclosing 
capillary crystals of Rutile, crossing each 
other and traversing it in various directions. 

Halbazurblei, Rammelsberg. See Cale- 


Halbopal. See Semiopal. 

Hallite. a variety of Websterite found 
with Gypsum, in Plastic Clay, at Halle in 

Comp. Al S + 9H. 
Analysis, by Stromeyer : 


Sulphuric acid 

Water .... 

. 20-26 
. 23-36 
. 46-38 

Halloylite ; Halloysite, Berthier. 
Halloyte. a siliciferous hydrate of alu- 
mina or Kaolin, occurring in soft, smooth, 
compact amorphous masses, having the ap- 
pearance of Steatite. Colour Avhite, gene- 
rally with a slight tint of blue, and a waxy 
lustre. Translucent at the edges or becomes 
so in water, which it imbibes, giving off 
numerous globules of air. Adheres to the 
tongue. Yields to the nail, and affords a 
shining streak. Fracture conchoidal, like 
that of wax. S.G. 1-8 to 21. 

Comp. Al Si + 3H. 

Analysis, from Housscha, by Berthier : 

Silica 47*75 

Alumina .... 35*49 
Water 16-76 

Loses weight when exposed to a high 
temperature, and becomes much harder, and 
of a milk-white colour. 

Decomposed by sulphuric acid, with sepa- 
ration of gelatinous silica. 


Locality. The neighbourhood of Lifege 
and Namur; with ores of zinc, lead, and 
iron. Housscha near Bayonne, in graphic 
granite. Milo in a pumiceous tufa. Upper 
Silesia. Guateque in New Granada, &c. 

Name. Named by Berthier after his 
uncle Omalius d'Halloy, by whom it was 
first noticed. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Halloysites are richer in alumina than 
Smectite, and contain like it 24 to 25 per 
cent, of water. 

Halloysite of St. Jean-de-Cole. A 
rose-coloured Nontronite, found at Thiviers. 

Halotrichine, Scacchi. A silky variety 
of Iron-alum from the Solfatara. 

Comp. 3Fe S + 2Ai S^ + 54H. 

Analysis : 

Alumina . . . . 9'76 

Protoxide of iron . . . 10-20 

Sulphuric acid . . . 34-12 

Water 45-92 



Halotrichite, Brooke §• Miller. An 

Occurs in fibrous, silky masses of a yel- 
lowish-white colour. Taste sweet and 
astringent, somewhat resembling that of 

Comp. Fe S -i- Al S^ + 24H= sulphate of 
iron 16-4, sulphate of alumina 37-0, water 
46-6 = 100. 

Analysis, from Morsfeld, by Rammelsherg : 
Alumina ^ ' 

Protoxide of iron 

. 9-367 

Sulphuric acid . 

. 36-025 

Magnesia . 

. 0-235 

Potash . . 

. 0-484 

Water . . 

. 43025 


Soluble in water. 

Turns red, and parts with its water when 

Localities. — British. Abundantly in the 
shale of exhausted coal -beds at Hurlet and 
Campsie, near Paisley, probably mixed with 
Melanterite or sulphate of iron. — Foreign. 
Bodenmais and Morsfeld in Rhenish Bava- 
ria. Oroomiah in Persia, where it is used for 
making ink of a fine quality. 

Name. From o;A?, salt, and 6^% hair. 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

Hamatit, Haidinger, Hausmann. See 

Hampshirite, Hermann. The name 
given to the Steatite of certain steatlcic 

pseudomorphs (mostly after Quartz), de- 
scribed and analysed by Dewey. 
Analysis : ' 

Silica 50-60 

Alumina . . . . 0'15 
Magnesia .... 28-83 
Protoxide of iron . . . 2-59 
Protoxide of manganese . 1-10 
Water 1500 


Locality. Middlefield, Hampshire co., 
U.S., ; in a great bed of Serpentine. 

Hard Coal. Those kinds of Coal which 
burn without caking, and leave a white ash. 

Hard Fahlunite, Berzelius. A brown- 
ish-yellow variety of lolite, which owes its 
peculiar colour and opacity to accidental ad- 

Locality. Fahlun in Sweden. 

Hard Lithomarge. See Teratolite. 

Hard Spar, Jameson. See Andalusite. 

Harmotome, Dana, Greg §- Lettsom, 
Haily, Phillips. Rhombic. Sometimes oc- 
curs in flattish rectangular prisms, termi- 
nated by rhombic planes, replacing the 
solid angles of the prism ; these crystals 
often cross each other lengthwise and at 
right angles, so that their axes coincide; 
hence the name Cross-stone, applied to it by 
Jameson and others. Colour generally grey- 
ish-white, passing into grey, yellow, red, or 
brown. .Translucent. Lustre pearly. Streak 
white. Brittle. Fracture uneven, imper- 
fectly conchoidal. H. 4-5. S.G. 2-39 to 

Fig. 223. Fig. 224. 


Fig. 225. 

Comp. Ba Si + Al Si2 + 6H= silica, 44-0, 
alumina 16-6, baryta 24-8, water 14-6 = 100. 
Analysis, from Strontian, by Kohler : 

Silica 46-10 

Alumina .... 16-41 

Barvta 20-81 

Lim^e . . . . 0-63 
Potash : . . . .0-90 
Water 15 11 

BB on charcoal, melts easily, without in- 
tumescence, to a clear glass. 


When finely pounded, perfectly decom- 
posed by muriatic acid, J:hough with diffi- 
culty, silica being separated in the pulveru- 
lent" state. When powdered and thrown on 
charcoal emits a greenish -yellow phospho- 
rescent light. 

Localities. — Scotland. Abundantl}'- at 
Strontian in Argyleshire, in fine white and 
translucent crystals, with Calcite and 
Barytes, in mineral veins in granite near its 
junction with gneiss. (See Morvenite.) 
Figs. 223, 224, 225. Near Old Kilpatrick in 
Dumbartonshire, in small colourless crystals 
associated with Edingtonite and Cluthalite. 
Campsie Hills, Stirlingshire, ^fig. 223. — Ire- 
land. The Giant's Causeway, in basalt. Jig. 
223. — Foreign. The cruciforrn varieties chiefly 
occur at Andreasberg in the Harz, in metal- 
liferous veins, traversing clay-slate, gener- 
ally in druses. Oberstein in Deux-ponts, 
in single crystals in the hollows of siliceous 
geodes. Kongsberg, in Norway, on gneiss. 

Name. From «.^u,o;, a joint, and rif^vM, 
to cut; in reference to the division of which 
the crystals are susceptible at the junction 
of the planes of the pyramid. 

Brit. Mus., Case 29. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1162, 

Hareingtonite, Thomson. An amor- 
phous variety of Mesolite. Occurs massive, 
of a chalkv white colour. Opaque. Earthy. 
Very tough. H. 525. S.G. 2-21. 

Comp. (Na, Ca2) 3Si + 3A1 Si + 6H. 

Analysis, by Thomson : 

Silica . • . . . . 44-84 
Alumina .... 28-48 

Lime 10-68 

Soda 5-56 

Water ..... 10-28 


Localities. — Irish. In veins and layers 
traversing greenstone at Portrush, and at 
the Skerries, co. Antrim, Magee Island, and 
Agnew's Hill, west of Larne. 

Harrisite, Genth A Vitreous Copper 
with cubical cleavage, from the Canton mine 
in Georgia, U.S. 

Harteraunstein, Hausmann. See 

Hartine, Schrotter. A resinous mineral 
resembling Hartite. It occurs massive, of a 
white colour, and is without taste or smell. 
Pulverises between the fingers. Melts at 
210° C. (410° P.), and distills at 260° C. 
(500° P.). 

Comp. C20, H17, 02. 


Analysis, by Schrotter : 

Carbon 78-26 

Hydrogen . . . .10-92 
Oxvgen .... 10-82 

2 f 


Locality. Oberhart, in Austria, in Brown 

Hartite, Haidinger. A fossil resin re- 
sembling wax in appearance. Colourless or 
grevish-white, with a somewhat greasy lus- 
tre." Translucent. Brittle. H. 1. S.G. 1-04 
to 1-06. I 

Comp. C6, H5= carbon 87-473, hydrogen 
12-048 = 100. 

Puses at 165° P. to a clear fluid, and at a 
high temperature distills. 

Easily soluble in ether, less readily in 
alcohol, and crystallizes from each on evapo- 
ration. A I 

Localities. Oberhart, near Gloggnitz, in m 
tower Austria, in small tables with six ^ ' 
faces, in Brown Coal. Rozenthal, near Kof- 
lach, in Styria, in comparatively large, irre- 
gular, perfectly transparent, and cleavable 
pieces, showing, in the polarising apparatus, 
very distinct S3'stems of elliptical coloured 
rings ; and, still more frequently in the lig- 
nite, in small veins, incrustations or angular 

Hartite is distinguished from Scheererite 
by its crystallization, and by fusing at a 
higher temperature. 

Brit. Mus., Case 60. 

Hartmakgan, 7 o t> ^ .,-r^ 

TT.„ ^,„ , '^^ 5- See Pstlomelane. 

Hartmanganerz. j 

Hartmannite. See Ullmannite. 

Harzige Stein-kohle, Haidinger. Bi- 
tuminous Coal. See Coal. 

Harzlose Stein-kohle, Mohs. See 

Hatchettine, Conyheare, Phillips. A 
Mineral Tallow. Occurs either flaky like 
spermaceti, or subgranular like bees-wax. 
When flaky it has a slightly glistening and 
pearly lustre, and a considerable degree of 
translucency ; when subgranular it is dull 
and opaque. Colour yellowish-white, to 
wax- and greenish -yellow, but becomes 
darker and more opaque on exposure. Peels 
greasy. About the consistency of soft tal- 
low. S.G. at 60° P. 0-916. 

Melts at 115° P. into a transparent colour- 
less liquid, which becomes opaque and white 
on cooling. Slightly soluble in cold ether, 
more so in hot ether ; on cooling the solu- 
tion coagulates into a mass of minute pearly 
fibres. Sparingly soluble in boiling alcohol^ 

from which it precipitates again on cooling. 
Heated cautiously, it distills over without 

Comp. (C, H). 

Analysis, from Merthyr-Tydvil, by John- 
ston : 

Carbon .... 85910 
Hydrogen .... 14624 


Localities. — British. Ebbw Vale, and 
neighbouring works, near Merthyr-Tydvil, 
in Glamorganshire; in masses, resembling 
wax or train-oil, in the crevices of coal- 
measure Clay Ironstone. Near Loch Fyne, 
in Argyleshire. Below the Hutton seam, at 
Pelton Colliery, Chester-le-Street. Urpeth 
Colliery, near "Newcastle, in cavities near the 
side of a fault, and sometimes in the solid 
sandstone rock, at a depth of about 60 
fathoms from the surftice. — Foreign, Eos- 
sitz, in Moravia. 

Name. In honour of the eminent chemist, 

Brit. Mus., Case 60. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 103. 

Hauerite, Haidinger. Cubical ; hemi- 
hedral like Pyrites; octahedral the most 
common form. Sometimes occurs in crystals 
clustered into spheroidal forms. Colour 
reddish-brown to brownish-black. Lustre 
metallic-adamantine. Streak brownish-red. 
H. 4. S.G. 3-463. 

Comp. Mn S^ =^ manganese 46*3, sulphur 
53-7 = 100. 

Analysis, by Patera : 

Sulphur . . . . 53-64 
Manganese .... 42-97 
Iron . . . . . 1-30 
Silica ..... 1-20 


BB is reduced to a simple sulphide (Mn 
S), with the evolution of much sulphur; 
with soda affords a manganese reaction. 

Locality. The sulphur pits at Kalinka, 
near Neusohl, in Hungary, in clay, asso- 
ciated with Gypsum and Sulphur. 

JVame. After Privy Councillor Von Hauer, 
and because of the part which his son, F. v. 
Hauer, took in the determination of the 

Brit. Mus., Case 5. 

Hausmannite, Dana, Phillips. Pyra- 
midal. Occurs crystallized in acute, square- 
based pyramids'; also massive. Colour 
brownish- or iron-black. Lustre semi -me- 
tallic. Opaque. Yields a reddish- or chestnut- 
brown powder, which dissolves in cold con- 
centrated sulphuric acid, forming a red 

HAUYNA. 171 

solution. Very hard. Fracture uneven. H. 5 
to 5 5. S.G. 4-72. 

Comp. Mn Mn, or Mn 31-03, #n 69-07 = 
manganese 72-1, oxygen 27-9 = 100. 

Analysis, from Ihlefeld, by Turner : 
Protoxide and peroxide of 

manganese . . . 98-09 
Excess of oxygen . . 0-22 

Baryta 0-11 

Silica 0-33 

Metallic chloride . . . trace 
Water 0-44 


BB on charcoal fuses at the edges; with 
borax readily forms a deep violet-blue or 
nearly black globule, with soda a green 

Dissolves in heated muriatic acid, with 
the evolution of chlorine. 

Localities. JLhrenstock, near Ilmenau, in 
Thuringia, in veins of porphyry, with other 
ores of manganese. Ihlefeld, in the Harz. 
B'ramont, in Alsace, Lebanon, Pennsylvania, 

Name. After Professor Hausmann, of 

See Rancierite. 

Brit. Mus., Case 13. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases 13 

HAiJYNA, Karsten. Hatjyne, Phillips. 
Cubical. Occurs often in distinct rhombic 
dodecahedrons, but generally in crystalline 
grains, and massive. Colour indigo-blue 
and opaque, or blue or bluish-green and 
translucent. Lustre vitreous to greasy* 
Streak bluish-white. Very brittle. Frac- 
ture flat-conchoidal, and very splendent. 
H. 5-5. S.G. 2-4 to 3-0. 

Comp. Na3 Si + 3A1 Si + 2Ca S = silica 
32-1, alumina 27*3, lime 9*9, soda 16-5, sul- 
phuric acid 14-21=100. 

Analysis, from Monte Albano, by Whit- 
ney : 

Silica 32-44 

Sulphuric acid . . . 12-98 
Alumina .... 27-75 

Lime 9-96 

Potash 2-40 

Soda 14-24 

BB alone, on charcoal, decrepitates, and 
melts slowly to an opaque white or green- 
ish-blue blebby glass; with borax effer- 
vesces and forms a transparent glass, which 
becomes yellow on cooling. 


In heated muriatic acid forms a white 
transparent jelly. 

Localities. The older lavas of Vesuvius, 
and the Papal States. Niedermendig, in 
basalt. Near Andernach, on the Rhine, in 
lava or pumice. 

Name. In honour of the French mineral© - 
gist, Rene' Just Haiiy. 

Brit. Mus., Case 55, 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Xos. 1013, 
1014. Upper Gallery, Table-case A, in re- 
cess 4, Nos, 75 to 78. 

Haydenite, Cleveland. A yellowish va- 
riety of Chabazite, occurring in reddish or 
garnet-coloured scalenohedrons, which dif- 
fer slightly from the rhombohedron. The 
crystals are often in twins, and incrusted 
with Chlorite. It is very liable to decom- 
position, becoming spongy or porous, but 
still retaining its form. 

Analysis, by Delesse : 

Silica 49-5 

Alumina and peroxide of iron 23-5 

Lime 2-7 

Potash 2-5 

Magnesia , . . . trace 

Water 21-0 


BB fuses with some difficulty to a yel- 
lowish enamel. 

Soluble in hot sulphuric acid : while dis- 
solving, it produces a curdled mass, but 
afterwards the solution is clear. 

Locality. Jones's Falls, Maryland, U.S., 
in fissures of gneiss. 

Name. After the discoverer, Dr. Havden, 
of Baltimore, U. S. 

Hayesine, Dana. Occurs in masses, hav- 
ing a globular or mammillated form, which, 
on being broken, present the appearance of 
a lustrous mass of fine interwoven silky fibres 
of a brilliant snow-white colour. Opaque. 
Tasteless, but with a peculiar odour. H. 1. 
S.G. 1-65. 

Comp. Na B2 + Ca2 B^ + IOH. Hayes 
states that the soda is an impurity, and that 
the compesition of the pure mineral is repre ■ 

< .... 

sented by the formula Ca B2 + 6H = boracic 
acid 45-95, lime 18-45, water 35-57 = 100. 

Eeichardt gives the formula Ca B* + 10 H. 
Analysis, by Reichardt ; 

Boracicacid. . . . 52-05 

Lime 11-56 

Soda trace 

Chlorine . . . .0-94 


Sulphuric acid 


Water 34-91 


Localities. Xova Scotia, in narrow veins, 
in Gypsum, with Glauber Salt. At the Tus- 
can lagoons, as an incrustation. In white 
reniform masses, called tiza, on the dry 
plains near Iquique, in the province of 
Tarapaca, in Southern Peru, whence it has 
of late vears been imported to Liverpool. 
(See Tiza.) 

Named after Hayes. 

Brit. Mus., Case 39. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 229. 

Haytokite. Pseudomorphous Chalcedony 
in the form of Datholite, found at the Hay- 
tor Iron Mines in Devonshire: fig. 226. 

Fig. 226. 

Also at N. Roskear Mine, Cornwall ; and in 
cavities of compact radiating Prehnite in the 
Isle of Mav, Frith of Forth, /^. 226. 

Brit. Mus., Case 22. 

3L P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 534. 

Heavy Spak, Jameson. A name given 
to Barytes in consequence of its great 
specific gravity. 

Hebetine. An impure variety of anhy- 
drous silicate of Zinc or Willemite. 

Hedenbergite. A black variety of 
Augite, containing a large proportion of 

iron, little or no magnesia 
S.G. 3-5, 

and no alumina 

Comp. { Ca, Fe) fei2. 

Analysis, by H. Rose : 

Silica 49-01 

Protoxide of iron. . .26-08 

Lime 20-87 

Magnesia . . . .2-98 
Protoxide of manganese . trace 


BB fuses readily to a shining black glass. 
Locality. ,Tunaberg in Sweden. 
Name. After L, Hedenberg, the Swedish 
Hedgehog-stone. See Stachelswein- 


Hediphane, Dufrenoy. Hedyphane, 
Breithaupt. A whitish variety of Mimetite, 
usually occurring in amorphous masses, 
with a subadamantine or resinous lustre in- 
clining to greasy. H. 3 to 4. S.G. 5-3 to 5-5. 


Analysis, by Kersten : 
Arseniate of lead , 
Chloride of lead . 
Phosphate of lime 
Arseniate of lime . 



BB forms a white friable mass, but 
affords no arsenical odour. 

Locality. Longbanshytta, in Sweden. 

Heliotrope. See Bloodstone. 
^ Helleflinta of the Swedes. A compact 
and massive variety of Felspar, of a deep 
flesh-red colour, and with a peculiarly waxy 
texture, from Gr^'phyttan in Sweden. 

Helminth, G.H^Otto Volger. A variety 
of Chlorite, occurring in Felspar and Quartz, 

Helvin, or Helvine, Haiiy, Phillips, Wer- 
ner. Cubical. Primary form a regular 
tetrahedron. Occurs in"small tetrahedrons, 
with their solid angles replaced. Colour 
wax-3'ellow, inclining to yellowish-brown 
or siskin-green. Subtranslucent. Lustre 
vitreous inclining to resinous. Streak white. 
Fracture uneven. H. 6 to 6-5. S.G. 3-1 to 

Fig. 227. 

Fig. 228. 

Comp. Silicate of glucina, and protoxide 
of manganese. 

Analysis, by C. Gmelin : 

Silica 83-25 

Glucina and alumina . . 12-03 
Protoxide of manganese .31-82 
Protoxide of iron . . . 5-56 
Sulphide of manganese • 14-00 
Water 1-16 


BB in the inner flame fuses with ebulli- 
tion, and forms a turbid yellow globule ; in 
the outer flame fuses with greater difficulty, 
and acquires a deeper colour. Dissolves 
slowly in borax, forming a clear glass, 
which, till the whole of the substance is 
dissolved, has a yellowish tinge arising from 
the presence of sulphide of sodium, but after 
the solution is complete, it appears colourless 
in the inner flame, and amethyst- red in the 
outer. Dissolves in muriatic acid with 
evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen gas and 
separation of gelatinous silica. 

Localities. Schwarzenberg in Saxony, 


with Garnet, Quartz, Fluor and Calc-spar. 
Hortekulle, near Modum in Norway. 

Name. The name was given by Werner, 
in allusion to the colour; from *)A/o?, the sun. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case. 

Hematite. Dana, Brooke §- Miller. 
Hexagonal ; primary form an acute rhom- 
bohedron : also occurs columnar,- granular, 
botryoidal, and stalactitic : lamellar ,- friable 
or compact. Colour dark steel-grey or iron- 
black ; of earthy varieties red.* Lustre 
metallic, sometimes splendent, or earthy. 
Opaque, but faintly translucent, and of 'a 
blood-red colour by transmitted light when 
in very thin laminae, as it occurs in mica- 
ceous iron-ore. Streak cherry-red or reddish 
brown, which serves to distinguish it from 
Magnetite. Fracture subconchoidal, uneven. 
Sometimes feebly magnetic. H. 5-5 to 6*5. 
S-G. 4-5 to 5-3. 

Distinguished from Magnetite by its 
cherry -red or reddish-brown streak. 

Comp. Peroxide (sesquioxide) of iron, or 

'#6 = iron 70, oxygen 30 = 100. 

BB alone infusible ; with soda on char- 
coal, it sinks together with the soda into 
the charcoal, and is easily reduced to a 
metallic powder, which may be separated 
from the charcoal'by pounding and leviga- 
tion : with borax forms a green or yellow 

Eeadily soluble in hot muriatic acid, 
when reduced to powder. 

Localities. — British. This ore is largely 
worked, and affords much of the iron manu- 
factured in this and other countries. The 
Hematite of North Lancashire and West 
Cumberland produces not less than a mil- 
lion tons per annum. It is supposed that 
the Hematite which occurs in the Carboni- 
ferous- Limestone of the Mendip Hills in 
Somersetshire, and the so-called brown He- 
matite of the Forest of Dean in Gloucester- 
shire were worked by the Romans during 
the period when they held possession of these 
islands. It is obtained also in Cornwall ; 
Devonshire ; in Glamorganshire, in the dis- 
tricts of Llantrissant and Llanhary, near j 
Cowbridge, and at Newton Nottage, near / 
Bridgend ; in North Wales, and in the neigh- ! 
bourhood of Glasgow. — Foreign. Hematite ' 
is found in France, Spain, Germany, and 
Russia, where the mines of Goumeschefskoi 
contain much of it. 

The mines of Elba have been worked 
from a very remote period, and the island 
is described by Virgil as being " Insula in- 
exhaustis chafybdum generosa metallis." 


The several varieties of iron-ore com- 
prised in the species of Hematite, are 
described under their respective names. 
Specular Iron includes the specimens pos- 
sessing a perfect metallic lustre, and is called 
Micaceous Iron when the structure is mica- 
ceous : Red Hematite, Fibrous Red Iron-ore, 
include the varieties with a sub- metallic or 
non-metallic lustre, which if soft and earthy- 
are termed Red Ochre, Reddle, or Red Chalk, 
and when consisting of slightly coherent 
seal es, Scaly Red Iron-ore , or Red- Iron Froth. 

There are very remarkable deposits of 
Hematite in Missouri, ninety miles south 
of St. Louis, which are thus described by 
Dana: "The Iron Mountain is 300 feet in 
height, and consists Avholly of massive per- 
oxyd of iron lying in loose blocks, which 
are largest about the summit, many 10 to 
20 tons in weight. The Pilot Knob is esti- 
mated by J. D. Whitney at 650 feet in 
height ; it is made up of a quartzose rock 
of the azoic period, and is capped with 
specular iron, which has the appearance of 
stratification, and is micaceous in structure." 
Dana's Mineralogy, vol. ii. p. 114. 

Hematite is sometimes hard enough to 
take a very fine polish, and is then used 
for polishing glass, gold, steel, and, in fact, 
nearly all metals : it also possesses the 
valuable property of laying on metals gold- 
and silver-leaf, without fraying, tearing, or 
detaching them. The highly-esteemed bur- 
nishers of gilders, goldsmiths, gunsmiths, 
and cutlers are made of Hematite, strongly 
fastened in wooden handles, guarded by a 
ring. The Hematite suited for this pur- 
pose is of a very dark red colour, and should 
have a fine grain, free from the slightest 
cracks, and above all should be susceptible 
of a high polish. Gallicia in Spain is the 
chief localit}' whence this description is ob- 
tained; and the people of Compostella, who 
specially devote tbemselves to the search 
for it, supply nearly the whole of Europe. 

Reduced to powder Hematite is used for 
polishing tin, silver, and gold; and also as 
a colouring material. 

Name. The name Hagmatite is derived 
from a^i/jcoc, blood. " And the Hgematites or 
Blood-stone, which is of a dense, solid tex- 
ture, dry, or, according to its name, seeming 
as if formed of concreted blood." — Theo- 
phrastus, chap. Ixvi. Five varieties of 
Haematite were known to the ancients, of 
which the most esteemed, and probably 
that referred to above, was obtained from 

Brit. Mus., Cases 14 and 16. 

M. P. G. A. 50 in Hall ; Boulder from 

New Red Sandstone, Porlock, Somerset- 

Principal Floor, Wall-cases 18 and 19 
(Foreign) ; 32 and 48 (British). 

Hemimorphite. Siliceous zinc ore. 

Hemi-prismatic Augite Spar, Mohs. 
See Hornblende. 

Hemi-prismatic Brythine Salt^ Mohs. 
See Glaubkrite. 

Hemi-prismatic Chrysolite, Mohs. 
See Chondkodite. 

Hemi-prissiatic Dystome- malachite, 
Mohs. See Phosphochalcite. 

Hemi-prismatic Euclas Haloid, Hai- 
dinger. See Pharmacolite. 

Hemi-pyramidal Felspar, Haidinger. 
See Edingtonite. 

Hemi-prismatic Fluor-haloii>, Hai- 
dinger. See VVagnerite. 

Hemi-prismatic Gypsum -haloid, Hai- 
dinger. See Pharmacolite. 

HeMI - prismatic HabRONEME - MALAr 

CHiTE, Mohs. See Malachite. 

Hemi-pris]matic Hal - baryte, Mohs. 
See Hayesine. 

Hemi-prismatic KouPHONE-spAR,JfoAs. 
See Heulandite. 

Hemi-prisimatic Lead -baryte, Mohs. 
See Crocoisite. 

Hemi-prismatic Natron-salt, Mohs. 
See Trona. 

Hemi - PRISMATIC Olive - malachite, 
Mohs. See Vauquelinite. 

Hemi-prismatic Ruby-blende. Mohs. 
See Miargyrite. 

Hemi-prismatic Schiller-spar, Mohs. 
See Bronzite. 

Hemi-prismatic Sulphur, Mohs. See 

HEMI-PRIS31ATIC Talc-mica, Mohs. See 
Mica — (including Lepidolite). 

Hemi-prismatic Titanium Ore, Mohs. 
See Sphene. 

Hemi-prismatic Vitriol-salt, 3Iohs. 
See Copperas, 

Hemi-prismatic Zeolite. See Heu- 

Henkelite. See Silver Glai^ce. 

Hepatic Blende. See Leber -blende. 

Hepatic Cinnabar, Phillips. A mix- 
ture of Cinnabar, with Idrialite, carbon and 
earthy matter. It occurs both compact and 
slaty, of a dark red colour, sometimes al- 
most iron-black. Opaque. Streak brownish- 
red. ' S.G. 6-8 to 7-3. See Corallinerz. 

Locality. Idria in Carniola. 

Brit, Mus., Case 9. 

Hepatic Mercurial Ore, Kirwan, See 

Hepatic Pyrites, Kirwan, Jameson. 


The name applied to decomposed, liver- 
brown, tessular crystals of Iron Pyrites 

Localities. Cornwall. East Tulloch, S. 
of Loch Tay, in Perthshire. 

Name. — From 'We, liver; in allusion to 
the colour. 

Hepatinerz, v. Kdbell. An amorphous 
mixture of Brown Iron- ore and ChrysocoUa, 
from Tourinsk in the Ural. 
Analysis bj'' v. Kdbell : 

Silica 9-66 

Protoxide of iron . . 59'00 
Oxide of copper . . . 1300 
Water 18-00 

Hepatite. The name applied to such 
varieties of Barytes as emit a fetid, sul- 
phurous, or hepatic odour on being rubbed 
or heated. They are generally of a yellow 
or brown colour. It occurs at Buxton, Mat- 
lock, and Eyam in Derbyshire ; Andrarum 
and Kongsberg in Norway; Lublin in Gal- 
licia ; and Albemarle co., N. America. 
■ Brit. Mus., Case 52. 

Hercinite, Zifpe. A black Spinel found 
in rolled pebbles, in alluvium. Lustre 
vitreous. Streak deep greenish-grey. Frac- 
ture conchoidal. H. 7-5 to 8. S.G. 3-91 to 

Comp. Fe Al, or an aluminite of iron, in 
which the protoxide is partly replaced by 

Analysis, by Zippe : 

Alumina .... 61*17 
Protoxide of iron . .35-67 

Magnesia . . . . 2-92 




Localities. The vicinity of Natschetin 
and Horslau in Bohemia ; where it is used 
instead of Emery for cutting glass. 

BB infusible. The leek-green powder 
on ignition becomes brick-red, and increases 
3-2 per cent, in weight, in consequence of 
the protoxide of iron becoming converted 
into peroxide. 

Herdertte, Haidinger. A very rare 
mineral, much resembling Asparagus-stone. 
Ehombic: primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Colour several shades of yellowish- 
and greenish-white. Very translucent. 
Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous. 
Streak white. Verv brittle. Fracture small 
conchoidal. H. 5. - S.G. 2-9 to S'l. 

Fig. 229. 

Comp. Probably an hydrous phosphate 
of alumina and lime with fluorine. 

BB fuses with difficulty to a white 

Dissolves in muriatic acid when finely 

Locality. The tin mines of Ehrenfrie- 
dersdorf in Saxony, imbedded in Fluor. 

Name. After "the Baron von Herder, 
Director of the Saxon Mines at Freyberg. 

Hermannite. See Mangan-amphi- 


Herreritb, Genth. A carbonate of zinc, 
containing 3-4 per cent, of carbonate of cop- 
per. From the mines of Albarradon, Mexico. 

Herschelite, Levy. Occurs in colour- 
less hexagonal prisms and tables, whose 
lateral faces are streaked horizontally. 
Colour white. Translucent or opaque. 
Fracture conchoidal. H. 4-5. S.G. 2-06. 

Comp. (Na, k) Si2 + 3A1 '\6fi + 15H. 

Analysis, from Etna, by Damour : 
Silica .... 47-39 

Alumina .... 20-90 

Lime 0-38 

Soda 8-33 

Potash 4-39 

Water 17*84 


Localities. Aci Reale, near Catania in 
Sicily ; associated with Phillipsite, in crys- 
tals which are generally closely aggre- 
gated like those of Prehnite, in cavities of 

Brit. Mus., Case 29. 

Herveleca. An ochre described by 

Hessite, Frobel. Rhombic. Occurs in 
coarse-grained masses. Colour between 
steel-grey and lead-grey. Lustre metallic. 
Slightly malleable. H. 2 to 3-5. S.G. 8-3 to 

Comp. Ag, Te, or telluride of silver = 
silver 62*8, tellurium 37-2 = 100. 

Analysis, from Sawodinski, by G. Rose; 
Tellurium .... 36-89 

Silver 62-32 

Iron 0*50 



BB on charcoal fuses to a black globule, 
which, when cold, exhibits on its surface 
numerous dendrites and globules of silver. 
Mixed with carbonate of soda, and sub- 
jected to a continued blast, yields pure 

Dissolves slowly in cold, quickly in hot 
nitric acid ; the solution, after a while, de- 
posits tellurite of silver-oxide. 

Localities. The Altai Mountains of 
Siberia, at the silver mine of Sawodinski, in 
a talcose rock, associated with Iron Pyrites, 
Black Blende and Copper Pyrites. ]N'ag- 
yag in Transylvania, in right rhomboidal 
prisms on Quartz. California. 

Brit. Mus., Case 3. 

Hessonite. See Essonite. 

Heteposite, v. Knbell, Phillips, Nau- 
mann. An altered form of Tryphiline. Only 
occurs in lamellar masses. Colour greenish- 
grey inclining to bluish-grey, with a waxy 
lustre ; the faces which are exposed to the 
air exhibit a semi-metallic lustre and a 
violet colour. Streak sometimes grey, some- 
times yellow; after weathering, violet. 
Scratches glass: easily scratched with a 
steel point. H. S.G. 3-524 j after weather- 
ing, 3-39. 

Comp. 3(MnFe)P2 + 5H. 

Analysis, by Dufrinoy : 

Phosphoric acid . . . 41*77 
Protoxide of iron . . . 34-89 
Protoxide of manganese .17-57 

Silica 0-22 

Water 4-40 


BB fuses to a dark brown enamel with a 
semi-metallic lustre. 

Soluble in muriatic acid, with the excep- 
tion of a small quantity of ; ilica. 

Locality. Chiefly in the quarries at 
Hureaux in the Haute Vienne. In the peg- 
matite of the vicinity of Limoges, with 

Name. From £>=§«?, different, 

Heteposite is distin squished from Triphy- 
line by its colour; from Triplite, by the 
lustre of its fractured surface, which in the 
latter is vitreous. 

Heterocline, Dufrenoy. Heterokline, 
Breithaupt. Oblique. Occurs in oblique 
rhombic prisms, with the acute lateral edges 
generally replaced; also massive. Colour 
between'iron-black and steel-grey. Lustre 
submetallic. Streak brownish-black. Frac- 
ture uneven to small conchoidal. H. 5. 
S.G. 4-5G2. 


Comp. Trisilicate of peroxide of man- 
ganese, or Si if n3. 

Analysis, by Ewreinow : 

Silica * 10-02 

Peroxide of manganese . 85- 

Peroxide of iron . . . 3'05 

Lime 0-60 

Potash 0-44 


BB like peroxide of manganese. 

Locality. St. Marcel, in Piedmont. 

Name. From lri^oy,xUr,i, in reference to 
its oblique form of crystallization, 

Heteromerite, Hermann. A pale green 
mineral from Statoust ; probably an altered 

Heteromorphite, Rammelsherg: Occurs 
in capillary forms resembling cobwebs; 
also massive. Colour between dark lead- 
grey and steel-grey; sometimes with an 
iridescent tarnish. Lustre dull metallic. 
H. 1 to 3. S.G. 5-67 to 5-9. 

Comp. PbS + iSb2 S3 = lead 49-8, anti- 
mony 31-0, sulphur 19-2 = 100. 

Analysis of massive form, from Wolfe- 
berg, by Poselger : 

Sulphur .... 20-32 
Antimony .... 32'98 
Lead 48-48 


Fuses instantly in the flame of a candle, 
with the evolution of white fumes. 

Localities. The Harz at Wolfsberg, An- 
dreasberg and Clausthal. Freiberg, Schem- 
nitz, neari!^eudorf in Anhalt. Near Bottino 
in Tuscany. Chonta in Peru, 

Name. From 'in^og, another, and H-kf^if 

Heterostte. Beudant,') 
Dana. (From 'in^o?, I 
different.') I See Heteposite. 

Heterozite, Dufre- 
noy, Nicol. J 

Heterotomous Felspar, Mohs. See 

Heulandite, Brooke, Phillips, Beudanf. 
Oblique ; primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Occurs in attached crystals and in 
layers and granular masses, frequently in a 
globular form, in the cavities of amygda- 
loidal rocks and in certain metalliferous 
veins. Colourless or coloured yellowish, 
brownish, but chiefly flesh- red to tile-red. 
Lustre vitreous : pearly on planes of cleav- 
age, and generally translucent, nearly trans- 
parent when colourless. Brittle. Fracture 


subconchoidal, uneven. H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 
2-1 to 2-2. 

Fig. 230. 

Fig. 231. 

Comp. Ca JSi + Al Si^ + 5H = silica 59-3, 
alumina 168, lime 9"2, water 14-7 = 100. 
Analysis, from Iceland, bv Damour : 
Silica . . . " . 59-64 
Alumina .... 16-33 

Lime 7-44 

Potash 0-74 

Soda ..... 1-16 
Water 14-33 


BB melts with intumescence, and becomes 

Readily decomposed by muriatic acid, 
the silica being separated in the form of a 
viscid powder. 

Localities. — Scotch. Campsie Hills, Stir- 
lingshire, in very fine brick-red crystals, as- 
sociated with Quartz, Chlorite and Calcite. 
Long Craig, Dumbarton Muir, in red crystals. 
Ballygroggan, near the Mull of Cantyre, in 
large red crystals. In small bright yellow 
crystals in a vein of Calc Spar, traversing 
Serpentine, at the south end of Balta Island, 
one of the Shetlands. Irish. — The Giant's. 
Causeway. Portrush, co. Antrim. Sandy 
Braes, in small olive-brown crystals, in 
porphyry. Foreign. — The finest crystals are 
brought from Iceland and the Faroe Isles, 
and from the Vendayah Mountains in Hin- 
dostan. The red varieties are found in the 
Fassa valley, Tyrol; in the Harz; at 
Peter's Point, and at Cape Blomidon, in 
Nova Scotia ; in the amygdaloid of Abys- 
sinia. (See Beaumontite.) 

Name. After Heuland, the English Mine- 

Brit. Mus., Case 28. 

M. P. G. Horse shoe Case, No. 1165. 

This is the Stilbite of Haiiy and most 
continental authors. 

Hexagonal Kouphone Spar, Hai- 
dinger. See Gmelinite. 

Hexagonal Palladium. See Selen- 

Hexahedral Aeseniate, Bournon. See 




Hexahedral Cobalt- 
KIES, Mohs. 

Hexahedral Cobalt- 
pyrites, Mohs. 

Hexahedral Copper-glance, Mohs. 
See Tin I'yrites. 

Hexahedral Corneous Silver. See 

Hexahedral Galena, Jameson. See 

Hexahedral Glance-blende, Mohs. 
See Manganese Blende. 

Hexahedral Gold, Mohs. Native 
Gold. See Gold. 

Hexahedral Iron-pyrites, Mohs. Iron 
Pyrites. See Pyrites. 

Hexahedral Kouph one -spar, Mohs. 
See Analcime. 

Hexahedral Lead, Haidinger. See Na- 
tive Lead. 

Hexahedral Lead-glance, Mohs. See 

Hexahedral Liro-" 
CONITE, Jameson. 


Hexahedral Liro- ! See Pharmacosi 

con-malachite, Mohs. ' DERITE. 

Hexahedral Oli- 
VENITE, Jameson. 

Hexahedral Pearl - kerate, Mohs. 
See Kerargyrite. 

Hexahedral Platina, Mohs. See Na- 
tive Platina. 

Hexahedral Eock-salt, Mohs. See 
Common Salt. 

Hexahedral Silver, Mohs. See Na- 
tive Silver. 

Hexahedral Silver -glance, Mohs. 
See Silver Glance. 

Hexahedral Tellurium, Mohs. See 

Hexymuriate of Copper, Thomson. 
See Atacamite. 

HiGHGATE Resin. A name given to 
Copaline, in consequence of its occurrence at 
Highgate Hill. 

Brit. Mus., Case 60. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 107. 

Himbeerspath. See Diallogite. 

HisiNGERlTE. Berzelius, Allan, Phillips. 
Occurs in imperfectly crystallized masses, 
which are cleavable in one direction only, 
and possess a foliated structure. Colour 
black. Dull. Streak greenish-grey or yel- 
lowish-brown. Opaque. Sectile. Fracture 
earthy. Soft. S.G. 3-045. 

Comp. Bisilicate of iron, or#'e Si^ -i-4H=: 
peroxide of iron 44-32, silica 35 23, water 
20-45 = 100. 


Analysis, from Riddarhyttan, by Ila7n- 


Silica 33-07 

Peroxide of iron . . . 34*78 
Protoxide of iron . . . 17-59 

Lime 2-56 

Magnesia . . . ,0-46 
Water 11-54 

From the above analysis, Rammelsberg 

deduces the formula Fe^ jii + 2'#e A"! + 6H. 

BB gives off water when heated: the 
blowpipe flame rounds it off at the edges, 
and renders it dull and magnetic. 

Decomposed by muriatic acid with the 
formation of gelatinous silica. 

Locality, feweden, Suarta in Suderman- 
land, in cavities of Calc Spar. The iron 
mines of Gillinge and Orijerfvi in Finland 
(see Gillingite). Bodenmais (Thraulite, 
v.Kohell). ■ 

Name. After Hisinger. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

HiSLOPiTE, Haughton. A Calc Spar of a 
brilliant grass-green colour. S.G. 264. It 
effervesces briskly with weak muriatic acid, 
which, dissolves the calcareous portion, 
leaving a beautiful, green silicious skeleton, 
which seems to be Glauconite. 

Comp. Hydrated tersilicate of protoxide 

M ) ... 

of iron, or ^^t 3Si + 3H. 

Locality. Brought from Takli, near 
Nagpur in India, by Mr. Hislop, after whom 
it is named. 

HoERNESiTE, Kenngott, Haidinger. Occurs 
in spheroidal groups of crystals, developed 
within the free interstices into small -rhom- 
boidal lamellae, of 36°. White and flexible, 
■with a single cleavage-plane of pearly lustre, 
parallel to the longitudinal surface. H.l. 
S.G. 2-474. 

Comp. 3MgAs + 8H. 

Analysis, bv von Hauer : 

Arsenic acid . 

. 46-33 


. 24-54 

Water .... 

. 29-07 

Loss .... 

. 0-06 

Locality. The only known specimen is in 

theVienna Imperial Museum ; it is supposed 

to come from the Bannat, probably from the 

environs of Oravicza. 

Name. After Dr. Homes, of the Imperial 

Museum at Vienna. 

HOHLSPATH, Werner. \ See ChiASTO- 
HoLLOW-SPAR, Jameson, j lite. 
HoLMESiTE, Thomson. A mineral iden- 
tical with Clintonite. 

Comp. 2 ( Mg 'i^l) + Ca Si + H. 

Analysis, bv Richardson ; 

Silica ." . . . . 19-35 
Alumina .... 44-75 
Peroxide of iron . . . 4-80 
Zirconia .... 2-05 
Magnesia .... 9-05 

Lime 11-45 

Protoxide of manganese . 1-35 
Fluoric acid . . .0-9 
Water 4*55 . 



OF Copper. 

HoLzoPAL. HoLSTEix, Werner, Bro- 
chant. Woodstone. See Wood-opal. 

HoMiCHLiNE, Breithaupt. Probably a 
result of the decomposition of Chalcopyrite, 
or perhaps a mixture of it with some of the 
richer sulphides of Copper, as Erubescite or 
Copper- glance. CrystaUization pyramidal, 
octahedral : generally compact - massive. 
Colour more bronzv" than Cbalcopvrite. 
Streak black. H. 4 to 5. S.G. 4-47 to''4-48. 

Comp. 3Cu2S,Fe2S3 + 2FeS = copper 43-76, 
iron 25-81, sulphur 30-21 = 100. 

Localities. Plauen in Voigtland. asso- 
ciated with Kupferpecherz and Malachite. 
Lauterbach in the Harz. Kupferberg in 
Silesia. Rheinbreitenbach on the Rhine. 
Friedensgrube and Lichtenberg in Bavaria. 
Near Viedendorf in Hesse. Oberlahnstein 
in Nassau. Johanngeorgenstadt. Quad- 
merget in Algeria. Remolinos and Tocopilla 
in Chili. Japan. 

HoNlGSTELN, Werner. 1 c -ir^^^,^^ 
. XT ^. T t See Mellite. 

HoNEYSTONE, Jameson. ) 



Huo-CANNEL. An earthy and impure 
kind of Cannel Coal, showing the lines of 
lamination, which are characteristic of other 
beds of coal. 

HoPEiTE, Brewster. Rhombic : primary 
form a right rhombic prism ; also in reni- 
form masses and amorphous. Colour grey- 
ish-white, reddish-brown when compact. 
Lustre vitreous, inclining to pearly on the 
central terminal faces. Transparent or 
translucent. Streak white. Deeply striated 
longitudinally on the broad lateral face 
shown in^^r. 232, other faces smooth. Sectile. 
Fracture uneven. H.'2-5 to 3. S.G. 285. 

Fig. 232. 

Comp. Supposed to be a hydrous com- 
pound of phosphoric acid and oxide of zinc, 
with a small quantity of cadmium. 

Locality. The mines of Altenberg, near 
Aix-la-Chapelle, crystallized in small drusy 
cavities, with Smithsonite. 

Name. In honour of Dr. Hope, Kegius 
Professor of Chtmistry in the University of 

HoRNBLEi, Karsfen, Hausmann; Horn- 
lead. See Cromfordite. 

Hornblende, Kirwan, Jameson, Phillips, 
Werner. Oblique: primaiy form an oblique 
rhombic prism. Occurs in prismatic crys- 
tals, which are sometimes isolated, but 
oftener confusedly aggregated, and fre- 
quently macled ; also in imperfect crystal- 
lizations, fibrous or columnar, the fibres 
being sometimes like flax, sometimes lamel- 
lar, granular, friable. Colour passing through 
various shades of green to blackish-green 
on the one hand, and white on the other. 
Lustre vitreous to pearly on cleavage faces. 
Opaque to nearly transparent, generally 
subtranslucent. Streak white or paler than 
the colour. When massive tough, and dif- 
ficultly frangible. Fracture sub- conchoidal, 
uneven. H. 5 to 6. S.G. 2-9 to 3-4. 


Fig. 233. 

Under the term Hornblende are included 
a great number of minerals, the composition 
of which maybe represented by the general 

formula (K^ ifc) hi^. They are, therefore, 
bisildcates of various protoxides and per- 
oxides. In the formula K represents vari- 
able proportions of lime, magnesia, protoxide 
of iron, and protoxide of manganese. Fluo- 
ride of calcium, also, is generally present in 
small and variable quantities, ana there- 
fore, most probably, in a state of mechanical 
mixture. Many varieties of Hornblende 
likewise contain alumina. 

Originally the name Hornblende was re- 
stricted to the dark green and black varieties, 
whether crystallized or massive ; now, how- 
ever, it comprehends a great many minerals, 


which will be found described in their pro- 
per places. 

The principal varieties of Hornblende are 
Actinolite, ^girine, Amianthus, Anthophyl- 
lite, Arfvedsonite, Asbestos, Calamite,Carin- 
thine, Cummingtonite, Diastalite, Edenite, 
Grammatite, Moimtain or Kock Cork, Moun- 
tain Leather, Pargasite, Raphilite, Tremolite. 

Name. The name bears reference to its ex- 
ceeding toughness. See Hornstone {name). 
Kirwan says, "The great weight of the 
stone called hornblende made the miners at 
first imagine it contained some metal, but 
finding none, except iron, they called it 
blind, in the same sense as the vulgar do 
nuts without a kernel. Hence the name 
Hornblende." — Vol. i. p. 215. 

Brit. Mus., Case 33. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, l^os. 1047, 

HoRNCOBALT. A mixture of earthy Co- 
balt and Quartz, found at Siegen, in Prussia. 

Hornerz, Werner. See Kerargyrite. 

Horn-lead. See Cromfordite. 

Hornmangan. See Rhodonite. 

Horn- ORE, Jameson. See Kerargyrite. 

Horn-quecksilber, Hausmann ; Horn- 
QUiCKSiLVER, Phillips. See Calomel. 

HoRN-siLBER, Hausmann, or Horn- 
silver. See Kerargyrite. 

Hornstone, Phillips. A vari ety of Quartz 
resembling flint, but more brittle, and break- 
ing with a less conchoidal fracture. It is 
translucent or opaque^ and is dull, or has a 
glimmering lustre. Generally grey; tinged 
blue, green, brown, oryellow. Scarcely as hard 
as Quartz. It is sometimes imbedded in lime- 
stone, as in the Tyrol; in veins in Hungary 
and Sw@den,andin pseudomorphsin Saxony 
and Bohemia. It is distinguished from Com- 
pact Felspar, which it closely resembles in 
appearance, by being infusible, Felspar being 

Hornstone is used for snuff'-boxes, seals, 
mortars, &c., but chiefly for the handles of 
knives and forks. It is exported from Ger- 
many in large quantitesfor mounting butter- 
and dessert-knives. 

"Hornstone differs from jaspers, often by 
its splintery fracture, always by its trans- 
parency,, though imperfect, and want of 
lustre ; from flints by its fracture, dulness, 
andhai'dness, but, when its fracture happens 
to be conchoidal, by its dulness, lesser 
transparency, and hardness; from quartz 
by its dulness and inferior hardness ; from 
serpentine, generally in hardness, specific 
gravity, and fusibility; from heliotrope by 
the aggregate of its properties."-— ^jVifjan, 
voL i. p. 305. 



Name. "This name took its rise from 
common working miners ; they observed 
that a sort of stone, of a dusky colour, was 
cut through, with great difficulty, by reason 
of a tenn city which resembled that of an horn 
or horse's hoof* ; now, a horse's hoof, when 
in thin pieces, has also a slight degi'ee of 
transparency, this sort of stone they tliere- 
fore called liornstone. Mineralogical writers 
observing this combination of properties 
not to meet together in the same stone, dis- 
tinguished two sorts. of hornstone, both of a 
dusky colour, one that had the semitrans- 
parency, but not the tenacity, of a hoof or 
horn, and another Avhich resembled that 
substance only in colour and tenacity. This 
distinction I find in Henckel, on the Origin 
of Stones.f Since that time the German 
writers in general have confined this name, 
with some modifications, to stones of the 
first kind; that is, to the stones that all 
writers had indicated by the name of petro- 
silices, and the English in particular by 
that of chert. But the Swedes and French 
still apply it in the latter sense."J — Kirwan, 
vol. i. p. 215. 

Horse-flesh Ore. The name by which 
Purple Copper (Erubescite) is known to 
Cornish miners. 

HoUGUiTE, Shepard, S. W. Johnson. A 
mineral resembling Volknerite, to which it 
is closely related, if not identical. Colour 
whitish externally, and bluish or reddish- 
white within, with a faint pearly lustre. 
H. 2-5. S.a. 2-02 to 2-03. 

Camp. A hydrate of alumina and mag- 

Analysis, by S. W. Johnson : 

Alumina .... 23-847 
Magnesia . . . . 43 839 
Carbonic acid . . . 5-833 
Water .... 26-452 


BB decrepitates and gives oft water, los- 
ing 33^ per cent, by ignition. 

Localities. Near Oxbow, St. Lawrence co., 
NeAv York. Rossie, associated with Spinel. 

Name. After Dr. Franklin B. Hough, of 
Somerville, U. S. 

This mineral is the material of pseudo- 
morphous Spinel, and probably at times of 
Scapolite, according to S. W. Johnson. It 
occurs in crystals, which vary from pure 
Spinel to octahedrons, with roanded edges, 
and pitted or irregular surfaces. The last 

* Vogel, Mineral, p. 130. 

f P. 400 of the French translation. 

t VVallerius. 


are sometimes soft and altered, while the 
edges or angles have the hardness of Spinel. 
It also occurs in flattened kidney-form con- 
cretions, with botryoidal surfaces. 

HouiLLE. French for Coal. 

HouiLLE Papyracee, Lucas. See Dy- 


HooiLLE PiciFORME, Brochant. See Jet. 
PIowardite. An earthy mineral, abun- 
dant in meteoric stones. 

Comp. Tersilicate of protoxide of iron 

and magnesia, or Fe Si^ + Mg '^v^. 

Named after Howard, meteorologist. 

HoDSONiTE, Beck. A black Pyroxene, 
identical with Polylite, and with a similar 
cleavage to Hedenbergite, from which it 
otherwise differs in having a considerable 
quantity of the silica replaced by alumina. 
It also contains manganese sometimes. It 
affords a green streak, and has often a, brown 
tarnish. S.G. 3-43 to 3-5. 

Comp. (Ca, Fe)3 (Si, Al)2. 

Analysis (mean), by Smith §- Brush : 
Silica .... 39-94 

Alumina .... 10-41 
Magnesia . . . .3-00 

Lime 10-36 

Protoxide of iron . . 30-48 

Protoxide of manganese . 0-60 

Potash 2-48 

Soda 1-66 

Loss by ignition * . . 1*95 


BB fuses readily to a shining black glass. 

Locality. Orange co., New York, U.S. ; 
near the Hudson River; whence the name. 

HuiLE Mii^erale CoM3iuJfE, Brochant. 
See Petroleum. 

HuMBOLDTiLiTE §, MonticelU §■ Covelli; 
Phillips, Beudant. Humboldtilith Meli- 
HTH, Mohs. A Mellilite found on Vesuvius 
in lava. It occm-s in crystals derived from 
a rectangular prism with a square base; 
cleavage parallel to the base. Colour gre}'- 
ish-yellow or grey, with a vitreous lustre 
passing into resinous. Transparent to feebly 

Fig. 234. 

translucent. Fracture uneven and splintered. 
H. 5. S.G. 2-91 to 3-1. 

§ Named after the Baron von Humboldt. 


Comp. 3(Ca2, Si) + Al bi^ (Gmelin). 

2K3 Si + it si (Dana) = §R3 + ^-S) Si. 
Analysis, from Somma, by v. Kobell : 

Silica 43-96 

Alumina .... 11 -20 

Lime 31-96 

Magnesia .... 6-10 

Soda 4-28 

Potash . . . . .0-38 
Protoxide of iron. . . 2-32 


BB fuses readily with slight evolution of 
gas -bubbles, arid forms a blistered,, trans- 
lucent glass, of a somewhat greyer or more 
greenish tint than the mineral. With borax 
melts slowly to a colourless glass. Easily 
decomposed by muriatic acid, with separa- 
tion of gelatinous silica. 

Brit. Mus., Case 60. 

HUMBOLDTINE*, Manano>. q^^^^^^ ^^ 
de Rivero ; Brooke §• Miller, f t q 

HUMBOLDTITE*, Maker §• ^ Z^r^irT 
Beudant. J 

HuMBOLDTiTE*, Phillips. The name 
given by Levy to the Datholite found in 
Agate-balls at the Seisser Alp in^ the Tyrol. 

Brit. Mus., Case 39. 

HuMiTE, Bournon. A variety of Chon- 
drodite found in ejected masses of a granular 
or crystalline rock, on Monte Somma, with 
brownish Mica, Olivine and Magnetite. Oc- 
curs in minute but very distinct crystals of 
a very variable colour, but generally yel- 
lowish or deep reddish-brown, with a shining 
lustre. Transparent or translucent. H. 6 to 
6-5. S.G. 3-177 to 3-234. 

Fig. 235. 

Comp. Mg4 isi,. with part of the oxygen 
replaced by fluorine. 

Analysis, by Rammelsherg : 
Silica . 

Protoxide of iron 
Lime . 



BB becomes opaque, but does not melt ; 
with borax affords a clear glass. 

HURONirE. 181 

Name. After Sir Abraham Hume. 

Brit. Mus., Case 58a. 

HuNTERiTE, Haughton. A white fels- 
pathic mineral, with a i'atty lustre. Softer 
than Felspar, but gritty under the agate 
pestle. S.G. 2-3. 

Comp. Hydrated tersilicate of alumina, 

with hyaline silica, or 5A1 Si^ + H Si^. 
Analysis, by Haughton : 

Silica . . . . . 65-93 
Alumina .... 20-97 

Lime 0-30 

Magnesia . . . .0-45 
Loss by ignition . - . ll'6i 

Locality. Near Nagpur in Central In- 
dia, in a vein of pegmatite in gneiss. 

Name. After Mr. Hunter, by whom it 
was brought to England. 

HuREAULiTE, Dufrenoy. An altered 
form of Triplite, somewhat resembUng Zir- 
con in appearance. Oblique ; primary form 
an oblique rhombic prism. In minute trans- 
lucent crystals of a reddish-yellow colour, 
slightly paler than hyacinth-red; violet, 
brownish-orange, and rose-red. Lustre 
bright. Optically biaxial. No cleavage. 
Fracture conchoidal. H. 5. S.G. 2-27. 

Fig. 236. 

Fig. 237. 

Named after the Baron von Humboldt. 

Comp, (Mn, Fe)5 pa. 

Analysis, by Damour, of yellow variety 

from the quarry of Vilate near Chanteloube : 

Phosphoric acid . . . 37-96 

Protoxide of manganese .41-15 

Protoxide of iron . . . 8-10 

Water 12-35 

Mixed sand . . . .0-35 

BB gives off water when heated, and 
fuses very easily to a black globule, having 
a semi-metallic lustre. 

Name. After the locality, the Commune 
of Bureaux, near Limoges, in Haute Vienne. 
HuRONlTE, Thomson; T.\ S. Hunt. An 
altered mineral near Fahlunite. Forms 
spheroidal kidneys in rounded masses of 
black Hornblende. Colour greenish-yellow. 
Lustre resinous, passing into pearly. 'Trans- 
lucent at the edges. Streak white. Frac- 


ture granular and imperfectly lamellar. 

Scratched easily with a steel point. H. 

3-25. S.G. 2-862. 

Analysis, by Thomson ; 

Silica . . . . . 45-80 
Alumina . . . . 33 92 
Protoxide of iron . . . 4-32 
- Lime ..... 8-04 
Magnesia . . . .1*72 
Water 4-16 


BB infusible ; -with fluxes yields a green- 
ish glass. 

Insoluble in acids. 

Name. After the locality near Lake 
Huron, U.S. 

HvEESALT, Forchammer. An alum allied 
to Halotrichite, in which part of the alu 
mina is replaced by peroxide of iron, and 
part of the protoxide of iron by magnesia. 

Comp. (Fe, Mg) s"+ (Ad #e) fes + 24H. 

nalysis ; 


. 11-22 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 1-23 

Protoxide of iron . 

. 4-57 


. 2-19 

Sulphuric acid 

. 35-16 

Water . . . 

. 45-63 


Locality. Iceland. 

Brit. Mus., Case 56. 

Hyacinth (or Jacinth). The name under 
which are included the transparent bright 
coloured varieties of Zircon. Hyg,cinth diiiers 
from .Jargoon merely in its colour, which is of 
various shades of red, passing into orange and 
poppy-red. Though not much worn at the 
present day, it is a valuable gem, and makes 
a very superb ring-stone when of a bright 
tint and free from flaws. The larger pieces 
are sometimes made into seals. 

"Three various kinds the sWYieA a,?, Hyacinths* 
Varying in colour, and unlike in fame : 
One, like pomegranafe, flowers a fiery blaze, 
And one, the yellow citron's hue displays ; 
One charms with p.iley blue the gazer's eye, 
Like the mild tint that decks the northern sky : 
Astrength'ningpower the several kinds convey, 
And grief and vain suspicions drive away." 

Localities. Hyacinth occurs in the sands 
and alluvial deposits of certain rivers in 

* From the Lanidarium (xiv.) of Abbot Mar- 
bodus (Marbceuf). master of the Cathedral 
School of Anjou, 1067 to 1081, when he became 
Bishop of Rennes. Extracted from "Antique 
Gems," by Rev. C. W. King, M.A. 


Ceylon ; also in the state of sand mingled 
with various other Substances in the bed 
of a stream at Expailiy (Haute Loire) 
in France, as well as in basalt near the 
same place ; in volcanic tufi" in Auvergne ; 
at Bilin in Bohemia; Sebnitz in Saxony; 
Pfitsch in the Tyrol ; Ohlapian in Transyl- 
vania; in Greenland; in the Zircon -syenite 
of Fredericks-varn in Norway; and in the 
iron mines of Arendal; at Miask in the 
Urals ; at Vesuvius in white and blue octa- 
hedra in Ryacolite ; in small colourless crys- 
tals at Santa Rosa in New Granada; in 
Scotland at Scalpay in Harris. Egypt, the 
East Indies, &c. The hyacinth-red varie- 
ties of Zircon are sold by the inhabitants of 
Ceylon as inferior rubies. (Prinsep.) 

In speaking of the Hyacinth Pliny says, 
" Hunc colorem Indi sacon vocant et talem 
gemman sacodion.;" but it is doubtful whe- 
ther the Hyacinth of the moderns is one of 
the stones known by the same name 
(!;«»>ye«j) to the ancients. Jamieson sup- 
posed that they applied this name to the 
Amethyst or Sapphire. 

The 'name va.xtvBo; is derived from the 
Persian and Arabian yacut {ruby). 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 850, 
-853' to 858. 

Hyacinth Blanche Ckucifokme, Borne 
de Lisle. See Harmotome. 

Hyacinth de Ceylon. A French name 
for Essonite or Cinnamon-Stone. 

Hyacinthe de Compostelle. See 
Compost ELLA Hyacinth. 

Hyacinth de Vesuve, Boine de Lisle. 
Vesuvian. See Idocrase. 

Hyacinthe la Bella. The name given 
by French lapidaries to Zircon, when of a 
decided red tint. Mons. Launoy states that 
it becomes of a much deeper tint on ex- 
posure to air, and that it reassumes its ori- 
ginal colour when placed in the dark. The 
Italians apply the same name to orange-red 
Garnet or Vermeille. 

Hyaclnthine. La Me-") 
iherie | 

Hyacinth Blanche y See Meionite. 
DE SoMMA, Bome de I 
Lisle. J 

Hyalite, or Muller's Glass. A trans- 
parent or semi-transparent variety of Opal, 
occurring in small reniform, botryoidal, and 
sometimes stalactitic forms, resembling co- 
lottrless glass. 

Analysis, from Walsch, by Damour : 

Silica 96-94 

Water 3 06 



Localities. — English. Whinstone quar- 
ries, south of Newcastle. — Irish. Donald's 
Hill, CO. Down. — Foreign. Schemnitz in 
Hungaiy, in amygdaloid; Walsch in Bo- 
hemia, in clinkstone. 

Name. From uaXog^ glass, in allusion to 
its resemblance to that substance, and ^^Wog, 

Brit. Mus., Case 21. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 764, 765. 

Hyalomela]!?, Hausmann. A variety of 
Tachylite from Vo^lsgebirge. S.G. 2'7144. 

Camp. (R3 + Al) Si, or 2(K, Na, Ca, Mg, 

Mn, Fe) Si+(A1 ¥e) Si. 

Analysis, by C Gmelin : 

Silica 50-22 

Titanic acid . . . .1*42 
Alumina .... 17-84 
Protoxide of iron . . .10-27 

Lime 8-25 

Magnesia . . . .3-37 

Soda 5-18 

Potash 3-87 

Protoxide of manganese . 0'40 
Water and ammonia . . 0*50 



Name. From ilxXos, glass, and /a-sXecf, 

black ; in allusion to the ease with which it 

melts BB to a blackish opaque glass. 

Hyalophane, v. Waltershausen. A variety 

of Orthoclase containing baryta. Occurs in 


Analysis, by Von Waltershausen ; 

Silica . 

. 45-65 

Sulphuric aa 


. 4-12 
. 19-14 

Baryta . 

. 21-32 

Lime . 

. 0-77 


. 0-73 

Soda . 

. 0-49 

Potash . 

. 8-23 

Water . 

. 0o4 

S.G. (of transparent variety) 2-805 : (of 
translucent variety) 2-901. 

Name. From iaiAaj, glass, and iPoc/kw, to 

Hyalosiderite, Walchner. A variety' of 
Chrysolite, occurring in yellowish- and red- 
dish-brown crj'stals, imbedded in brown 
basaltic amygdaloid, at the Kaiserstuhl in 
the Breisgau. Translucent at the edges, 
where it exhibits a hyacinth -red colour. 
Streak brown. H. 5-5. S.G. 3-287. 

Fig. 238. 

Comp. ( JMg + JFe)5 Si, with an excess 

of Mg Si, a large quantity of the protoxide 
of iron being replaced by magnesia and 
other bases. 

Analysis, by Walchner : 

Silica 31-63 

Alumina . . . . 2'21 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-48 
Magnesia .... 32-40 
Protoxide of iron • . . 28-49 

Potash 2-69 

Chromium . . . . trace 


BB if not naturally magnetic, it becomes 
so when heated to redness, when it also 
turns black; at a higher temperature, it 
fuses to a black magnetic globule. With 
borax or microcosmic salt, gives the reactions 
of iron, and with microcosmic salt, immedi- 
ately a skeleton of silica. 

Dissolves with difficulty in cold, concen- 
trated muriatic acid, and yields a jelly on 

Locality. The Kaiserstuhl in the Breis- 
gau, in amygdaloid. 

Name. From (iocXos, glass, and c/S'^ja?, iron. 

Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

Hyblite. a pseudomorph, after Augite. 

Comp. R Si + it Si) 

+ 4H 


Analysis (mean of 

many analyses). 

Waltershausen : 

Silica . 

. 40-86 


. 10-22 

Peroxide of iron 

. 20-68 

Lime . 

. 4-53 


. 2-61 

Soda . 

. 4-05 


. 1-12 

Water . 

. 15-93 


Hydeargyllite, G. Hose. The name 
which has been given to crystallized Gibb- 
site. Occurs in regular six-sided prisms, 
or in prisms with twelve faces, resulting 
from the combination of two hexagonal 
prisms. Colour reddish-Avhite. Translu- 
cent or transparent in thin laminae. Lustre 
vitreous; on cleavage-faces pearly. H. 2-5. 
S.G. 2-87. 



Comp. Hydrate of alumina, or Al H' 

= alumina 65'56, -water 34-44=100. 

Analysis, from the Ural, by Hermann : 

Alumina . . ." . 64-03 

Phosphoric acid . . . 1-43 

Water 84-54 


BB whitens, becomes opaque, emits a 
brilliant light, but does not fuse. 

In powder dissolves, but with difficulty, 
in muriatic acid. 

Localities. The Schischimsldan moun- 
tains, near Slatoust, in the Ural, where it 
-was first discovered by Lissensko. Gumush- 
dagh in Asia Minor, associated with Corun- 
dum. Unionville, Pennsylvania, U. S. Bra- 
zil, resembling Wavellite. 

Name. From Sio^i, water, and a.^'/iX>.o;, 

Hydrargyllite bears some resemblance 
in form to phosphate of lime; but is easily 
distinguished from it bv inferior hardness. " 

Brit. Mus., Case 19. ' 

Hydrate of Alu^iina. See Diaspoke. 

Hydrate of Magnesia, Allan, Phillips. 
See Brucite. 

Hyd rated Deutoxide of Manganese, 
Turner. See Manganite, 

Hydratei) Iolite, or Bonsdorffite. 
See Hydrous Iolite. 

Hydro- ALDMiNous Lead. See Plu]mbo- 

Hydro -apatite. Occurs in semi-trans- 
parent mammillary concretions, somewhat 
resembling Chalcedony. H. 6-5. S.G. 3-1. 

Comp. CaS P -^ Ca F t- 


Analysis : 

Phosphoric acid . 

. 40-00 

Lime . 

. 47-31 


. 3-t!0 


. 3-33 

Phosphate of iron 

. 0-43 

Water . 

. 5-30 


Heated in a tube, decrepitates and disen- 
gages ammoniacal water. 

Locality. The P3'renees, in fissures of a 
ferruginous-brown argillaceous rock. 

Name. From i'S^f, water, and apatite. 

Hydroborocalcite, or H.^yesine. The 
name (derived from v^^?, water, boron, 
and calcium, lime), has reference to its che- 
mical composition. See Hayesine. 

Hydroboracite, Hess, Dufrenoy, Brooke 
Sf Miller. Resembles in appearance a worm- 
eaten wood, and is riddled with small holes. 


which are filled with a mixture of clay and 

Colour white, with red spots caused by 
the presence of iron. Structure radiating 
foliated, and resembling fibrous and foliated 
Gvpsum. Transparent in thin plates. 11. 2. 
S.G. 1-9 to 2. 

Comp. Hydrated borate of magnesia and 

lime, or Ca^ Ji'^ + Mg B4 + 18H=lime 14-3, 
magnesia 10-3, boracic acid 47-7, water 27-7 
= 100-0 
Analysis, by Hess : 

Lime 13-30 

Magnesia .... 10-45 
Boracic acid . . . 49-92 
Water 26-33 


BB fuses readily, with considerable loss 
of water, to a clear glass, imparting at the 
same time a greenish colour to the flame. 

Yields borate of magnesia to boiling water, 
imparting to it an alkaline reaction. 

Very soluble in warm muriatic acid. 

Locality. The Caucasus. 

Name. The name (from S^uo^ water, and 
Boracite), has reference to its chemical com- 

"Hydroboracite may be distinguished from 
Gypsum, to which it bears a strong resem- 
blance, by its fusibility. 

Htdrobuchoxjzite. Probably an altered 
or hydrous Kyanite, from Sardinia. 

Hydrocalcite. Occurs in small rhom- 
bohedral crystals, and forming an incrusta- 
tion on wood under Avater. 

Colour whitish, bluish, grej-ish. Translur 
cent. Easily broken. Fracture splintery. 
S.G. 2-58. 

Comp. Ca'c + 5H = carbonate of lime 52-4, 
water 47-6 = 100. 

Analysis, from the Giants' Causeway, by 
La Costa : 

Lime ..... 47-0 
Carbonic acid . . . 36-0 

Silica 3-0 

Alumina . . . .2-0 
Water 12-0 


The water passes ofi", and the mineral be- 
comes anhydrous on exposure to the air. 

Locality. The Giant's Causeway, on 

Name, From i^'S^i'?, wa^er, and calcite, CaZe 

Hydrocarbonate of IMagnesia, Thom- 
son. See Hydromagnesite. 

Hydrochlore, Hermann. See Pyko- 


Hydrohalite, 3Iitscherlich. A hydrous 
chloride of sodium. 

Comp. Na, CI + 4H= chloride of sodium 
62-0, water 38-0 = 100. 

The name is derived from ^'^^S, water, and 
aA.?, salt 

Hydrolite, Beudant, De Dree. Hy'DRO- 
LiTH, Leman. Soda-Chabasite, or Gmelin- 
ite. See Gmelinite. 

Fig. 239. 

The name (from ti^u^, water, amd^'do;, stone) 
has reference to the large amount of water 
contained in the mineral. 

Brit. Mus., Case 27. 

Hydromaghesite, v. Kohell. Oblique; 
in small crystals, which are generally aci- 
cular, or bladed and tufted. Also amor- 
phous or in chalk-like crusts. Colour and 
streak white. Lustre vitreous to sub- 
pearlj' ; also earthy. Brittle. H. 3"o. S.G. 
2-14: to 2-18. 

Comp. 3(Mg C + H) + Mg H= magnesia 
48-9, carbonic acid 36-3, water 19-8 = 100. 

Analysis, by Wachtmeister : 

Magnesia .... 42*41 

Carbonic acid . . . 36-82 

Silica, oxide of iron, &c. . 2-24 

Water 18-53 


BB infusible ; gives off moisture, and is 
finally converted into pure magnesia. 

Dissolves in acids with effervescence. 

Localities, Swinaness, Isle of Unst, in the 
Shetlands, associated with Brucite. Hrub- 
schitz in Moravia, in Serpentine. Negro- 
pont, near Kumi. United States, with 
Serpentine and Brucite, at Wood's and Low's 
Mines, near Texas, Pennsylvania. Hoboken, 
New Jersey, in acicular crystals like Natro- 
lite, and in earthj^ crusts. 

Name From i'Si^-?, water, and magnesite. 

Brit. Mus., Case 47. 

Hydromagnocalcit, Rammelsberg. A 
kind of Hydromagnesite,inwhich the mag- 
nesia is partly replaced by lime. It is found 
in spherical masses on Vesu-^dus. 

Hydro-nickel-magnesite, Shepard. See 

Hydrophane. a variety of Opal which 
readily imbibes water and (though not 


naturally transparent) becomes so on being 
immersed in it. It is found in Hungary, 
and in Ireland, in small roundish masses in 
amygdaloid, of a brownish-white colour, 
near the Giants' Causeway, and at Cross- 
reagh, parish of Bally willin. 

Name. The name is derived from J^'^^?, 
water, and tpocivu, to appear. 

It has also been called oculus mundi. 

Brit. Mus., Case 24. 

Hydrophilite, Glocker. A kind of Chlo- 
ride of Calcium, found occasionally in Kar- 
stenite and G^-psum, and in the matrix con- 
taining Boracite at Liineberg in Hanover, 
and also especially accompanying Rock Salt. 

Cojup. Ca CI, or chlorine 63-79, calcium 
36-21 = 100. 

Name. From vdca^^ water, and <?'>-«?, a friend. 

Hydrophite, Svanherg. Massive, some- 
times fibrous. Colour mountain-green to 
blackish-green, with a feeble sub-satreous 
lustre. Translucent to opaque. Streak paler 
than the colour. H. 2-5. S.G. 24 to 2-66. 

Comp. (Mg, Fe) Si + Mg H^. 
Analysis, from Taberg, by Svanherg . 

Silica .... 

. 36-29 


. 290 

Protoxide of iron 

. 22-72 

Protoxide of manganese 

. 1-66 


. 21-08 

Vanadic acid 

. O-ll 

Water .... 

. 16-08 


BB turns black and becomes magnetic, 
and finally melts to a black globule. 

Locality. Taberg, in Smaoland, with Pi- 

Name. From ^J^c-ii, water, and ophite. 

See also Jenkinsite. 

Brit. Mus., Case 35. 

Hy'drosilicate of Manganese, Phillips. 
See Ofsiiiose. 

Hydrosilicite, v. Waltershausen. A 
calcareo-magnesian form of altered Augite, 
occurring as a very thin snow-white and 
amorphous crust (with Herschelite, Phillip- 
site, and Calcite), coating cavities and cracks 
in tufa at Palagonia, and Aci Castello in 
Sicily. Fracture dull and uneven. H. 
scarcely that of chalk. S.G. 2*2. 

Comp. Hydrous Augite, or R5 fei2 + 3H. 

Analysis, by Waltershausen : 

Silica 42-02 

Alumina . . . .4-95 

Lime 27-19 

Magnesia .... 3-41 

Soda 2-57 

Potash 2-67 


Water and carbonic acid . 5 "06 
Insoluble . . . .2-19 


Name. From ^Sa;§, water, and silex. 

The name Hydrosilicite has also been 
given to Kerolite, 

Hydrosteatite. a Steatite from Gop- 
fersgriin, containing, according to Klaproth, 
only 59"5 per cent, of silica. This variety 
is remarkable for containing pseudomor- 
phous crystals, probably after Quartz. 

Hydkotalc, Necker. See Penkink. 

Hyi^rotalcite, Hochstetter. A variety 
of Volknerite, in which part of the alumina 
is replaced by peroxide of iron. It is foli- 
ated pearly, with a greasy feel. Translu- 
cent, or transparent in thin folia. H. 2. 

Camp. Mg6(Al?e) + 16H. 

Analysis, by Hochstetter : 


. 12-00 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 6-90 


. 36-80 

Carbonic acid 

. 10 -54 

Water .... 

. 32-06 


. 1-20 

Locality. Snarum, in Norway. 
Name. From iJ^t^^, water, and talcite. 
Brit. Mus., Case 19, 

Hydrous Aluminate of Lead, Smith- 
son. See Plujmbo-Resinite. 

Hydrous Anthophyllite, Thomson. 
This mineral has been re-examined by 
Smith & Brush, who found it to contain 
only 2-26 per cent, of water, instead of 11-45 
per cent, as stated by Thomson. According 
to Dana, it is altered asbestiform Actinolite. 
Analysis, mean of two, b}^ Smith §-■ Brush : 

Silica 58-43 

Magnesia .... 29-34 
Protoxide of iron . . . 8-76 

Soda 0-88 

Potash ..... trace 
Alumina .... trace 
Water 2-26 

99 67 

Localities. Girvan, in Argyleshire, in 
fibro-columnar mastses, of a greyish-brown 
colour. New York Island. 

Hydrous Apatite. See H ydro.apatite. 

Hydrous Borate of Lime and Mag- 
nesia. See Hydrobokacite. 

Hydrous Carbonate of Lime, Scheerer. 
See Hydrocalcite. 

Hydrous Diphosphate of Alumina 
and Magnesia, Thomson. See Lazulite. 

Hydrous Iolite, Bonsdorff. A variety 


of altered Iolite, occurring in regular six- 
sided and twelve-sided prisms, with a basal 
cleavage, which is sometimes perfect. Co- 
lour greenish-brown, with a pearly lustre. 
Translucent. Folia brittle. Rather harder 
than Calc-spar. 

Comp. Iolite + 6H. 

Analysis, by Bonsdorff: 

Silica .... 

. 45-03 


. 30 -05 


. 9-00 

Protoxide of iron . 

. 6-30 

Water .... 

. 10-60 


BB becomes paler but does not fuse. It 
is not completeh' decomposed by acids. 

Locality. Abo. 

Hydrous Muscovite. See Margaro- 

Hydrous Oxide of Ikon, Phillips. See 

Hydrous Phosphate of Copper, Allan. 
See Phosphooalcite. 

Hydrous Pyrites. A variety of white 
Iron Pyrites (Marcasite) containing water 
in a state of chemical combination. H, 3 to 
4. S.G. 4-925 to 5. 

Locality. Moravia, Upper Silesia. 

Hydrous Steatite. See Saponite. 

Hydrozincite. See Zinc Bloom. 

Hypargyronblknde, Breithaupt, or 
Hypargyrite. a variety of Miargyrite, 
from Clausthal, in the Harz, According to 
Plattner, it contains 35 per cent, of silver. 

Hypersthene, Haiiy, Phillips. Occurs 
massive or imbedded in rocKs. Colour 
greyish or greenish- black, with a lamellar 
structure, and a bright metallic pearly lus- 
tre. Translucent in thin laminae, with a 
slight tinge of green, when viewed in one 
direction, but opaque in the other. Streak 
dark grey. Cleaves parallel with the diago- 
nals and sides of a rhombic prism. Yery 
tough. Fracture uneven. Surface of frac- 
ture resinous. H, 6-0. S.G. 3-3 to 3-6. 

Comp. R 'Si2, in which R represents lime, 
magnesia, and a large proportion of prot- 
oxide of iron. 

Analysis, from Florence, by Kohler ; 


Silica . 



Lime . 

Protoxide of iron 

Protoxide of manganese 

W^ater .... 


. 2-47 
. 14-91 
, 19-09 

. 8-67 
. 0-38 

. 1-77 



BB on charcoal, melts easily to a greyish - 
green opaque glass; with borax forms a 
greenish glass. 

Localities. Coverack Cove, near the Li- 
zard, Cornwall, in serpentine ; the Cuchul- 
lin Hills, Isle of Skye ; in crystalline con- 
cretions, of a dark-green or greyish-black 
colour, and having a strong metallic lustre, 
in the parish of Termonmaquirk, co. Tyrone, 
in Ireland. The Harz. Greenland. Island 
of St. Paul, on the coast of Labrador, as a 
constituent of a syenitic greenstone rock, 
but chiefly in rolled masses. Canada, with 
andesite rock, at Chateau Richer, and at 
St. Adele, Mille Isles. United States, in 
Essex county, and near Wilmington, Dela- 

Name. From -i'^-s?, exceeding, and o-fe'wj, 
strength ; because it possesses greater lustre 
a,nd hardness than Hornblende, with which 
at was formerly confounded. 

Some varieties of Hypersthene have nearly 
the composition of Diallage,to which it bears 
the same relation that the dark varieties 
of Pyroxene bear to the paler ones. 

It is sometimes cut for ring-stones and 

Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

Hypochlorite, Schiller. Occurs in reni- 
form, botryoidal, and globular masses, with 
^a minute crystalline structure. Colour fee- 
ble — green, passing into black and yellow, 
liustre resinous and dull. Streak yellowish- 
grev. Brittle. Fracture even to flat con- 
choidal. H. 6. S.G. 2-9 to 3. 

Comp. A mixture of a silicate of bismuth 
and iron, and a phosphate of alumina. 

Analysis, by Schiller : 

Silica 50-24 

Alumina .... 14'65 
Oxide of bismuth . .13-03 
Protoxide of iron . . 10-54 

Phosphoric acid . . . ,9-62 
Manganese .. . . . trace 


BB becomes brown and black, but does 
not melt. Insoluble in acids. 

Localities. County of Sayn, in Germany, 
and in minute crystals and grains, or mas- 
sive and earthy, at Schneeberg, Johann- 
georgenstadt, and Braiinsdorf, in Saxony. 

Brit. Mus., Case 57. 

Hyposci.erite, Breithaupt. Has been 
shown by Rammelsberg to be probably Al- 
bite mixed with Augite. Occurs in crystals 
and lamellar masses, the latter distinguished 
by the fracture (which is conchoidal as well 
as lamellar) from the rose-coloured Orthose 


with which it is associated. Colour green- 
ish, verv similar to that of Oligoclase. S.G. 
2-6 to 2-60. 

Analysis, by Rammelsherg , 



Peroxide of iron 

Soda . 

Lime . • .- 

Potash . 

Protoxide of manganese 



Locality. Arendal, in Norway. 

Name. From vVo, under (less), and o-xXvieos, 

Hypostilbite, Beudant According to 
Professor Haughton, should be regarded as 
an altered form of Stilbite, If considered a 
distinct mineral, it should be regarded as a 
hydrated lime-Oligoclase, represented by 

the formula Ca Si + Al 'fci2 + 5H, 

Locality. Faroe. 

Hystatique, Breithaupt. A variety of 
carbonate of lime, the angle of which is 
107° 28' 30". H. 5-5 to 5-75. S.G. 3-089. 

Hystatisches Eisenerz, Breithaupt; or 
Hystatite. a variety of titaniferous iron, 
resembling Ilmenite in colour and cleavage. 
PL 6. S.G. 5. 

Analysis, by Mosander ; 

Titanic acid .... 24-19 

Peroxide of iron . 
Protoxide of iron . 
Lime . 
Magnesia . 
Silica . 

. 53-01 
. 19-91 
. 0-33 
. 0-68 
. ,. 1-17 

Locality. Tvedestrand 

and Krageroe, near 

rendal, in Norway, in g 



Iberite, Svanberg. A variety of altered 
lolite, occurring in large six-sided prisms 
with a basal cleavage. Lustre vitreous to 
pearly. H. 2-5. S.G. 2*89. 
Analysis, by Norlin : 

Silica 40-90 

Alumina ..... 30-74 
Protoxide of iron . . .15*47 
Protoxide of manganese . 1*33 

Lime 0-40 

Magnesia . . . .0-81 
Potash ..... 4-57 

Soda 0-04 

Water . . . . . 5-56 


188 ICE-SPAR. 

BB melts to a dark pearl. 

Locality. Montalban, near Toledo, in 

Name.. From Iberia, the ancient name 
of Spain. 

Ice-spar. Is the name sometimes given 
to the transparent variety of Orthoclase 
(Glassy Felspar) found in Vesuvian lavas ; 
and also to pellucid varieties of other species 

It occurs on Monte Somma, near Naples, 
with Nepheline, Mica, Meionite and Horn- 
blende. The name has reference to the re- 
semblance of the mineral to ice, both in ap- 
pearance and in brittleness. 

Brit. Mus., Case 30. 

Iceland Agate of many mineralogists. 
See Obsidian. 

Iceland Spar. The name applied to 
transparent Calc Spar, the finest specimens 
of which are found in Iceland. 

Brit. Mus., Case 43. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 382. ♦ 


OPHTHALiNiiTE, or Fish-eve stone ; (from 
'Z^^'j?, a fish, and oipfJoc7^!M; an eye), a name 
for Apophyllite, from its white pearly lustre, 
resembling that of a fish's eye. 

Brit. Mus., Case 27. 

Idocrase, Haiiy, Phillips. Pyramidal: 
primary form a right prism with a square 
hase. Occurs crystallized and massive. 
The general form of tha crystals is that of 
a rectangular prism terminated by planes, 
and the edges of the prism ai-e often re- 
placed. Colour brownish and yellowish- 
green, sometimes sulphur- yellow, orange 
and also blue, rarely black ; sometimes green 
when viewed in the direction of the axis, 
and pistachio -green in a transverse direc- 
tion. Lustre vitreous, often inclining to 
resinous. Generally translucent, sometimes 
nearly transparent. Exhibits double re- 
fraction. Streak white. Fracture imper- 
fect-conchoidal ; small-grained, uneven. H. 
6-5. S.G. 3-349 to 3-45. 

Fig. 240. 

Comp. 3(Ca, Mg, M;i, Fe), (Fe Al) 

3Si = Ca3 Si^ + Al bi (Gmelin). According 
to Hermann, its composition is represented 

by the general formula (K^, Ji)iii + nliH. 



Analysis, from Vesuvius, by Karsten : 

Silica 37-50 

Alumina .... ]8'50 
Peroxide of iron . . . 6-25 
Lime ..... 33-71 
Magnesia .... 3-10 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-10 


BB swells up and fuses readily, forming 
a yellowish -green or brownish glass. Dis- 
solves easil}'' in borax and microcosmic salt, 
forming a glass coloured by iron ; the glass 
formed with microcosmic salt likewise con- 
tains a skeleton of silica, and becomes opa- 
lescent on cooling. 

Partly decomposed by muriatic acid ; but 
after it has undergone fusion, it is com- 
pletely decomposed by that acid with the- 
separation of gelatinous silica. 

Localities. The limestone quarries at Glen ■ 
Cairn in Aberdeenshire. Between Broadford 
and Killride in the Isle of Skye. Irish. 
Donegal ; in prisms of a hair-brown colour 
at Derryloaghan, and at Bunbeg near 
Gweedore, &c. 

The principal foreign localities are Vesu- 
vius ( Vesuvian), where crystals of a hair- 
brown or olive-green colour line the cavities 
of volcanic rocks, and are associated with 
Glassy Felspar, Garnet, Melanite, Mica and 
Nepheline. The finest specimens, however, 
come from Ala, in the Val di Brozzo, in 
Piedmont ; these are in general semi-trans- 
parent, and of fine olive-green and hair- 
brown colours, and in some rare instances, 
perfectly black. Near Lake Baikal and on 
the banks of the Wiloui in Siberia ( Wiluite). 
Egge near Christiansand in Norway. Czi- 
klowa in the Bannat. Monzoni in the Fassa 
Valley, in sulphur-yellow crystals. Frngard 
in Finland {Frtcgardite), Gokum (Gokumite 
and Loboite). Haslau near Eger in Bohemia 
{Egeraji). Near Tellemarken in Norway, 
ICyprine), of a fine .smalt-blue colour. 

Name. From ii'^<^, to seem, and x^ocffn^ a 
mixture, in allusion to its crj'-staline forms 
being mixed figures, which have often been 
mistaken for those of other minerals. 

Idocrase is cut into ring-stones and other 
ornaments at Naples and Turin, and sold 
under various names, as Chrysolite,Hyacinth, 
&c., according to the colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 35. 

M.P.G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 882 ; Upper 
Gallery, Wall-case A, in recess 4, Nos. 112 to 

Idrialine, Brooke §• Miller, Dufrenoy. 
Idrialite, Schrotter. A kind of Bitumen 
found mixed with Cinnabar at the quick- 

silver mines of Idria in Carniola. It occurs 
massive, of a greyish or brownish- black co- 
lour, with a greasy lustre. Opaque. Streak 
blackish inclining to red; shining. Unc- 
tuous. Sectile. H. 1 to I'o. S.G. 1-4: to 1-6. 
Comp. C42H14+0. 
Analysis, by BUdeeker : 

Carbon .... 91-828 
Hydrogen .... 5-299 
Oxygen .... 2-873 


Brit. Mus., Case 60. 

Idriaune Cinnabar. A compact and 
slaty mixture of Cinnabar Avith Idrialite and 
earthy particles. From the quicksilver mines 
of Idria in Carniola. 

Brit. Mas., Case 9. 

Iglesiasite. See Cerusite. 

Iglite, Igloite. a variety of Aragonite 
from Iglo in Hungary. 

Ildefonsite, Haidlnger. A variety of 
Columbite from lldefonso in Spain, with a 
submetalUc vitreo-adamantine lustre. S.G. 

Illuderite, Karsten. See Zoisite. 

Ilmenite, Brooke. The Mengite of G. 

Ilmekite, Kupffer. A variety of Titani- 
ferous Iron, generally occurring massive, 
but sometimes in opaque crystals of a dark 
iron-black colour. Primary form an acute 
rhombohedron. Lustre sub-metallic. Slightly 
magnetic. Streak black. Fracture conchoi - 
dal. H. 6. S.G. 4-895. 

Comp. Titan ate of iron, or Fe Ti + F^e, in 
variable proportions. 

Analysis, by Mosander, from the Ilmenge- 

Titanic acid . . . 46*92 

Protoxide of manganese . 2-73 
Magnesia .... 1-14 
Protoxide of iron . . . 37-86 
Peroxide of iron . - . 10-74 

BB alone infusible ; with fluxes behaves 
like oxide of iron. 

Soluble in concentrated muriatic acid 
when finely pulverised. 

Localities. — British. In crystalline lamel- 
lar masses at Glen Finnart, in Argyleshire, 
•with Chlorite, in mica- slate. Ben Ima. and 
Hillswickneas in Shetland — Foreign. Crys- 


tallized and massive at Lake Ilmen, neai- 
Miask, in Siberia. Krageroe, Areudal, &c. : 
in Norway. 

Name. After the locality, Ilmen. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. " 

Ilmenorutile, Von Kokscharow. A va- 
riety of Rutile occurring in the form of the 
fundamental pyramid, without an}' pris- 
matic planes. It is iron-black and opaque, 
or in small crystals slightly red at the 
edges when held between the eve and the 
sun. H. above 6. S.G. 5-074 to"'o-133. 

Comp. According to R. Hermann: Ti- 
tanic acid 89-3, peroxide of iron 10-7 = 100. 

Locality. The Phenacite and Topaz mine 
of the Ilmen mountains. 

Ilvaite. a name for Lievrite, after that 
of the Island of Elba, where it was first 

Ijiperfect Corundum, GreviUe §• Bour- 
non. See Corunduim. 

I:\ipure Topaz, Kirwan. See Citrine. 

Indian Red, T. H. Rowney. A kind of 
Ochre, imported from the Persian Gulf in 
small lumps, and partly as a coarse, hard, 
and gritty powder. Colour deep red with 
a shade of purple. S.G. 3-843. 

Comp. Silicate of iron, or F-e Si. 

Analysis, by T. H. Rowney : 

Silica 30-17 

Peroxide of iron . . . 56-59 
Alumina .... 3-79 

Lime . . . ... 2*65 

Magnesia .... 1-43 

Sulphuric acid . . .2-28 
Carbonic acid . . . 1-73 
Water 1-62 


BB alone infusible, and, after cooling, is 
attracted by the magnet. On platinum wire, 
with borax and microcosmic salt, yields a 
transparent globule, with the usual reaction 
for iron. 

By digestion with concentrated muriatic 
acid, a small portion is dissolved, and the 
remainder ret-ains its red colour, and is not 
farther altered by continued application of 

•Indian Red is the crude material which 
furnishes the well-known pigment of that 

Indian Topaz. A name given by lapi- 
daries to saffi-on -yellow Topaz. 

Indi\nite, Bournon. A variety of Anor- 
thite, occurring in masses which have a 
granular texture somewhat resembling that 
of statuary marble, and a glistening surface 


of fracture. Colour white or greyish, some- 
times with a tinge of brown, from an ad- 
mixture of Garnet. Scratches glass. S.G. 

Analysis, from India, by G. J. Brush i 

Silica 42-09 

Alumina .... 88-89 

Lime 15*78 

Soda 4-08 

■ BB infusible. 

Keadily gelatinises in acids. 

This mineral forms the gangue of Corun- 
dum in the Caraatic (whence the name 
Indianite), and is accompanied by Garnet, 
Kyanite, Hornblende, &c. 

Brit. Mus., Case 19. 

Indicoltte, the name which has been 
given to blue Tourmalines from their indigo- 
blue colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 40. 

Indigo Copper. See Covelltne. 

InddPwVted Talc. A hard, impure variety 
of slaty Talc. It occurs in nodules, with a 
compact texture, at Little Cambray in 
Arran ; Portsoy in Banffshire ; and 'Swi- 
naness in Unst, one of the Shetlands. 

Inflammable Cinnabar A name some- 
times apphed to Idrialite, in consequence of 
its combustibility. 

Inolite. AformofCalcite. SeeOsTREO- 

Intire Metals. The name applied by 
Kirwan both to " noble and perfect metal.=," 
as well as to the " base and imperfect 
metals,'' and including those which are in 
any degree malleable when cold. 

Iodic Mercury, Phillips. See Coc- 


Iodite, Brooke §• Miller, Haidinger. loD- 
SILBER, Leonhard. loDlc Silver, Phillips. 


Bevdant. See Iodyrite. 

loD-QuECKSlLBER, Del Rio, Leovhard. 
Iodure de Mercure, Neeker. See Coe- 


loDOLiTE, Shepard. A meteoric mineral 
found in small quantity diffused through 
Chladnite in the stone from Bishopville. 
Massive, in angular (somewhat rounded) 
grains, the largest of which are ^ inch in 
diameter. Colour pale smalt-blue. Semi- 
transparent. Lustre vitreous. Brittle. H. 
5-0 to 6. 

-B5 fuses easily with ebullition to ablebby, 
coloured glass, which while warm retains a 
pale amethystine tinge. 

Name. From lulr,?, violet coloured. 

Iodyrite. Hexagonal, with a highly 
perfect basal cleavage. Also occurs massive 
in thin plates of a greyish-white or silver- 
white colour, which changes to lavender- 
blue on exposure to the atmosphere; also 
citrcm- and sulphur- yellow, to yellowish- 
green. . Lustre resinous to adamantine. 
Transparent or translucent. Streak yellow. 
Flexible in thin laminee. Sectile. H. about 
1. S.G. 5-504. 

Fig. 242. 

Fig. 243. 

Comp. Iodide of silver, or Ag, I = silver 
46, iodine 54=100. 

Analysis, by J. Lawrence Smith : 


. 63-109 
. 46-380 


BB on charcoal, melts instantly, giving 
off a vapour Avhich tinges the flame of a 
beautiful violet colour, and yielding globules 
of silver. 

Localities. Guadalajara in Spain ; form- 
ing thin veins in Steatite at Albarradon, 
near Mazapil, in Zacatecas; and at Delivio 
mines of Chanarcillo, near Copiapo in Chili. 

Iodyrite is horaeeomorphous with Gree- 

loLiTE, Phillips. Ehombic ; primary 
form a right rhombic prism. Occurs crys- 
tallized in stout prisms, which are often 
hexagonal. Colour various shades of pale 
and dark blue, sometimes with a tinge of 
grey or brown. Exhibits dichroism ; often 
app'earing of a deep blue colour along the 
vertical axis, but red, brownish-yellow, or 
vellowish-grey when viewed by transmitted 
light at right angles to the axis of the 
prism. Transparent or translucent. Lustre 
vitreous. Streak white. Fracture uneven 
or somewhat conchoidal. H. 7 to 7-5. 
S.G. 2-6 to 2-7. 

Comp. 3Mg Si + Fe si + 2A12 ^Js (Gme- 

lin), or if K represent Mg and Fe^K^ ^^12 + 

SM Si = silica 49-6, alumina 33-8, magnesia 

8-7, protoxide of iron 7-9 = 100. 

Analysis, from Bodenmais, by Sfromeyer : 
Silica ..... 48-33 
Alumina . . . .31-71 
Magnesia . . . . 10 16 


Protoxide of iron . . . 8"32 
Protoxide of manganese . 0*33 
Water . . . . . 0-59 

BB alone fuses with difficult^'- at the 
edges to a transparent blue glass: with 
borax melts slowly to a clear globule. 
Only partially soluble in acids. 
Localities. — Ireland. The Island of Rath- 
lin; Dalkey, near the river Dodder, co. 
Dublin. — Foreign. Cape de Gata, in Spain, 
imbedded in granite. Ujordlersoak and Se 
mitok in Greenland in Quartz. Distinctly 
crystallized at Bodenmais in Bavaria (Pe- 
liom). Tunaberg in Sweden. Finland at 
Orijerfvi {Steinheilite), and Fahlun {Hard 
Fahlu7iite). lolite is occasionally employed 
as an ornamental stone. The transparent 
variety found in small rolled masses in Cey- 
lon, is the Sapphire d'eau of the jewellers. 
It is of a clear white mingled with celestial 
blue, forming a sort of njixed colour when 
viewed in different directions, in consequence 
of its property of dichroism. 

Name. From ''«v, violet, and A/fas, stone, 
in allusion to its bluish-violet colour when 
viewed in one direction. 
Brit. Mus., Case 36. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1003, 

Ikidescejit Copper Pyrites. See Pea- 
cock Copper. 

31. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 6 
Iridescent Quartz. See Iris. * 
lRiDOSMiNE,iVec^er. Irid-osmium, Haus- 
mann. Iridium Osmte, Haiiy. Hexago- 
nal; rarely found crystallized in hexagonal 
prisms with replaced basal edges ; generally 
in small irregular flattened grains, which 
are harder, heavier, and of a somewhat 
paler steel-grey colour than Native Pla- 
tinum. Lustre shining metallic. Opaque. 
Brittle and difficultly malleable. H. 7. S.G. 
21-118. (G.Rose.) 

Fig. 244. 

Comp. Osmide of iridium. 

Analysis, from Australia, by Deville 
Dehray : 

Iridium .... 58-13 
Rhodium .... 3-04 
Ruthenium .... 5-22 



Copper . 

BB infusible ; both alone and with fluxes. 
Insoluble in acids. 

Localities. With platinum in the pro- 
vince of Choco in South America; and in 
the Ural Mountains of Siberia. Rather 
abundant in the alluvial Gold of California, 
occurring in small bright lead-coloured 
scales, which are sometimes six-sided. 
Canada, in the gold washings on the rivers 
Du Loup and Des Plantes. Australia. 

For varieties, see Newjanskite and Sis- 


Name. From Iris, a rainbow : the solutions 
of Iridium being of variegated colours. 
Iridium is used for the nibs of pens, and is 
worth £2i per ounce. 

Brit. Mus., Case 3. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-ease 23. 

Iris. The name applied by Frencti 
jewellers to a very limpid and transparent 
variety of Rock Crystal, possessing the 
property of reflecting the prismatic colours 
by means of natural flaws in the interior of 
the stone. When cut in cabochon or 
goutte de suif, it imitates Opal to a certain 
extent, and the superb Iris ornaments worn 
by the Empress Josephine frequently de- 
ceived even persons skilled in such matters, 
by their brilliancy and play of colours. 
This stone is not made up at the present 
day. Rock Cr^^stal may be easily made into 
Iris, either by a blow from a mallet, or by 
dropping it suddenh' into boiling water, or 
by heating and suddenly dropping it into 
cold water; but in these cases the fissures 
produced are on the outer part of the stone 
instead of being in the interior, as is the case 
in true Iris. (Barbot.) 

Irite, Hermann. Cubical : occurs in octa- 
hedrons. Isomorphouswith Spinel, Magnetic 
Iron, &c. Occurs in strongly lustrous black 
scales, which are attracted by the magnet. 
Soft. S.G. 6 506. 

Comp. A compound of the peroxides of 
iron and chromium, with the protoxides of 
iridium and osmium, represented by the 

formula R K, or (ir, Os, Fe) (Ir, Os, Cr)2 Q. 
Analysis, by Hermann : 

Peroxide of iridium . . 62-86 

Protoxide of osmium . . 10-30 

Protoxide of iron . . . 12*50 

Peroxide of chromium . , 13-70 

Peroxide of manganese . trace 


192 IRON- ALUM. 

Not soluble in any acid. 

Locality, The Ural, with Native Platinum, 
Titanic Iron, Iridosmine, and Hyacini h, often 
filling up interstices between the separate 
grains in large masses of platinum. 

Brit. Mus , Case 2. 

Iron-alum. See Haloteichite. 

Iron-apatite. See Zwieselite. 

Iron-chrysolite, See Fayalite. 

Ikon-earth. Occurs as a black pulve- 
rulent mass, which attaches itself closely to 
anything on which it is rubbed, and is 
strongly attracted by the magnet. S.G. 
about 3'8. 

■Comp. (Fe Mn) J^e, or Magnetic Iron- 
ore, in which about half the protoxide of 
iron is replaced by protoxide of manganese, 
with. Avhich it is amorphous. 
Analysis, by Genth : 

Peroxide of iron . . . 65"68 
Protoxide of iron . . 14'09 

Protoxide of manganese . 16 25 
Oxide of copper . . . 0'09 
Oxides of cobalt . . . traces 

Water trace 

Gold-sand, &c. . . . 2-34: 


Locality. The Alte Birke Mine, in the 
neighbourhood of Siegen, in Prussia, where 
a vein of Spathic Iron is broken through by 
basalt, and partly converted into Magnetic 
Iron-ore. (Gmelin.) 

Iron- FLINT, Jameson. See Ferruginous 

Iron- foam. See Micaceous Iron-ore. 

Iron-glance, Jameson. See Specular 

Iron Mica, Jameson. IMicaceous Iron-ore. 
Sometimes found in small and extremely 
thin six-sided plates, which are translucent 
and display a dark red colour by trans- 
mitted light. The principal locality is Cattas 
Altas, in the Brazils. It generally, how- 
ever, occurs massive, and constitutes a valu- 
able ore of iron. 

Brit. Mus., Case 15. 

Iron Natrolite. A variety of Natrolite 
in which one-fourth of the alumina is re- 
placed by peroxide of iron. It occurs in 
dull green opaque prismatic crystals and 
semi-crystalline plates, with the Brevicite 
of Brevig, in Norway. H. 5. S.G. 2'353. 

Analysis, by C. Bergemann : 

Silica 46-54 

Alumina .... 18-94 
Peroxide of iron . . . 7-49 
Soda with a little potash . 14-04 


Protoxide of iron . . .2 40 

Protoxide of manganese . 0-55 

Water . . . . . 9-37 


Iron-nickel Pyrites. See Sulphidb 
OF Iron and Nickel. 

Iron Ochre, or Ochreous Iron-ore. 
See Hematite and Ltmonite. * 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases 
38 (E. Indies) 49, No. 355. 

Iron Pyrites, Phillips. See Pyrites. 

Iron Roses. (Eisenrosen.) See Basano- 

Iron Rutile. See Gothite. 

Irons hot Copper Green, Jameson. An 
impure Chrysocolla. When the colour in- 
clines to brown the mineral is impure. • 

Iron Sinter, Allan. See Pitticite. 

Iron Spar. An anhydrous carbonate of 
protoxide of iron. It occurs in rhombohe- 
dral forms, and is isomorphous with Calc- 
spar. See Chalybite, 

Iron Vitriol, Jameson. See Copperas. 

IsERiN, Werner; IsERiNE, Jameson, Bro- 
chant, Phillips. Cubical: in octahedrons, 
with the faces of the crystals uneven and 
rounded. Occurs in small obtuse angular 
grains, and in rolled pieces, with a some- 
what rough surface, or in the form of black 
sand in alluvium or in the beds of rivers ; 
also massive and disseminated in basalt. 
Colour iron -black. Lustre submetallic. 
Opaque. Streak black. Brittle. Some grains 
of this mineral are strongly magnetic, some 
slightlV, others not at all. H. 6 to 6-5. 
S.G. 4-85 to 5-1. 

Comp. 3iFeTi+#'e. 

Analysis, from Iserwiese, by Rammelsberg 
(small grains, S.G. 4"745) : 

Titanic acid . . . 41-64 

Oxide of iron . . . 26 82 
Protoxide of iron . . . 26*85 
Do. of manganese • . 1*00 
Magnesia .... 4-66 


BB alone infusible. 

Localities. — British. The shore of the 
Mersey, nearly opposite Liverpool, and at 
Hunstanton, in Norfolk, mixed with Mag- 
netite ; near the mouth of the river Don, 
Aberdeenshire ; in minute octahedrons 
among boulders at Ballygrogan, Mull of Can- 
tyre, In the trap rocks of Arthur's Seat, near 
Edinburgh ; on the shore of Loch Trista, 
one of the Shetlands,— Fore/j^n. Unkel, on 
the Rhine, and on Etna, in basalt ; also in 

Bohemia, Saxony, Calabria, and near Puy- 
de-Dome, in France. 

This mineral was first found disseminated 
in granite-sand, in the Risengebirge of 
Silesia, near the source of the stream called 
the Iser, whence the name Iserine. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

IsoMETKic Cobalt Pybites, Mohs. See 


IsoPHANE, Berthier. See Frankltnite. 

IsOPYRE, Turner, Phillips; Isopyric 
Quartz, Haidinger. Occurs in compact 
amorphous masse's, of a greyish or velvet- 
black colour, and occasionally spotted red 
like Heliotrope. Lustre vitreous. Opaque, 
or faintly translucent at the thinnest edges. 
Streak pale greenish-grey. Brittle. Frac- 
ture flat-conchoidal. Slightly magnetic. H. 
6 to 6-5. S.G. 2-9to8. 

Comp. Ca Si-f-(Mi'e) Si = silica 49-66, 
alumina 13'78, peroxide of iron 21*51, lime 
15-05 = 100. 
Analysis, from Cornwall, by Turner : 

Silica 47-09 

' Alumina .... 13-91 
Peroxide of iron . . . 20 -07 

Lime 15-43 

Oxide of copper . . .1-94 


BB fuses readily to a magnetic globule. 
On platinum colours the flame green. De- 
composed by the acids imperfectly and with 
difficulty, but easily and completely decom- 
posed by alkaline carbonates. 

Localities. Near St. Just and Penzance, 
in Cornwall, forming compact masses, some- 
times two inches thick, in granite. It is 
associated with Tourmaline and Tin Stone. 

Name. From Ttro?, equal, and ^v^, fire, the 
effect produced on it BB being similar to that 
produced on several other minerals. 

Isopyre bears a strong resemblance to 
Obsidian, but may be distinguished from it 
by a fainter and less vitreous lustre. 

Ispadran. a name that has been given 
to Copper Pyrites, from the district of the 
Keradagh, in Persia, between Tabriz and the 

Italian Chrysolite. The name by which 
the Italian Idocrase, which is cut at 'Naples, 
is commonly called. 

Ittnerite, Gmelin, Leonhard. Cubical: 
primary form a rhombic dodecahedron. Oc- 
curs granularly massive, with an indistinct 
dodecahedral cleavage. Colour dark bluish- 
or ash-grey. Lustre resinous. Translucent. 
Fracture imperfect -conchoidal. H. 5-5. S.G. 



Comp. (Na, Ca)3 Si + 3A1 Si + 6H, with 

some Na CI and Ca S. 
Analysis, by Gmelin : 


Sulphuric acid 

Alumina .... 

Peroxide of iron . 


Soda ..... 
Potash ..... 
Muriatic acid 

Water and sulphuretted by- 
drogeu ... 






BB when gently heated it becomes 
covered with blue spots like stars. Alone, 
on charcoal, swells up strongly, and fuses 
readily, with evolution of sulphurous acid, 
to a blistered enamel. With borax and mi- 
crocosmic salt, it yields a transparent glass, 
in the latter case containing a skeleton of 

Dissolves quickly in muriatic acid, with 
evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen, and for- 
mation of a siliceous jelly. (C. Gmelin.} 

Localities. The Kaiserstuhl, near Frei- 
burg, in dolerites; also at Sasbach and 

Name. After the discover. Yon Ittner. 

IwAABiTE, Nordenskiold. A mineral hav- 
ing apparently the characters of Schorlo- 
mite. It occurs either in cubical crystals 
or massive, and contains much titanium. 
Colour lustrous iron - black, like black or 
crystallized Melanite, with a grey streak. 

Comp. Ca5 Si + -Fe Si + ^T 12. 

BB fuses to a black glass. 

Locality. Iwaara, in the Kunsamo Kirch- 
spiel, in Finland. 

IxioLiTE. The name given by Nordens- 
kiold to the variety of Tantalite"found only 
near Skogbole, in the diocese of Kiraito 
in Finland. It usually occurs in rectangu- 
lar prisms of a blackish-grey to steel-grey 
colour, with a weak metallic lustre. Streak 
brown. H. 6 to 6-5. S.G. 7 to 7-25. 

It was formed into a separate species in 
consequence of the large quantity of tin and 
manganese it contains. 

IxoLYT, Haidinger. IxOLTTE, Dana. A 
bituminous mineral closely resembling Har- 
tite, but differing in the temperature at 
which it fuses, as w^ell as in other respects. 
Amorphous. Colour hyacinth-red. Lustre 
greasy. Subtranslncent in thin fragments. 
Crumbles to powder between the fingers, 
becomes ochre yellow and yellowish-browru 


Fracture imperfect-conchoidal. H. 1. S.G. 


At 169° F. becomes soft, retains its tena- 
city at 212° F., -whence the name '!»?, glue, 
and ^t^'^, to dissolve. 

Locality. A bed of bituminous coal at 
Oberhart, near Gloggnitz, in Austria. 

Brit. Mus., Case 60. 


Jacin^th, or jACY^fTH. See Hyacinth. 
Jade, Jade Ascien, Jade de da Chine, 
Jade Nephkitique, Haii^/. See Nephrite. 
Jade de Saussurb. | See 

Jade Tenace, Ilaiij/. j Saussurite. 
The French word jade is supposed by 
Estner to be derived from the name lyida, 
by which it is called in India. 
Jais, French. See Jet. 
Jalpaite, Breithaupt. Cubical. Colour 
blackish lead-grey. S.G. 6-877 to 6'89. 

Comp. Cupriferous Silver Glance, repre- 
sented bv the formula (|Ag + ^Cu) S. 
Analysis, by R. Richter ;. 

Sulphur .... 14-36 

Silver 71-51 

Copper 13"12 

Iron 0-79 

Name. From Jalpa. its locality in Mexico. 
Jamesonite, Dufrenoy, Greg §• Lettsom, 
Haidinger, Phillips. Rhombic: primary 
form a right rhombic prism. Occurs in 
acicular crystals, or in fibrous masses, with a 
columnar structure, and composed of straight 
and parallel or divergent particles. Colour 
and streak steel-grey. Lustre metallic. 
Opaque. Sectile^ H. 2 to 2-5. S.G. 5-5 to 58. 

Fig. 245. 

Comp. Sulphantimonite of lead, or 3Pb 

S, 2Sb"s, or Pb5, s'b2 = sulphur 20-2, anti- 
mony 36-2, lead 43-6=100. 

Analysis, from Cornwall, by H. Rose; 

Lead . 
Copper . 








BB in an open tube affords dense white 
fumes of oxide of antimony. On charcoal, 
decrepitates, fuses readily, and almost en- 
tirely passes off in fumes, depositing a subli- 
mate of the oxide of lead and antimony, 
and leaving a slag containing iron. 

Soluble in warm muriatic acid. 

Localities.— English. Cornwall ; near Pad- 
stow ; Huel Lee, near Calstock ; Port Quin 
Cliffs and Trevinnock, near Endellion ; Port 
Isaac, Pendogget. — Foreign. Siberia. Hun- 
gary, disseminated in Calc Spar. Spain. 
Brazil, &c. 

Name. After Professor Jameson, of Edin- 

The perfect cleavage at right angles to 
the axis of the pi-ism is very characteristic 
of Jamesonite, and is sufficient to distin- 
guish it from those minerals which it may 
resemble in other respects. 

Brit. Mus., Case 11. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 14 

Janolite, La Metherie. See Axinite. 

Jakgionite *, C. Bechi. A variety of Ga- 
lena, from Tuscany, containing antimony 
and silver. It is near the Bleischweif of the 
Germans, and may be identical with Stein- 
mannite, like which it occurs crystallized 
in octahedrons. 

Analysis, from Argentiera, in the Val di 
Castello, by Bechi : 

Sulphur .... 15-62 

Lead 72-90 

Antimony .... o-?7 

Iron 1-77 

Copper I'll 

Zinc 1-33 

Silver 0-72 

Jargon, or Jakgoon. The name given 

Fig. 246. 


to a Cingalese variety of Zircon. It is seldom 
perfectly transparent, and is either colour- 
less or grey, with tinges of green, blue, red, 

* The first notice of this mineral appeared In 
the American Journal of Science and Arts ([2] 
vol. xvi. p. 60), spelt as above. Most likely (as 
suggested by Mr. Warington Smyth), the name 
ought to be Targionite (after Targioni Tozzetti, 
the Italian geologist), in which case the error pro- 
bably originated in a mistake on the part of the 
printer, in misreading J ia the MS. for T. , 


and yellow of various shades, but generally 
smoky and ill- defined. It occurs in worn 
angular pieces, or in small detached crj^stals, 
rarely exceeding 6 or 8 carats in weight, 
chiefly in the sand of a river in Ceylon, ac- 
companied by Sapphire, Spinelle, Tourma- 
line, &c. 

The surfaces of the crystals are smooth, 
and possess a lustre approaching nearer to 
that of the Diamond than any other gem. 

About the commencement of the last cen- 
tury, when the Javgoon was supposed to be 
an inferior variety of Diamond, it was in 
great request, especially for mourning orna- 
ments, for which it was considered to be 
peculiarly appropriate, on account of its 
sombre tone, and almost adamantine lustre. 

At the present day, though out of fashion, 
and in no request, it is still occasionally 
sold for inferior diamonds. 

Dr. J. Davy says, that the very light grey 
varieties of the Zircon are sold by the in- 
habitants of Ceylon as imperfect diamonds, 
the natives being altogether ignorant of the 
true nature of the mineral. It is most 
abundant in the district of Matura, whence 
it has its common name in Ceylon of Ma- 
tura diamond. The colourless Zircon is also 
cut and sold as a false diamond in the 
bazaars of India. (Prinsep.) 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 846. 

Jarositk, Breithaupt. A potash copperas. 
Hexagonal. Cleavage basal. Colour yel- 

Comp. KS+4FeS + 6H( + i^eH). Eam- 

Analysis, by Richter : 
Sulphuric acid . . . 28-8 
Peroxide of iron . . . 6'2*5 
Alumina . . . . 1*7 
Potash with a little soda . 6*7 
Water 9-2 


Locality. Baranco Jaroso, in the Sierra 
Almagrera, in Spain. 

Jasp-Opal. See Opal- jasper. 

Jaspachates. The name by which Jas- 
per-agate was known to the ancients. 

Jaspe Rub an e, Brochant. See Eibbon 

Jasper. A compact variety of Quartz, 
usually of a dull red, yellow, brown, or 
green colour, sometimes blue or black, and 
distinguished from other varieties of Quartz 
by its complete opacity, even in very thin 

Jasper is fre'quentlj' merely a form of silex 
rendered opaque either from alteration or 


by the addition of a certain quantity of red 
oxide of iron, or the hydrate of that oxide. 

When the colours are arranged in stripes, 
it is called striped or ribbon-jasper. 

Egyptian Jasper occurs in the form of peb- 
bles on the banks of the Nile, and is zoned 
with red and various shades of wood-brown 
fancifully intermixed with, and contrasted 
by, paler cream-coloured portions. 

Porcelain Jasper is altered (or baked) 
clay, differing from true Jasper in being 
fusible at the edges BB. 

Yellow Jasper is found at Yourla, in the 
Bay of Smj-rna, and pebbles oi Red Jasper 
on the plains of Argos. 

Jasper is susceptible of a brilliant polish, 
and is manufactured into brooches, brace- 
lets, snuff-boxes, vases, knife-handles, and 
other ornamental articles. 

It occupied the twelfth place amongst the 
precious stones which were ordered to be 
placed on the breast-plate of the High 
Priest of the Jews, and bore the name of 
Benjamin engraved upon it. (Exodus 
xxviii. 20.) See also Ezekiel xxviii. 13 ; 
Rev. iv. 3; xxi. 11, 20. 

Name. The word Jasper is derived from 
"la,(r^i;, the name given by the ancients not 
only to the Jasper of the moderns, but to 
some other stones not of the true Jasper 

" Bright are the jasper's* tints, with clouds, 
And spots, and diverse stripes, and splendid 

Of green and various hues ; in mass opaque, 
But in thin fragments pervious to the light ; 
With earthy fracture angularly sharp. 
Less hard than flint, but striking fire with steel. 
Jasper in large elliptic masses oft 
Occurs, or nodes detached, or rocks entire, 
To which Egyptian pebble's near allied." 

Brit. Mus., Case 24. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 563 to 

Jaspery Iron Ore, or Jaspery Clay- 
iron. An earthy variety of Hematite, hav- 
ing a firmer structure than Reddle or Red 
Chalk, and a large and flat conchoidal frac- 

Jaulingite. A mineral resin, found be- 
tween the layers of a kind of pine-tree at 
the lignite mine of Jauling, near Saint Veit 
in Austria. 

Jay. a name given by the colliers in 
Derbyshire to Cannel Coal. See Jet. 

Jayet, Haiiy. See Jet. 

Jeat, Woodward. See Jet. 

Jeffersonite, Phillips. A variety of 
Pyroxene, occurring in foliated or crystal - 

* Werneria, or Short Characters of Earths, by 
Terrse Filius. 1805. Pp. 78-9. ^ 



line masses, of a dark olive-green colour, 
passing into brown, with a semimetallic 
lustre on the planes of cleavage, on the cross 
fracture resinous. Translucent at the edges. 
Yields to mechanical division in three di- 
rections. H. about 4-5. S.G. 3-6. 

Comp. (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn)5 Si2. 

Analysis, by Hermann : 

Silica 49-91 

Alumina . . . .1-93 

Lime 15-48 

Protoxide of manganese . 7-00 
Oxide of zinc . . . 4-39 
Protoxide of iron . . 10-53 

Magnesia . . . .8-18 
Loss by ignition . . .1-20 

BB fuses readily to a black globule. Par- 
tially soluble in heated muriatic acid. 

Locality. Mine Hill, and Franklin iron- 
Avorks, near Sparta, in Sussex County, New 
Jersey, associated with Franklinite and 

Name. In honour of Jefferson, President 
of the United States. 
Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

Jefreinowite. a variety of Idocrase, 
sometimes colourless, but generally of a yel- 
lowish-brown colour. 
Analysis, by Ivanow : 

Silica ..... 37-41 
Alumina .... 20-00 
Peroxide of iron . . . 4-60 

Lime 34-20 

Potash 1-16 

Soda 1-70 


Locality. Finland. 

Jellelite. The mineral to which this 
name was given by Apjohn is merely a 
Garnet. It occurs in Ireland, in rhombic 
prisms, as a yellowish, slightly greenish, 
incrustation, and is compact in texture. 

It is composed of silica 38-09, peroxide of 
iron 33-41, lime 28-61 = 100. (Wright.) 

Jenite. a name for Lievrite, bestowed 
by the French in commemoration of the 
battle of Jena. 

Jenkinsite, Shepard. A variety of Hy- 
drophite, occurring as a fibrous incrustation 
on Magnetite. Colour blackish-green, often 
with a tinge of olive. In powder pistachio - 
green. Translucent. Lustre vitreous.'ll. 2-6. 
S.G. 2-4 to 2-6. 

Analysis, by Smith §• Brush : 

Silica 38-97 

Alumina . . . .0-53 


Protoxide of iron . . . 19*30 
Protoxide of manganese . 4-36 
Magnesia .... 22-87 
Water 13-36 

Locality. O'Neil's mine. Orange co., U. S- 
Name. After Mr. John Jenkins, of Monroe. 
Jet, Kirwan. A variety of Lignite. Co- 
lour velvet-black, or brownish-black, when 
passing into bituminous wood. 

It occurs in elongated reniform masses, 
and sometimes in the shape of branches, 
which exhibit a regular woody internal 
structure, by transmitted light, when cut in 
extremely thin slices. Lustre brilliant and 
resinous. Sectile and brittle, breaking with 
a large and perfect conchoidal fracture ; and 
often showing a tendency to divide into pris- 
matic or columnar masses. It feels remark- 
ably smooth and does not stain the fingers. 
Slightly heavier than water. Burns with si 
greenish flame, and emits a very strong, 
sweetish bituminous smell, leaving a light 
yellowish-coloured ash. 

Localities. Jet is found principally in 
marly, schistose, or sandy beds in France ; 
near Wittemberg in Prussia; in the amber 
mines on the coast of the Baltic, where it 
is known by the name of Black Amber ; 
and in Alum shale in the neighbourhood of 
Whitby in Yorkshire, in hard and dark- 
coloured bituminous shale forming the 
lower part of the Upper Lias formation. 
Jet is made into various articles, and is 
especially used for mourning-ornaments. 
The value of the jet manufactured at Whit- 
by in 1855, amounted to £20,000. In 
France the departments of Aude, of the 
Var, the Pyrenees, of Ariege, and of Arden- 
nes are celebrated for this production. In 
the last century 1200 men were employed 
in the department of the Aude alone, in 
carving and turning the Jet of that neigh- 
bourhood into beads, rosaries, buttons, 
bracelets, earrings, necklaces, snuff-boxes, 
drinking vessels, and into pieces cut in 
facets, for mourning ornaments. 1000 cwts. 
were yearly consumed for these purposes, 
but the trade has now greatly fallen off. 
Considerable quantities are still, however, 
exported to Turkey, Senegal, but chiefly to 
Spain, to which latter country Jameson 
states that manufactured Jet to the value 
of 18,000 livres Avas sold in 1805. 

This substance is the Gagates of the an- 
cients, who gave it that name after the 
River Gaga, or the town of Gagis in Lycia, 
where it was originally found. The modern 


words, Jayet, Jais, or Jet are doubtless de- 
rived from the ancient name Gagates or 

Artificial Jet is made of a kind of black 
glass, which is either cut into facets or 
blown into beads ; and the blackness is pro- 
duced by means of the black wax with 
which they are filled, or which fastens them 
to the iron backs on which they are mounted. 

" Lycia her jet* in medicine commends ; 
But chiefest, that which distant Britain sends : 
Black, light, and polished, to itself it draws 
If warmed by friction near adjacent straws. 
Though quenched by oil, its smouldering embers 

Sprinkled with water, a still fiercer blaze : 
It cures the dropsy, shakey teeth are fixed, 
Washed with the powder'd stone in water 

The female womb its piercing fumes relieve, 
Nor epilepsy can this test deceive ; 
From its deep hole it lures the viper fell, 
And chases tar away the powers of hell ; 
It heals the swelling plagues that gnaw the 

And baffles spells and magic's noxious art. 
This by the wise the surest test is styled 
Of virgin purity by lust defiled. 
Three days in water steeped, the draught 

Ease to the pregnant womb in travail's throes." 

Brit. Mus., Case 60. 

M.P.G. Horse- shoe Case, Nos. 89 and 90. 

Jewkeinowite. See Jefreinoffite. 

Jews' Pitch. See Asphalt. 

Jews' Tin. The name given in Cornwall 
to tin found near old smelting houses. 

JoHANNiTE, Haidinger. An ore of Ura- 
nium. Oblique ; primary form an ob- 
lique rhombic prism. Occurs in very 
minute flattened crystals, fig. 247, arranged 
in concentric druses or reniform masses. 
Colour beautiful, deep grass -green. Lustre 
vitreous. Transparent to opaque. Taste 
slightly bitter. Streak pale siskin-green. 
Fracture imperfect-conchoidal. H. 2 to 2*5. 
S. G. 3-19. 

Fig. 247. 


Comp. 2(U ■^) S + Cu S + 4H = sul- 
phuric acid 19'37, oxides of uranium 68'40, 
oxide of copper 6-43, water o-80 = 100. 
Analysis (mean of two), by Lindaker : 
Sulphuric acid . . . 20-02 
Oxide of uranium . . 67*72 

* Lapidarium (xviii) of Marbodus, from 
" Antique Gems, their Origin, Uses and Value," 
by Rev. C. W. King, M.A. 


Oxide of copper . 
Protoxide of iron . 
Water .... 




In a glass tube gives off water and sul- 
phurous acid when highly heated, and be- 
comes brown and finally black. BB on 
charcoal gives sulphur-fumes and a scoria of 
a black colour and dull green streak. 

Locality. Near Joachimsthal, in Bohemia. 
Johanngeorgenstaiit, in Saxony. The Mid- 
dletown felspar quarry, in the United States. 

Name. After the late Archduke Johann 
of Austria, a zealous mineralogist. 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

JoHNiTE. A variety of Turquois, occur- 
ring in mammillary, stalactitic, and bo- 
tryoidal masses, disseminated in siliceous 
schist. Colour bluish-green. H. 3. 

Comp. Like Turquois, or a sub-phosphate 
of alumina, coloured by copper and iron. 

Analysis, by John ; 

Alumina . . . . 44*50 

Phosphoric acid , 
Oxide of copper 
Protoxide of iron , 
Water . 

. 30*90 
. 3-75 
. 1*80 
. 1900 


Locality. Jordansmiihle, in Silesia. 

JoHNSTONiTE, Haidinger. A finely granu- 
lar Galena, mixed with more or less free sul- 
phur. Massive. Opaque. Colour bluish. 
Lustre metallic. H. 3. S.G. 6*7. 

Comp. Supersulphide of lead, or galena 
90-38, sulphur 8*71 = 100. {Johnston^) 

Localities. Dufton, in Westmoreland. 
Alston, in Cumberland. Cromford, in Der- 
byshire. Glen Malure, in Wicklow. — 
Foreign. The lead mines Neu-Sinka, near 
Fogaras, in Transylvania. (See Sinka- 
NiTE.) In a vein in the Siegen mining dis- 
trict in the Rhine provinces, where it is 
known among the miners by the name of 
" burning galena," and is associated with un- 
altered Galena, some sulphate of lead, and 
a small quantity of sulphur. 

Name. After Johnston, by whom it was 
first described. 

Brit. Mus., Case 38. 

JuDENPECH, Wiedenman. See Asphalt. 

JuNOKERiTE, Dufrenoy. Occurs in yel- 
lowish-grey rhombic pyramids, with cleav- 
age perpendicular to the axis, and parallel 
to two diagonals. It therefore exhibits, 
with regard to Spathic Iron, the same 
dimorphism that Aragonite exibits with 
regard toCalc Spar. Breithaupt, on the con- 


trary, asserts that Junckerite has the same 
form as Spathic Iron, and that the so-called 
octahedron in which it occurs arises from 
the truncation of an acute rhombohedron. 
Lustre of rhombohedral planes somewhat 
lustrous and convex, the basal planes rough 
and dim. Transparent. S.G. o-815. 

Locality. Poullaouen, in Brittany. 

Name. After Juncker, director of the 
mine of Poullaouen. 

JuKiNiTK, Soret. See Bkookite. 


Kakochlor, Breithavpt. A variety of 
Earthy Cobalt. 
Kalait. See Tukquois. 
Kalamit. See Calamite. 
Kali Alaun. See Potash-alum. 
Kali Salzsaures. See Sylvine. 
Kali-sulpuat, Naumann. See Glase- 


Kaliphite, Ivanhow. A mixture of 
brown iron- ore, oxide of manganese, and^ 
silicate of zinc with lime, from Hungary. 

Kalisalpeter. See Nitre. 

Kalk, German for lime. 

Kalk-malachit, ■ Zincken. A hydrous 
carbonate of copper, mixed with some car- 
bonate and sulphate of lime and iron. It 
occurs massive, reniform, and botryoidal, 
Avith a fibrous and foliated structure. Colour 
verdigris-green. Lustre silky. H. 2*5. 

LocaliUj. Lauterberg, in the Harz. 

Kalk-mesotype. See Scolecite. 

Kalksalpeter, Hausman7i. SeeNiTRO- 


Kalk- SINTER, Werner. See Calc Sinter. 

Kalkspath, German. See Calc Spar. 

Kalks^ein, Werner. Limestone. 

Kalk-tuff, Werner. Calcareous TiiFA. 

Kalkvolborthite. a variety of Vol- 
borthite. containing a large quantity of lime, 
found with Psiloraelane, at Friedrichsrode. 
Colour siskin-green to greenish-grey. S.G. 

Kalkdranite, G. Rose, Naumann. Au- 


Kallait, Hausmann. See TuRQUOis. 
Kallochrom, l/aMsman». See Crocoi- 


Kalombl, Haidinger. See Calomel. 

Kalzedon. Chalcedony; which see. 

Kammererit, Kenngott; OR K.EMiMERE- 
RITE, Nordeiiskiold. A variety of Ripido- 
lite, coloured red by chromic acid. It oc- 
curs foliated and massive, or granular; also 
in hexagonal prisms, of a reddish-violet 
colour. Lustre pearly. Translucent. Feels 


Cleavage basal, perfect. Sectile. 
H. 1-5 to 2-0. S.G. 2-76. 
Analysis, by Smith 8r Brush : 
Sihca . 


Oxide of chrome 
Peroxide of iron 


. 3330 

. 10-50 

. 4-67 

. 1-10 

. 30-08 

. 0-35 

. 13-25 

and fuses at the edges 

BB exfoliates, 

Localities. — British. Foliated and gran- 
ular, also crystallized in small hexagonal 
plates, at Haroldswick, in Unst, one of the 
Shetlands, occasionally associated with chro- 
mate of iron and crystallized Talc. — Foreign. 
Bissersk, in Siberia, with chromic iron ; at 
Texas, Lancaster co., Pennsylvania, with 
chromic iron, in Serpentine. 

Name. After M. Ksemmerer, mineralogist. 

Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

Kammkies. Cockscomb Pyrites ; a va- 
ritj' of Marcasite. 

Kampylite, Breithaupt. A variety of 
Mimetite. It is found in large quantities 
crystallized, of various colours, yelloAvish to 
brown and brownish-red, at Drygill, in 
Cumberland, It also occurs at Badenweiler, 
and at Johanngeorgenstadt, in Saxony. 

Analysis, from Cumberland, by Rammels- 


. 2-41 

Lead . 

. 7-04 

Oxide of lead 

. . 68-89 

Lime . 

. 0-50 

Arsenic acid . 

. 18-47 

Phosphoric acid . 

. 3-34 


Name. Derived from xcif^vvXo;^ curved, in 
allusion to the barrel-shaped form of the 

"M. p. G. Wall-case 45, on Principal 
Floor (British). 

Kand or Cand. A term applied by Cor- 
nish miners to Fluor. 

Kaneelstein, Werner. See Cinnamon 

Kaneite, Haidinger. Occurs in botry- 
oidal masses with a foliated or granular 
structure. Colour greyish-white, with a 
black tarnish. Opaque. Lustre metallic- 
brilliant, like some varieties of Grey Copper. 
Very brittle. Fracture fine-grained, uneven. 
H. 5. S.G. 5-55. 


Comp, Arsenide of manganese, or Mn, 
As = manganese 42-4, arsenic 57"6 = 100. 

Analysis, by Kane : 

Manganese .... 45-5 

Arsenic 51*8 

Iron trace 


BB burns with a blue flame and falls to 
powder; at a greater heat the arsenic is 
given off, and redeposited upon the charcoal 
as a white powder. 

Soluble without residue in aqua-regia. 

Locality. Supposed to be Saxony. 

Name. After Sir R. J. Kane of Dublin, by 
whom it was first observed, attached to a 
mass of Galena. 

Kaolin, or Porcelain Clay. Occurs mas- 
sive and disseminated, and is composed of 
small particles which possess only a slight 
degree of coherence. Colour generally va- 
rious shades of white or grey, inclining 
sometimes to blue, yellow, red or brown. 
Opaque, dull. Earthy, sectile. Friable. 
Adheres slightly to the tongue. Soft and 
meagre to the touch when dry, plastic when 
wet. H. 1 to 2. S.G. 2-25. 

Comp. Hydrous silicate of alumina or 

Al Si + 2H = alumina 44-5, silica 40-0, water 

Analysis, from Plympton, Devonshire, by 

Brongniart §• Malaguti : 

Silica 44-26 

Alumina . . . .36-81 
Lime, magnesia, potash . 1-55 
Iron and manganese . . trace 
Non-argillaceous residue . 4-30 
Water 2-74 


BB infusible. 

Decomposed by warm sulphuric acid, which 
dissolves the alumina, and leaves the silica. 

Localities. — British. The best Kaolin, or 
Porcelain Clays, which are the result of 
the decomposition of felspar in granite, are 
procured from Cornwall and Devonshire. 
(M.P.G. Wall-case 7, in Upper Gallery). It 
is also found on the S. W. side of Fetlar, one 
of the Shetland Islands. — Foreign. The finest 
porcelain clay of Saxony is obtained from 
beds in gneiss at Aue, near Schneeberg; 
the Berlin porcelain is made from clay dug 
at Gomritz, below Halle, in the district of 
Magdeburg ; also at Zotenburg and Giern 
in Lower Silesia. The Austrian porcelain 
is made of clay which is dug near Passau ; 
that of Copenhagen from the produce of 



Bornholm, an island in the Baltic; the 
French of Sevres and Paris with clay dug 
at Saint-Yrieix, near Limoges, where it 
forms a Kaolin of great purity, derived 
from decomposed gneiss ; and the English 
from the clays of Devon and Cornwall, 
Louhossoa. in the Basses Pyrenees. Zettlitz 
near Carlsbad, and many other places in 

Kaolin is chiefly derived from the de- 
composition of Felspar, which ma}"- have 
been produced by the action of infiltrating 
waters containing carbonic acid in solution. 
The effect of such water would be to carry 
off the lime and the alkalies of the Fef- 
spar as carbonates, or as silicates in solu- 
tion, and to leave the silica and the 
alumina behind in the form of a clay. 

Name. The name, according to Dana, is 
a corruption of the Chinese word Kau-ling 
(meaning high-ridge), the name of a hill 
near Jauchau Fu, where this mineral is ob- 

Kapnicite, Kenngott. In small radiated 
feathery rounded concretions, the needles 
apparently rhombic prisms, with acute edges 
replaced, and low pyramidal terminations. 
Colour yellowish or greenish-white. Lustre 
vitreous. H. 3-5 to 4. 

Comp. Hydrous sulphate of alumina, 

A15 S3 +11H = sulphuric acid 6-20, alumina 
75-75, water (from the loss) 18-55 = 100. 
( Von Hauer.') 

Name. After the locality, Kapnik, in 
Hungary, where it occurs, associated with 

Fig. 248. 

According to Stadeler, Kapnicite only 
differs from Wavellite by containing two 
atoms less water. 

Kapnite, Breithaupt. A variety of Zinc- 
spar, containing more than 15 per cent, of 
protoxide of iron. S.G. 4 to 4 15. 

Analysis, from Altenberg, by Monheim : 
Carbonate of zinc . . . 60-35 
Carbonate of iron . . . o2-21 
Carbonate of manganese . 4-02 
Carbonate of lime . .1-90 

Carbonate of magnesia . 0-14 
Calamine .... 2-49 




Locality. Altenberg, near Aix-la-Chapelle. 

The proportion of iron being very vari- 
able, Monlieim, who has analysed several 
specimens of this mineral, does not consider 
it to be a distinct species, and proposes the 
name Ferruginous Zinc-spar for the light- 
green varieties, Avhich contain a large amount 
of zinc ; and Zinc-iron Spar for the dark- 
green varieties, and those Avhich become 
brown by the oxidation of the iron. 

Karabe de Sodome, See Asphalt. 

Karelinite, R. Hermann. An oxisul- 
phide of Bismuth, from the Sawodinsk Mine, 
in the Altai, where it occurs with Telluric 
Silver. Colour lead-grev. Lustre metallic. 
Fracture crystalline. H. 2. S.G. 6-6. 

Camp. Bi + BiS. 

Analysis, by Hermann : 
• Oxygen . . . .5-21 
Sulphur .... 3-53 
Bismuth .... 91-26 


BB gives off fumes of sulphurous acid, 
and a grey slag, Avith a globule of bismuth. 

Name. After Mr. Karelin, by whom it 
was brought from Siberia. 

Kabneol, Werner. See Carnelit^j^. 

Karpholite, i'A27/ips,- OR Karpolith. 
See Carpholite. 

Karphosiderit, Breithaupf. See Car- 


Karstexite, Hausmann. See Anhy- 

Kassiterit, Haidinger, v. Kobell. See 

Kassiterotantal. See Cassiterotan- 

Katapleht, PFefSz/e §• Sjogren; Kata- 
pleiite, Brooke §' 3Iiller. See Cataplehte. 

Kausimkies. See Lonchidite. 

Keffekill, Kirwan. See Meerschaum. 

Keilhauite, a. Erdmann. Rhombic? 
also massive. Colour brownish - black, 
brownish-red, and translucent in splinters. 
Streak greyish-brown. H. 6'5. S.G. 3'69. 

Comp. 3Ca3 sis + ft yi + y Ti^. 

Analysis, by Erdmann : 

Silica 29-45 

Titanic acid .... 28-14 
Alumina .... 5-90 
Peroxide of iron . . . 6"48 
Peroxide of manganese . 86 
Peroxide of cerium . .0 63 
Lime . . . , . 18-68 
yttria 9-64 


BB intumesces and fuses readily to a 
black shining slag. With borax yields an 
iron-coloured glass, which, in the inner 
flame, becomes blood-red. 
Soluble in muriatic acid. 
Locality. Bubn, about IJ mile from 
Arendal, in Norway, in a felspathic rock. 
Kejiatine, Dufrenoy. See Cysiatine. 
Kenxell Coal, Bakewell; Kennel- 
KOB.i^K,Brochant, Werner. See Casnel CoAL. 
Kenngottite. a mineral somewhat re- 
sembling Miargyrite, but containing a larger 
amount of silver. It is found in irregularly 
grouped crystals, of an iron-black, to a lead- 
grey colour, at Felsobanya, in Hungary, 

Name. After Kenngott, Professor of 
mineralogy at Zurich. 

Keramohalite, J. Jurashy. A mineral 
with the same composition as Alunogen, oc- 
cun-ing in cr^'Stalline crusts, and also in 
six-sided tables, with Iron Vitriol, near 
Konigsberg, in Hungary. Oblique. S.G. 
1-6 to 1-7. 

Analysis, by Jurashy ; 

Alumina .... 14-30 
Protoxide of iron . . . 2-15 
Sulphuric acid . . . 36*75 

Water 44-60 

Insoluble . . . . 2-01 

Keraphyllite. See Carinthine. 
Kerargyre, Beudant; Kerargyrite, 
Dana. Oblique : primary form the cube. 
Occurs crystallized in small cubes and acicu- 
lar prism's, generally massive, and looking 
like wax; sometimes columnar; often in 
crusts, investing other substances. Colour 
most frequently pearl-grey, sometimes green- 
ish or violet-blue. Acquires a brownish 
tarnish on exposure. Feebly translucent or 
opaque. Lustre resinous. Yields to the 
nail, and is malleable and sectile. Streak 
white and shining. No cleavage. Fracture 
imperfect flat-conchoidal. H. 1 to 1-5. S.G. 

Fig. 249. 

Comp. Protochloride of silver, or Ag, CI = 
silver 75-3, chlorine 24-7 = 100. 

BB on charcoal yields metallic silver, 
with evolution of an odour of muriatic acid. 
Rubbed on a plate of moistened iron, the 
surface becomes covered with a thin film of 
metallic silver ; on the addition of oxide o*" 
copper, the flame becomes blue. 


Insoluble in nitric acid or water. 

Localities. Cornwall (rarely), at Huel 
Duchy, Huel St. Vincent, Huel Mexico, 
Silver Valley, and Huel Brothers. — Foreign. 
The largest masses, especially those of a 
green colour, are brought from Chili, Peru, 
and Mexico, where it accompanies Native 
Silver. It also occurs at Huelgoet, in 
Brittany; Markirchen, in Alsace; Kongs- 
berg, in Norway ; Schemnitz, in Hungary ; 
Schlangenberg, in the district of Koliwan, 
in Siberia, &c. 

This mineral occurs in clay-slate, always 
in veins, and chiefly in their upper part. 
It is associated with other ores of silver, and 
sometimes with ochreous Brown Iron-ore, 
Quartz, Heavy Spar, ores of copper, &c. 

The name 'Kerargyrite, or Horn Silver 
(derived from ^tgos?, horn, and ajyv^ov, silver), 
appears to have reference to its property of 
cutting like horn. 

This ore, especially the conchoidal sub- 
species, has an icy or glassy appearance, •n 
which account it was (mlled vitreous or 
glassy silver -ore by the older mineralogists. 
The vitreous silver- ore of Earwan and 
others is Silver Glance. 

Brit. Mus., Case 69. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases 14 
(British) ; 22 (Foreign). 

Kerasin. The name given by Von Ko- 
bell to Cromfordite, and by Beudant to 

Kebate, Haidinger, Nicol, Greg §• Lett- 
som. Hornsilver. See Keraegyeite. 

Keeatophyllite, Beudant. See Acti- 


Kermes, Brooke §- Miller; Kermesite, 
Dana; Kermbsome, Chapman. Oblique: 
primary form an oblique rhombic prism. 
Usually occurs in tufts of capillary crystals, 
consisting of elongated, slender, six-sided 
prisms, the surfaces of which are striated 
longitudinally. Colour cherry-red. Slightly 
translucent, appearing scarlet by trans- 
mitted light. Lustre adamantine. Streak 
brownish -red. Sectile. Slightly flexible in 
thin laminae. H. 1 to 1*5. S.G. 4-5 to 4-6. 

Comp. Oxy-sulphide of antimony, or Sb 
+ 2SbS5 = oxide of antimony 69-82, sulphide 
of antimony 30-18 = antimony 76-33, sulphur 
18-98, oxygen 4-74=100. 

Analysis, by H. Rose • 

Antimony .... 74*45 

Sulphur .... 20-49 

Oxygen .... 6-29 



BB fuses very readily, sinking into the 
pores of the charcoal, and volatilizing in 
dense clouds. Becomes covered with a 
white coating when immersed in nitric 

Localities.— British. New Cumnock, A}t- 
shire, in capillary fibres, with Grey Anti- 
mony. — Foreign. Malaczka, near Posing, in 
Hungary, in veins with Quartz and Grey 
and White Antimony. Braunsdorf, near 
Freyberg, in Saxony. AUemont, in Dau- 

Kermesite results from the decomposition 
of Grey Antimony. 

Brit. Mus., Case 38. 

Kerolite, Breithaupt. Is found in kid- 
ney-shaped masses, which have a lamellar 
or compact structure, and a white, yellow, 
or green colour. Lustre vitreous or resinous. 
Transparent or translucent at the edges. 
Feels greasy, but does not adhere to the 
tongue. Streak white. Fracture conchoi- 
dal. H. 2 to 2-5. S.G. 2 to 2-4. 

Comp. Sesquihydrate of silicate of mag- 
nesia, or 2Mg Si + 3H. 

Analysis, from Zoblitz, by Kilhn : 

Silica 46-96 

Magnesia .... 31-26 
Water 21-22 

BB becomes black, but does not fuse. 
Localities. Zoblitz, in Saxony, and Fran- 
kenstein, in Silesia, associated with Serpen- 

Name. From xv^os, wax, and kWos, stone. 
Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

Kevil. a Derbyshire mining term for a 
sparry substance found in the vein and com- 
posed of Calc-spar, Fluor, and Barytes. 

KiBDELOPHAJsr, Beudant, Hausmann. A 
titaniferous iron from Gastein. Occurs in 
crj'stals, having the form of Ilmenite and 
Iron Glance, but generally massive or in 
thin plates or laminae. Slightly magnetic. 
H. 5 to 5-5. S.G. 4-66. 
Analysis, by v. Kobell : 
Titanic acid. . . . 59-00 
Protoxide of iron „ . . 36*00 
Peroxide of iron . . . 4-25 
Protoxide of manganese . 165 


Kibdelophane is the Axotomous Iron of 
v. Kobell. 

See Ilmenite and Titanate of Iron. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

Kidney- stones. A local name for small 
hard nodules, not unlike septaria, composed 

202 KIESEL. 

of reddish-brown clay, witli veins of Calc 
Spar, which are washed out of the cliffs on 
the north shore of Weymouth, in Dorset- 

KiESEL, German for silica or flint. 

KiESELGALMEV. Siliccous oxide of Zinc. 


KiESiCLKUPFER, V. Leonhard. iSeeCHRY- 



KiESELSOTER, Werner. See Siliceous 


KiESELSPATH, Hausmann. See Albite. 
KiESELWiSMUTH, Leonhard. See Euly- 


KiESELZiNKERz, G. Rose. Siliceous oxide 
of Zinc. See Smithsonite. 

KiLBRiOKENiTE, Apjohn. A bluish-grey 
variety of Geocronite, from Kilbricken, 
Clare co., Ireland. H. 2 to 2-5. S.G. 6-407. 
Analysis, by Apjohn ; 

Lead 68-87 

Antimony .... 1439 

Iron 0-38 

Sulphur .... 16-36 

Dissolves slowly in warm muriatic acid. 
Kilkenny Coal, Brochant. See Anthra- 

KiLLiNiTE, Thomson. Occurs massive, 
with the occasional appearance of prisms. 
Colour pale green, sometimes stained brown 
or yellow. The coating which arises from 
decomposition yields an argillaceous odour 
when breathed on, and imparts a brownish- 
yellow stain to the granite. Structure 
lamellar. Lustre glimmering. Translucent. 
Yields to the knife. Brittle and easily fran- 
gible. Fracture fine-grained. H. 4. S.G. 
2-65 to 2-75. 

Comp. (R Si + A12 Si^) + 3H=silica 51'12, 
alumina 28-37, potash 13-04, water 7-47 
= 100. 

Analysis, from Victoria Castle, near Kil- 
linev, by Galbraith : 

'Silica ..... 50-45 
Alumina .... 30*13 
Protoxide of iron . ._ . 3*53 
Magnesia . . .' .1-09 

Potash 4-81 

Soda . . . . . 0-95 
Water 7-58 

BB loses colour and whitens, intumesces, 

and fuses to a white enamel. 

Localities.— Irish. Killiney Hill, and near 

Dalkey and Scalp, near Dublin. 


Killinite is considered by Dana to be 
an altered form of Spodumene, and by Blum 
and Haidinger an altered lolite. The ab- 
sence of a basal termination distinguishes, 
it from lolite, and the absence of lithia from 

Kilpatrick Quartz, Thomson. Quartz 
found in the amygdaloid of the Kilpatrick 
hills, near Dumbarton. It occurs in small, 
white and translucent spherical masses, con- 
sisting of fibrous and radiated crystals,, 
which are terminated at their outer ex- 
tremities ; also fibro-massive, and of a pale 
flesh-colour, accompanied by Stilbite, Na- 
trolite, and other zeolitic minerals. 

KiRWANiTE, Thomson. Probably a variety 
of Green Earth. Occurs in small nodules of 
a dark olive green colour, with a fibrous tex- 
ture, and a somewhat radiated structure. 
Opaque. H. 2. S.G. 2-94L 

Comp. 3R2 Si-+-Al Si + 2H. Rammelsberg. 

Analysis, by Thomson ; 

Silica ..... 40-5 
Alumina . . . .11*4 
Protoxide of iron . . . 24-0 

Lime 19-8 

W^ater 4-3 ' 


BB blackens and partially fuses; with' 
soda or borax forms a dark brown glass. 

Localities. — Irish. Antrim, in basalt and^ 
amygdaloid; Glasdrumman, Kilkeel, and. 
Dunmore Head, Co. Down. 

Name. After Richard Kirwan, of Dublin, 
a distinguisiied mineralogist of the latter 
part of the last century. 

Klaprothine, Brooke §• Miller, Beudant. 
See Lazulitb. 

Klinoclas, Breithaupi.'\ ^ 

Klinoclase, Brooke S^l Clinoclase. 
Miller, JSicol. ) 

Knauffite. See Volborthite. 

Knebelite, Lenz. Probably a ferru- 
ginous Tephroite. Massive, with an uneven 
and cellular surface. Colour grey, spotted 
vpith dirty white, brownish-red, brown, and 
green. Lustre glistening to dull. Opaque, 
Brittle, and difficultly frangible. Fracture 
subconchoidal. Hard. S.G. 3-714. 

Comp. (Fe, Mn)3 Si = where i'e and Mn- 
are in equal proportions. 
Analysis, by Dobereiner ; 

Silica . ... . . 32-5 

Protoxide of manganese .35-0 
Protoxide of iron . . .32-0, 


. BB alone unaltered ; with borax fuses to 
a dark olive-green pearl. 

Decomposed by muriatic acid, with sepa- 
ration of silica. 

Locality. Unknown. 

Name. After Major von Knebel, who 
gave the mineral to Dobereiner. 

Knits. A mining term in Derbyshire for 
small particles of lead ore. 

KoBALDiNE, KoBOLDiNE, Beudant. See 


KoBALT - BESCHLAG, Kcrsten. Cobalt 
Bloom, containing free arsenous acid. See 
Cobalt Coating. 

KoBAi.T- BLtiTHE, Hausmann ; Cobalt 
Bloom. See Erythrine. 

Kobaltglanz, Hausmann. See Cobal- 


Kobaltsulfuret, Rammelsberg. See 

KoBELLiTE, Sdtterherg. Colour dark lead- 
grey, like Grey Antimony, but with a 
brighter lustre. Streak black. Structure 
radiated. Soft. S.G. 6-29 to 6-32. 

Comp. Sulphobismuthate of lead, or 2Pb^ 

Sb-l-3Pb5, Bi (Rammelsberg). 

Analysis, from Nerike, by Sdtterberg : 
Antimonv . 

Lead . 
Copper . 
Matrix . 



BB fuses with strong intumescence at 
first, but afterwards quietly, and becomes 
surrounded with a yellow glass. In the 
inner flame fumes strongly, and yields a 
white metallic globule. 

Soluble in concentrated muriatic acid, 
W'ith evolution of sulphuretted hj^drogen. 

Locality. The Cobalt mines of Sweden. 

.Name. After Von Kobell. 

Brit. Mus., Case 11. 

KoBOLDBLtJTHE, Werner. See Ery- 

Kochsalz, Werner. See Eocksalt. 

KoHLE, German. See Coal. 

Kohlenblende, v. Leonhard. See An- 

KoHLENSAURES Blei, V. Leonhard. Car- 
bonate of lead. See Cerusite. 

Kohlensaures Mangan, v. Leonhard. 
Carbonate of manganese. See Calamine. 

Kokkolith, Werner. See Coccolite. 

KoKSCijAROViTE, N. NordenskiUld. A 

KOREITE. 203. 

mineral occurring in crystalline masses, 
with cleavage in two directions. Colourless 
to brown. Lustre approaching to adaman- 
tine, when coloui'less. H. 5 to o'o. 

Name. After Nicolai von Kokscharow, 
the crystallographer of St. Petersburg. 

KoLLYRiTE, Friesleben. See Colly'rite., 

KoLOPHONiT. See Colophonite, 

Konichalcit, Breithaupt. See CoNi- 

KoNiGlNE, Levp ; Konigite, Beudant. 
A variety of Brochantite. Colour emerald- 
or blackish-green. Transparent. Cleaves 
with facility parallel to the base of a rhom- 
boidal prism, which is the primary form. 
H. 2 to 3. 

Comp. Sulphuric acid, oxide of copper, 
and water. 

Localities. Katherinenburg and Wer- 
choturi, in Siberia. 

Name. After Konig, late keeper of the 
Minerals in the British Museum. 

Brit. Mus., Case 68. 

Konlite, Schrotter ; KoNLElNITE, Kenn- 
gott. A mineral resembling Scheererite, oc- 
curring in thin white plates and grains,, 
composed of an aggregation of crystalline 
scales, in Brown Coal. Soft. S.G. "0-88. 

Comp. C2 H. • 

Analysis, by Trommsdorff; 

Carbon .... 92-429 
Hydrogen .... 7-571 

Localities. Near Eedwitz, in Bavaria ; and 
at Uznach, near St. Gallen, in Switzerland ; 
in Brown Coal. 

KooDiLiTE, Dufrenoy. Is merely Thom- 
sonite mixed with silica. Occurs in isolated 
grains, cemented together, and of a reddish- 
grey colour. 

KoRiiiTE, Beudant, Dufrenoy; Korite. 
A hydrous Labradorite, occurring in dull 
brown grains. It has the same composition 
as Sideromelane, with which it is associated, 
except that it contains water. 

Comp. R 8i + ¥, Si + 3H. 

Analysis, by v. Waltershausen : 

Silica • . . . . 44-07 , 
Alumina .... 12-00 
Peroxide of iron . . . 19-47 

Lime 5-53 

Magnesia . . . .4-95 
Soda . . . . . 0-70 
Potash. . . ■. . 0-44 
Water ..... 12-84. 

Localities. Nagyag. China. 


204 KORUXD. 

KoKUND, Werner. See Corundum. 

KoTTiGiTE, Dana. Oblique : occurs mas- 
sive, or in fibrous crusts. Colour various 
shades of pale carmine and peach-blossom 
red. Lustre of surface of fracture silky. 
Translucent. Streak reddish- white. H. 2*5 
to 3. S.G. 3-1. 

Comp. Analogous to Cobalt Bloom, with 

which it is like^vise isomorphous. (Zn, Co, 

Ni)5As + 8H. 

Analysis, by K'ottig : 

Ai-senic acid (by loss) 

. 87-17 

Oxide of zinc 

. 30 -52 

Oxide of cobalt . 

. 6-91 

Oxide of nickel . 

. 2-00 

Lime . 

. trace 

Water . 

. 23-40 

SB on charcoal in the outer flame changes 
colour and fuses to a pearl, gives off arseni- 
cal fumes, and leaves a slag of oxide of zinc. 
Readily soluble in dilute acids. 
Locality. The Cobalt mine Daniel, near 
Schneeberg, in Saxony. 

Name. After the discoverer, Otto Kottig. 

KouPHOLiTE, Vauquelin. A variety of 

Prehnite, often containing "dust or vegetable 

matter, which cause it to blacken and emit 

a burnt odour BB. 

Analysis, by Walmstedt ; 

Silica 44-71 

Alumina .... 2399 
Peroxide erf manganese . 0-19 
Protoxide of iron . . . 1-25 

Lime 25-41 

Water 4-45 


Locality. Mont Blanc. 
' Name. From y.ov<^oi, light, and ^ido?, stone. 

Brit. Mus., Case 28. 

Krablite, Forchammer. A siliceo-fel- 
spathic mineral allied to Spherulite, and 
forming the basis of the trachyte. Pitch- 
stone, and Obsidian of Iceland. H. 6. S.G. 
2-57 to 2-65. 

Comp. (R + Al) Si8. 

Analysis, bv Forchammer (S.G. 2-389) : 
Silica ." . . . . 74-83 
Alumina .... 13-49 
Peroxide of iron . . • 4-40 
Lime ..... 1-98 
Magnesia . . • .0-17 

Soda 5-56 

Potash trace 


Krantzite, C. Bergemann. A fossil resin, 
occurring in grains and roundish pieces in 
the Brown Coal of Lattorf. Colour yellow- 
ish, but mostly brown to black, owing to 
the presence of earthv impurities. Elastic. 
Easily cut. S.G. 0-968 : of the crust 1-002. 
Fuses at 225° C. (437° F.) without changing 
colour ; becomes fluid at 288° C. (550-4O p.) 
and at 300° C. (572° F.), then distils over 
a brownish oil, having a very disagreeable 
and penetrating odour. 

Name. After Dr. Krantz, of Bonn. 

Kraurite, Brochant. See Dufrenite. 

Kreittonite. a black Spinel. S.G. 4'49. 

Comp. Zn Al + Fe Fe, or (Zn, Fe) (Al i^'e). 

Analysis, by v. Kohell : 

Alumina .... 49*73 

Peroxide of iron . . . 8*70 

Oxide of zinc . . . 26-72 

Protoxide of iron . . 8-04 

Protoxide of manganese . 1-45 

Magnesia . . . .3-41 

Locality. Bodenmais, in Bavaria. 
Kremersite. a mineral allied to Syl- 

vine, occurring in ruby-red octahedrons on 


Comp. 2(K, Am, Na) CI + Fe Cl^ + 2H. 


Analysis, by Kremers : 


. 55-15 


. 16-89 

Potassium . 

. . . J2-07 


. 0-16 

Ammonium . 

. 6-17 

Water . 

. 9-56 


Name. After Kremers. 
Kreuzstein, Werner. Cross-stone. 

Krisoberil, Werner. See Chryso- 


Krisolith, Werner. See Chrysolite. 
Krisuvigite, Forchammer. A variety of 
Brochantite, occurring in small beds at 
Krisuvig, in Iceland. 

Analysis, bv Forchammer : 

Sulphuric acid . . . 18-88 
Oxide of copper . . . 67-75 
Water 12-81 

Krokoit, Breithaupt. See Crocoisite. 
Krokydolite, Hausmann. See Croci- 


Kryolit, Werner. 
KuBiziT, Werner. 

See Cryolite. 
See A^^ALCiME. 


KuH^^TE, Brooke §• Miller. Massive, 
•with cleavage in one direction. Colour dirty- 
white or honev - yellow. Lustre waxy. 
Brittle. H. 5 to 6. S.G. 2-52. 

Comp. (Ca, Mg, Mn)3 As = arsenic acid 
61-5, lime 22-5, magnesia 16-0 = 100. 
Analysis, by KiLhn ; 
Arsenic acid . . . 58'51 

Lime 23-22 

Magnesia .... 15-68 
Protoxide of manganese . 2-13 
Loss by ignition . . .0-30 

BB infusible, but turns grey. Soluble in 
nitric acid. 

Locality. Longbanshyttan, in Sweden, 
with granular Bitter Spar and Iron Ore. 

KuifKUR. The name commonly given in 
India to a more or less compact, tufaceous 
deposit of carbonate of lime with silica, 
found in the soil, in drift-sands covering 
other sands. This deposit, Avhich is of compa- 
ratively recent age, occurs in the form of very 
irregularly sh aped concretions, vary in g in size 
from that of a pea, in some places, to that 
of an egg in others, and. bearing a resem- 
blance sometimes to stalactites, and occa- 
sionally assuming moss-like and eccentric 

The vast Kunlair deposits in the plains 
and valleys of India are sometimes seventy 
feet thick. Captain Newbold has brought 
forward evidence to prove that they have 
been produced from springs of water, the 
remains of which may, in some cases, be de- 
tected at the present day. It is also stated, 
on the same authorit}--, that the siliceous 
deposits are apparently older than the cal- 
careous, and that they were probably formed 
when the waters of the supposed springs 
had a somewhat higher temperature than is 
the case now. 

All the lime of the Punjab is derived from 
M. P. G. Wall-case, No. 39. 
KuPAPHRiTE, Shepard. Copper Froth. 
See Tyrojlite. The name is derived from 
cuprum, copper, and «•<??»?, froth. 
KuPFER, German for Copper. 




KuPFERBLENDE, BreitJtaupt. Tennantite, 
with part of the iron replaced by zinc. 
Colour of streak brownish, or dirty cherry- 
red. S.G. 4-2 to 4-4. 



Analysis, by Plattiier : 


. 28-111 


. 18-875 


. 41-070 

Iron . 

. 2-219 

Zinc . . . . 

. 8-894 

Lead . . . 

. 0-341 


. trace 

Antimony . 

. trace 

Locality. Near Freiberg in Saxony. 
KuPFERBLTJTHE, Hausmann. See Chal- 


KuPFERDiASPORE, Kilhn. A Variety of 
Phosphocalcite, with half an equivalent less 
water, the composition being represented by 

the formula Cu5 P+2H. 

Analysis by Kilhn : 

Phosphoric acid . 

. 24-13 

Oxide of copper . 

. 69-61 

Water or loss 

. 6-20 


KuPFERFAHLERz. Tctrahedrite. The 
varieties belonging to the Fahlerz or Grey 
Ore of Werner have a steel -grey colour. 

Haidinger, Naumann. See Copper-glance. 

KuPFERGLiMMER, V. Kolcll, FFcmer. See 

KuPFERGRiJN, Werner. See Chryso- 



KuPFERKlES, Werner, Naumann, Haus- 
mann. See Chalcopyrite. 

KuPFKRLASUR, Werner. See Azurite. 
KuPFER Mangan, I See Cupreous 


KuPFERNicKEL, Werner. See Copper- 

Kupferpecherz. An impure variety of 
Chrysocolla, containing a large amount of 
Brown Iron-ore. Ihe same specimen of 
this mineral presents very different appear- 
ance, in some parts being earthy like de- 
composed Felspar, and in others translucent 
and brittle. 

Analysis, by v. Kohell, from Tourinsk : 

Silica 9-66 

Oxide of copper . . . 13-00 
Peroxide of iron . . . 59-00 
Water . . • . . 18-00 

Localities. Tourinsk in the Ural. The 
Basin of mines, in Nova Scotia. 


KuPFERPHTLLiT. Breitliaupt, See Chal- 


KuPFERSA^niTERZ. See Lettso^iite, 

KrPFERscHAUM, or Copper Fkoth, 
Allan, Phillips. See Ttroi.ite. 

KrPFERSCHMAP.AGD, Werner. See Cop- 
per-emerald, and Dioptase. 

Kupferschwarze, Werner. Black Cop- 
per. An impure, earthy black oxide of 
Copper, resulting from the decomposition of 
other ores, and mixed with impurities, sul- 
phide of copper, pj-rites, &c. 

KuPFER- VITRIOL, Werner, Hausmann, 
Nauniann. See Cyanosite. 


G. Rose. See Chalcolite. 
KuPFERwisMUTHERz, Klaproth. See 


Kupferwis:muthglaxz, R. Schneider. 
See Taxnexite ; also Wittichite. 

Kyaxit, Werjier. Kyaxite, Jame- 
son, Phillips. Anorthic : primary form a 
doubly oblique prism, of which the ter- 
minations are nearly rhombs. Occurs mas- 
sive, disseminated and cr^-stallized in long 
and broad oblique four-sided prisms, which 
are irregularly terminated, and truncated 
on the lateral edges : they are either im- 
bedded or intersect one another. Cleavage 
effected with difficulty transversely to the 
axis of the prism, but easily parallel to 
the lateral planes. Colour generally pale 
blue : also white (RhcEtizite), grey, greenish 
and black; in some crystals the blue and 
grey are intermixed, and the blue is of a 
deeper tint along the middle of the prisms. 
Lustre pearly. Translucent ; often trans- 
parent. Streak white. Brittle. Fracture 
foliated. Some crystals by friction become 
negatively electric, others positively. H. 5 
on the lateral planes : 7 at the extremities. 
S.G. 3'o4 to 3-61. Occurs chiefly in gneiss 
and mica-slate. 

Comp. Anhydrous monosilicate of alu- 
mina; or Al Si=alumina 37-62, silica 62-38 
= 100. 

Analysis, from St. Gotthard, by Arfvedson : 

Silica 34-33 

Alumina .... 6489 


BB infusible, but becomes colourless: 
■with borax dissolves with difficulty, but 
completely, to a transparent glass. 

Not affected by acids. 

Localities. — Scotch. Botriphinie, Banff- 
shire, in blue crystals in gneiss. Near 
Banchory, in Aberdeenshire. Near the 

summit of Ben-y-Gloe in Perthshire, in 
Quartz. Hills^nckness Point, in Zetland. 
— Irish. Erris in Mayo, in mica-slate. — 
Foreign. St. Gotthard in Switzerland in 
mica-slate, in transparent crystals, associ- 
ated with Garnet, Staurolite, and Quartz. 
Greiner and Pfitsch {Rhcetizite) in the 
Tyi'ol, with Quartz and Hornblende. The 
Sau-alp in Ca,rinthia. Bohemia. Styria. 
Ponti\'7 in France. Villa Rica in South 
America. Chesterfield, Worthington and 
Blandford, in Massachusetts, U. S. A black 
variety associated with Eutile is found in 
North Carolina. 

Name. From y.'vavos^ dark blue. 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Kyanite, when transparent and of a flne 
blue colour, is sometimes cut and employed 
as a gem. It is generally imported from 
India cut and polished, as a variety of 
Sapphire. See Sappare, also Rh^etizite. 

Kyjiatix, Breithaupt. According to Ram- 
melsberg a variet}' of Asbestos like that of 
Tarantaise, having the composition of Tre- 

Comp. Ca sis + (Mg f^y ^-2. 

Analysis, by Rammelsberg : 
Silica ...'.. 57-98 
Alumina .... O'o8 
Magnesia .... 22-38 

Lime 12'95 

Protoxide of iron . . . 6*32 


Locality. Kuhnsdorff, in Saxony. 
Kypholite, Breithaupt. A variety of 

Kyrosite, Breithaupt. A variety of 
]\Iarcasite, containing arsenic and copper. 
See Weisskupfererz. 
CoTOjD. Fe S2+Cu S. 
Analysis (mean of 2), by Scheidhauer: 
Sulphur .... 52-63 

Iron 45-63 

Copper 1-69 

Arsenic .... 0-93 

Localities. The mine Briccius, near 
Annaberg in Saxony. Chili. 
3LP.G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 17. 






Labradorische Horn 
blende, Werner. 


See Hyper - 


Labrador Felspar, Phillips. Labra- 
DORITE, La 3Ietherie. Labradorstetn, 
Werner. Labradorestone, Kirwan. A 
variety of Felspar sometimes used for orna- 
mental purposes on account of its beautiful 
chatoyant reflections. Anorthic ; frequently 
occurs in twin crystals like those of Albite. 
Colour smoke-grey, dark ash, brown, green- 
ish, white, red and blue. Lustre vitreous, 
inclining to pearly on the faces of most 
perfect cleavage, to sub-resinous on the 
other surfaces. Streak white. Brittle. 
Fracture imperfectly conchoidal, uneven, 
splintery. H. 6. S.G. 267 to 2-76. 

Fig. 250. fC--q y^ 

Comp. K 8i + Al isi = (k + Al) b'i where 

R=Na and Ca : if Na be to Ca in the pro- 
portion of 1 to 3, then the formula becomes 

NaSi + oCa Si + 4A1 Si = silica o3-69,aIumina 

20-68, lime 12-13, soda 4-50 = 100. 

Analyses, (a) from Labrador, by Klaproth; 

(b) from Campsie, by Lehunt : 

(a) (J) 
Silica . . . 55-75 5467 
Alumina . . 26-50 27-89 

Peroxide of iron . 1*25 0-31 
Lime . . . H'OO 10-60 
Soda . . . 4-00 6-05 

Potash . . . 0-00 0-49 
Magnesia. . . 0-00 0*18 
Water . . . 0-50 

99-00 99-19 

BB on charcoal, behaves like Felspar, and 
fuses with rather less difficulty to a colour- 
less glass. Yields a blue pearl with borax 
and oxide of nickel. 

When powdered, entirely dissolved by 
heated muriatic acid, which does not act 
either on Felspar or Albite. 

Labradorite occurs chiefly as a constituent 
of rocks; also in the lavas of Etna and 
Vesuvius, in the Oriental verde antique of 
Greece and other porphyries, as well as in 
certain hornblendic rocks, granites and 

Localities Scotch. It is found in Stir- 
lingshire in porphyritic greenstone, at Camp- 
sie, and at Milngavie in small crystals. — 
Irish. In Ireland it is met with in the 
basalt of Magee Island, co. Antrim : Mourne 


Mountains, co. Dcjwn, and in Galway finely 
crystallized and exhibiting a display of 
colours. — Foreign. Finland. Russia. Tyrol. 
The Harz. Corsica. Saxony. Sweden. 
Faroe. Norway. Canada at Granville, Cape 
Mahue, Abercrombie &c. United States. 
On the coast of Labrador, whence it was 
originally brought, it is associated with 
Hornblende, Hypersthene, and Magnetic 

Labradorite takes a fine polish, and on 
account of its beautiful chatoyant reflections 
it is valued for ornamental purposes, and 
sometimes used in jewelry. "Besides the 
fundamental colour, it presents a most beau- 
tiful play of vivid tints, varying according 
to the position in which it is viewed. Of 
blue, it exhibits all the varieties from violet 
to smalt-blue ; of green, it displays the pure 
emerald- green, and various other tints ap- 
proaching to blue on the one hand, and to 
yellow on the other. Of yellow, the most 
usual shades are golden and lemon-yellow, 
verging into deep orange, and thence into 
rich copper-red and tombac-brown. The 
parts exhibiting these beautiful colours are 
disposed in irregular spots and patches, and 
the same spot, if held in different positions, 
displaj^s various tints : of these violet and 
red are the most rare." (Mawe.) The play 
of colour is supposed by some to be pro- 
duced by microscopic crystals of Quartz 
imbedded in the stone ; by others it is re- 
ferred to the structure of the Felspar itself. 

It is manufactured into brooches, pins, 
bracelets &c., also into snufi^-boxes and 
similar articles. It looks best when cut in 
plain, very flat cabochon ; a great deal of 
skill is required to divide the stone in such 
a manner, that the iridescent portions, on 
which its beauty depends, may be displayed 
to the utmost advantage. 
Brit. Mus., Case 30. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 961 
to 964 ; also on Floor at S.W. end of Case. 

Labrador Hornblende. See Hyper- 

Lagonite. An earthy mineral of an 
ochreous-yellow colour, occurring as an in- 
crustation at the lagoons of Tuscany. 

Comp. ?e B3 + 3H=boracic acid 49-5, 
peroxide of iron 37-8, water 12-7 = 100. 
Analysis, by Bechi : 

Boracic acid .... 47-95 
Protoxide of iron . . . 36-26 
Magnesia, lime, and loss . 1-77 
Water 14-02 



Lait de Luxe. Fibrous carbonate of 
lime, when the filaments have become flat- 
tened or broken by the action of infiltrating 
water, or by drying in the open air. 

Lait be ^Iontagxe, JBrochant. See 
Agaric Minekal. 

Lake Salt, Jameson. See Eock Salt. 

Lamellar Heavy Spar, Jameson. See 

La:mpadite. A variety of Cupreous 
Manganese. Amorphous. Colour bluish- 
black. Lustre resinous. Structure some- 
times reniform. H. above 2'5. 

BB infusible. 

Comp. Oxide of manganese 82, copper 
13-5, silica 2-03=100. 

Locality. Tin mines of Schlackenwald, in 

Name. After Lampadius, the Saxon me- 

Laxarkite, Beudant ; Laxarkit, Hai- 
dinger, v. Kohell. Oblique : primary form a 
right rhombic prism. The crystals, which 
are aggregated lengthways, are minute and 
seldom distinct. Colour greenish - white, 
3'ellowish-white, or grey. Lustre adaman- 
tine, on the cleavage-face pearly. Trans- 
parent to translucent. Streak while. Sectile. 
Thin lamina flexible, like Gypsum. H. 2 
to 2-5. S.G. 6-8 to 7. 

Fig. 251. 

Coinp. Sulphate and carbonate of lead- 
oxide. Pb S + Pb C = sulphate of lead 53-15, 
carbonate of lead 46-85 = 100. 
Analysis, by Thomson : 

Carbonate of lead . . 46-04 
Sulphate of lead . . . 53-96 


BB on charcoal fuses to a globule, which 
is white when cold, and is nearly reduced to 
metallic lead. 

ES"ervesces slightly with nitric acid, in 
which it is partially soluble, leaving a resi- 
due of sulphate of lead oxide. 

Localities. — Scotch. Leadhills in Lanark- 
shire, like fig. 251, in long slender crystals, 
associated with Susannite and Caledonite.— 
Foreign. Massive at Tanne' in Brunswick, 
in the Harz, and in Siberia. Biberweier, 
in the Tyrol. 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

Laxcasterite, Silliman. A mixture of 
Brucite and Hydromagnesite, from Lan- 
caster CO., Pennsvlvania, U. S. 


Brit. Mus., Case 47. ^| 

Landscape Marble. See Cotha^i Mar- 9 

BLE. 9 

Laxthaxite, Haidinger. Ehombic. Oc- B 
curs in small, thin, four-sided, tabular crys- 9 1 
tals, with beveled edges. Generally fine 
granular or earthy. Colour greyish-white, 
Yellowish, or pink. Lustre, dull or pearly. 
H. 2-0 to 3. S.G. 2-7. 

Comp. La C + 8H=lanthana 52-94, car- 
bonic acid 21-11, water 25-95 = 100. 

BB infusible; whitens, becomes opaque - 
and brownish -yellow. ■ 

Efifervftsces in acids. \ 

Localities. Bastnas, in Sweden, coating 
Cerite. Lehigh co., Pennsylvania, in masses 
composed of minute aggregated tables. The 
Sandford Iron-ore bed, Moriah, Essex co., 
Xew York, in thin scales or plates, varying 
in colour from white to a delicate pink or 
rose-tint, with Allanite. 

Lapis Ajipelites of the ancients is the 
Cannel Cpal of the modems. 

Lapis Aemexius, Kirwan. " Is Chalk or 
Gypsum, impregnated with the blue calx 
(carbonate) of copper." 

Lapis Lazull Cubical. Occurs in do- 
decahedrons ; commonly massive, compact. 
Cleavage dodecahedral, imperfect. Colour 
rich Berlin- or azure-blue. Lustre faintly 
glimmering. Usuallv translucent at the 
edges. Opaque. H. o-5. S.G. 2-38 to 2-45. 
Comp. Silicate of soda, lime, and alu- 
mina, with a sulphide probably of iron and 

Analysis, by Varrentrapp : 

Silica .' . . . . 45-50 
Sulphuric acid . . . 5 89 
Alumina .... 31-76 

Lime 3-52 

Soda 9-09 

Sulphur .... 0-95 

Iron 0-86 

Chlorine .... 0-42 
\\&t&x 0-12 

BB fuses with intense heat to a whitish 
enamel. Colour not affected by a low red 
heat ; effervesces and forms a colourless glass 
Avith borax. 

Calcined, and reduced to powder, loses 
colour, and gelatinises in muriatic acid. 

Lapis Lazuli is generally found in granite 
or crystalline limestone, mixed with Fel- 
spar, Quartz, and grains of Iron Pyrites. 
It is brought from near Lake Baikal, in 
Siberia ; also from Persia, China, and Bu- 4 > 

charia. Notwithstanding its deficiency of 
lustre, and its not being susceptible of a 
very exquisite polish, the beauty of its colour 
has caused this stone to be used in jewelry, 
generally for brooches and shirt-studs. It is 
seldom employed for seals on account of its 
comparative softness. The more richly co- 
loured varieties are used for mosaics, and 
are also made into vases and other costly 

When finely powered, and carefully wash- 
ed, so as as to remove all foreign matters, 
the product is the pigment called Ultra- 
marine, so celebrated for its permanency 
and the richness of its colour. The artificial 
Ultramarine prepared by carefully heating 
a mixture of clay, carbonate of soda and 
sulphur, is said to be as durable and as rich 
in tint as that manufactured from the native 
stone, and can be sold for 8s. per lb. while 
the latter costs five guineas an ounce. The 
composition of the artificial colour, which is 
now much used in the arts, according to 
Varrentrapp, is as follows : 

Silica 45-60 

Sulphuric acid . • . . 3 83 
Alumina .... 23'30 

Lime 0-02 

Soda . . . • . . 21-47 

Potash 1-75 

Sulphur . . . .1-68 

Iron 163 

Chlorine .... trace 

" 98-78 
In the Oriental account of the precious 
minerals (Prinsep), it is said that " The 
country of Badakshan abounds in moun- 
tains, and contains several rivers. On the 
Jihiin (Oxus) river, near where the Samar- 
kand road crosses it, is the mine of Lapis 
Lazuli. This mineral has different shapes ; 
one like the egg of a hen, which is covered 
with a thin, soft, and white stony coat, is 
reckoned the best when pounded, — it needs 
neither washing nor polishing ; the others 
are without covering, and must be washed. 
The method of washing is this: first to 
pulverise it and afterwards to keep it wrapt 
in silk cloth, besmeared all over with gum- 
sandarach, which should be previously sof- 
tened in very hot water, and then rubbed 
over or kneaded with the hands ; it is kept 
in the Avater for three days, until all the 
foreign matter has been washed out." 

Lapis Lazuli, or Azure Stone, is supposed 
to be the <r(k.!7<fii^o; of the ancients. Isidorus 
says, " Sapphirus cfsruleus est cum pur- 
pura, habens pulveres .aureos sparsos," the 

" LASURITE. 209 

spangles of Iron Pyrites disseminated 
through the stone bearing a great resem- 
blance to gold. 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 975 to 

Lapis Mutabujs. An ancient name for 

Lapis Ollaris. See Potstone. 

Lapis Speculaeis, of the ancients, com- 
monly signifies Mica, btit sometimes Selenite. 
Pliny states that many persons had made 
beehives of Specular Stone that they might 
see the bees at work within. 

Larderellite, Bechi, Dana. A very 
light, white, and tasteless salt, which ap- 
pears under the microscope to be composed 
of minute, obHque, rectangular tables. 

Comp. Borate of ammonia, or NH^O, B^ 

+ 4H. 
Analysis, by Bechi : 

Boracicacid. . . . 68-56 
Ammonia .... 12-73 
Water 18-32 

Soluble in hot water, and is transformed 
into a new crystallized salt, represented by 

the formula 4H4 b's + 9H. 

Locality. The lagoons of Tuscany. 

Name. After Count de Larderel, inventor 
of the successful method of obtaining Sasso- 
lin from the water of the suffioni. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 230. 

Lardite. a kind of Agalmatolite. 

Analysis, from Yoigtsberg, in Saxony, by 
Kersten : 

Silica 66-02 

Magnesia .... 31-94 
Protoxide of iron . . .0-81 

Soda 0-75 

Potash trace 

Water . . . . 0*20 



Name. After Mons. Charles 

Lasionite, Fuchs. A variety of Wavel- 
lite, found in very slender silky fibres in 
Jura limestone, at the mine of St. Jacques 
near Amberg, in Bavaria, on Brown Iron 

Brit. Mus., Case 57. 

Lasur, Haidinger, or Lasurit, v. Kobell. 
Blue carbonate of copper. See Chess y lite. 

Lasurite, Haidinger. See Azurite. 


Lasurstein, Werner. See Lapis Lazuli. 
Latialite, Haixy. A name given to 
Haiiyne, after Latium (one of its localities), 
in the neighbourhood of Rome. 

Latrobite, Brooke, Gmelin. A variety of 
Anorthite, occurring in crystalline masses, 
and in oblique rhombic prisms. Colour pale 
rose-red. Lustre vitreous. Opaque, Cleav- 
age in three directions. Fracture uneven. 
H. 5 to 6. S.G. 2-72 to. 2-8. 

Analysis (mean of two), by C. Gmelin : 

Silica 43-21 

Alumina .... 34'82 
Peroxide of iron . . . 3-16 

Lime 9'03 

Potash 6-57 

Magnesia . . . .0-62 
Water . . . » . 2-04 


BB in the platinum forceps fuses with 
intumescence to a white enamel ; with borax 
yields a globule which is pale amethyst-red 
in the outer flame, and colourless in the 
inner one. 

Locality. Amitok Island, on the coast of 
Labrador, with Felspar, Mica, and Calc Spar. 

Name. After the Rev. C. J. Latrobe, by 
whom it was first brought to this country. 

Brit. Mus., Case 31. 

Laumonite, Phillips, Apical; Laumon- 
TITE, Haiiy ; LoMONiT, Werner; LoMONiTE, 
Jameson. Oblique : primary form an oblique 
rhombic prism. Occurs in aggregated co- 
lumnar or radiating crystalline masses, or in 
separate crj-stals, related in form to Augite. 
Colour Avhite or yellowish-white, sometimes 
with a slight tendency to reddish. Lustre 
vitreous, pearly on the cleavage plane. 
Transparent or translucent. Becomes opaque 
and pulverulent on exposure to the atmo- 
sphere. (See Efflorescent Zeolite.) 
Streak white. Very brittle. H. 3-0 to 3-5. 
S.G. 2-29 to 2-36. 

Pig. 252. 

Fig. 253. 


Comp. Ca3 Si2 + 3A:1 Si2 + 12 H= silica 
51-1, alumina 21-8, lime 11'9, water 15-2 
= 100. 

Analysis, from Huelgoet, by Malaguti §• 
Durocher. S.G. 2-29 : 

Silica 52-47 

Alumina 22-56 


Lime 9-41 

Water 15-56 


BB intumesces and fuses to a frothy mass ; 
with borax forms a colourless glass. 

Forms a jelly with nitric or muriatic acid. 

Found in greenstone and in cavities of 

Localities. — Scotch. Hartfield Moss, Ren- 
frewshire,/^. 252, in translucent white crvs- 
tals. Loch Screden, Isle of Mull, /^, 253. 
Long Craig, Dumbarton Muir; near Old 
Kilpatrick, Dumbartonshire. Carbeth, Stir- 
lingshire. Glen Farg, Fifeshire, of a deep 
red colour.— Irish. The Mourne Mountains, 
in granite. Ballintoy, with Stilbite. — 
Foreign. In trap in Iceland, the Faroe 
Islands, Disko in Greenland. St. Gotthard, 
in Switzerland. Eule, in Bohemia, in clay-^ 
slate. Fassa-Thal, in the Tyrol, in large 
masses with a radiated structure. Nova 
Scotia, at Peter's Point, Port George, and 
coloured green by copper at Margaretville. 

Name. After Gillet de Laumont, engi- 
neer and mineralogist, by whom it was 
discovered in 1785, at the lead mines of 
Huelgoet, in Lower Brittany. 

Brit. Mus., Case 28. 

Lave Vitreuse du Cantal, BeudanU 
See Cantalite. 

Lavendulan, Breithaupt. Amorphous : 
occurs in thin reniform crusts, which are 
the result of the alteration of other ores. 
Colour lavender- blue. Lustre greasy, in- 
clining to vitreous. Translucent. Streak 
paler than the colour. Fracture conchoidal. 
H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 3-014. 

Comp. Arsenous acid, the oxides of cop- 
per and cobalt, lime, sulphuric acid, and 

BB fuses easily, colouring the flame of a 
deep blue, and affording a globule which 
becomes crystalline when cool. 

Locality. Annaberg, in Saxony, with ores 
of cobalt, nickel, and copper, 

Lavezzo. See Potstone. 

Lazionite. See Lasionite. 

Lazulite, Haiiy, La Metherie; LazuR- 
STEiN, Werner. See Lapis Lazull 

Lazulite, Dana ; Lazulith, Werner. 
Oblique: primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Generally occurs granular or mas- 
sive. Colour various shades of azure-blue, 
inclining to green or white. Lustre vitreous. 
Slightly translucent. Streak white. Brittle. 
Fracture uneven. H.6to6. S.G. 3 to 3-122. 

Comp. Phosphate of alumina and mag- 
nesia, or 2(Mg, re)5 F + Al^ p3 + 5H =phos- 

Fig. 254. 

Fig. 255. 

phoric acid 43*88, alumina 31-77, protoxide 
of iron 7-10, magnesia 11-87, water 7-12 = 
lOU. CSmith §• Brush.) 

Analysis, from the Fischbach Alp in the 
circle of Gratz, by Rammelsberg. S.G. 3-11 : 

Phosphoric acid . 



Protoxide of iron . 

Lime . 

Water . 



BB swells up, becomes colourless, and 
falls to pieces, but does not fuse ; colours the 
flame pale bluish-green. 

Not affected by acids till after ignition, 
when it is almost wholly soluble. 

Localities. In narrow veins traversing 
clav-slate, in the torrent beds of Schladming 
and Eadelgraben, near Werfen, in Salzburg, 
with Spathic Iron. Yorau ( Voraulite), in 
Styria, with Quartz ; also near Gratz and 
Krieglach. Tijuco, Minas Geraes, Brazil. 
Lincoln co., North Carolina, U.S., in beauti- 
ful sky-blue crystals. 

Name. Froni an Arabic word azul, heaven, 
because of its blue colour. 

Lazuli te is distinguished from Lapis Lazuli 
by never being accompanied by Iron Pyrites. 

Brit. Mus., Case 57. 

Lead-earth. Earthy carbonate of lead. 

Lead-glance, Jameson. Sulphide of lead. 
See Galena. 

Lead -OCHRE. See Plumbic Ochre. 

Lead-spar. See Cerusite. 

Lead-vitriol, Jameson. See Anglesite. 

Leadhillite, Beudant. Leadhillit, 
Haidinger, v. Kohell. Rhombic : primary form 
a right rhombic prism. Colour yellowish, 
or greenish-white, to grej', green, yellow, 
or brown. Lustre resinous, inclining to ada- 

Fig. 256. Fig. 257. 

mantine; pearly on the cleavage-plane. 
Transparent to translucent. Streak white. 


Rather brittle. Fracture obscure -conchoidal. 
H. 2-5. S.G. 6-2 to 6-5. 

Comp. Sulphate and carbonate of lead- 
oxide, Pb S + 3Pb C = sulphate of lead 27-4^ 
carbonate of lead 72-56 = 100. 
Analysis, by Thomson : 

Sulphate of lead . . . 27-43 
Carbonate of lead . . 72-57 


BB intumesces, and becomes yellow, but 
turns white again on cooling. On charcoal 
easily reduced to metallic lead. 

Effervesces briskly in nitric acid, leaving 
a white residue of oxide of lead. 

Localities. — British. Leadhills, in Lanark- 
shire, with other ores of lead. Red Gill, 
Cumberland, in Quartz. — Foreign. The 
Island of Serpho, irt the Grecian Archi- 
pelago. Grenada, in Spain. 

The pearly lustre of the cleavage face is 
very characteristic of Leadhillite. 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

Leber-blende, Breithaupt. Is considered 
by Berzelius to be ordinai-y zinc-blende, 
rendered impure by a mineral resin, or some 
other mineral containing carbon. 

Ledeeerz, Werner. See Hepatic Cin- 

Leberkies. Hepatic Pyrites {Marcasite). 

Lecomtite, W. J. Taylor. Occurs in 
rhombic crystals (right rhombic prisms), 
varying much in size, some being an inch 
in length, and narrow prisms, while others 
are short, not exceeding the sixteenth of an 
inch in length, and quite broad. It is co- 
lourless and clear when free from the organic 
matter which covers it externally, and has 
a saline and rather bitter taste. H. 2 to 2-5. 

Comp. Sulphate of soda and ammonia, or 

(Na + NHN40)S + 2H. 

Analysis, by W. J. Taylor : 

Ammonia .... 12-94 

Potash 2-67 

Soda 17-56 

Sulphuric acid . . . 44-97 

Water 19-45 

Organic residue . . . 2*30 
Inorganic do. . . . 0-11 
Phosphoric acid . . . trace 

It is named after Dr. John Le Conte, by 
whom it was discovered in the cave of Las 
Piedras, in the vicinity of Comayaga, in 
Honduras, imbedded in a black matrix re- 
sembling bitumen in appearance, which Dr. 
Le Conte considers to be the decomposed 
p 2 


excrements of bats. These infest the cave 
in great numbers, and have most likely in- 
habited it for ages. The cave at the time 
of the doctor's visit was being worked for 
nitre, which was obtained " directh'-, by 
lixiviating the earth taken from near the 
entrance." " The matrix containing the 
crystals merely furnished a black, tar-like, 
semi-fluid mass, without nitre." 

Ledererite, C. T. Jackson, Dufrenoy. 
A variety probably of Gmelinite, containing 
a certain quantity of phosphate of lime, as 
a mixture. Occurs in extremely bril- 
liant, low, six-sided prisms, terminated at 
■each extremity by six-sided pyramids, which 
are replaced at their summits by little 
lexahedral tables. Generally implanted in 
Analcime or Stilbite. Colour sometimes pale 
•or salmon -red, and translucent only, but 
generally transparent and colourless. H. 
scratches Felspar with difficulty. S. G. 2'169. 

Comp. According to Dana, the same as 
Chabazite, with one-third the amount of 

Tvater, or (Ca Na) Si + 3A1 Si2 + 2H= silica 
55-75, alumina 23-10, soda 4-67, lime 8-39, 
water 8-09 = 100. 
Analysis, by Hayes 

Silica . 

. 49-47 


. 21-48 

Lime . 

. 11-48 

Soda . 

. 3-94 

Phosphoric acid . 

. 3-48 

Oxide of iron 

. 0-14 

Foreign matter . 

. 0-03 

Water . 

. 8-58 


. 1-40 


BB becomes opaque, and yields a white 
enamel, which, by long exposure to the 
flame, becomes more glassy. With carbo- 
nate of soda eff'ervesces, and yields a white 

Entirely soluble in muriatic acid. 

Locality. Cape Blomidon, Nova Scotia, 
in a basaltic rock, with Mesotype, Stilbite, 
and Analcime. 

Name. After Baron Lewis von Lederer, 
formerly Austrian ambassader to the United 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

Lederite, Shepard. A variety of Sphene, 
occurring in masses and in amber-coloured 
crystals in a vein of Graphite. Colour also 
light clove- or chocolate- brown. Translu- 
cent. H. 5-5. S.G. 3-49 to 3-51. 

Analysis, by T. S. Hunt : 

Silica 31-83 

Titanic acid .... 40-00 


Lime 28-31 

Loss by ignition . . .0-40 

Localities. Canada ; at Grenville, Mont- 
real, &c. 

Leedsite, Thomson. A mechanical mix- 
ture of Gypsum and Barytes. Colour white. 
Lustre silky. Translucent at the edges. 
Brittle, and easily frangible. Texture foli- 
ated. H. 4. S.G. 3-87. 

Comp. Sulphate of lime 71-9, sulphate of 
baryta 28-1 = 100. 

Locality. Between Leeds and Harrow- 
gate, in Yorkshire, in a carboniferous rock. 

Leejjte, Dr. Clarke. The Hellefiinta of 
the Swedes. It occurs compact and massive, 
with a peculiar wax-like texture, and a 
lustre and translucency like that of horn. 
Colour deep flesh-red. Fracture like that of 
flint. S.G. 2-71. 

Analysis, by Dr. Clarke : 

Silica 75-0 

Alumina . . . .22-0 
Manganese . . . .2-5 
Water 0-5 

Locality. Gryphyttan, in Westmania, 

Name. After Dr. J. F. Lee, F.E.S. G.S. 

of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
Lehmannite, Brooke §• Miller. See Cro- 


Lehrbachite, Brooke §- 3Iiller. Appa- 
rently a mixture of ClausthaUte and Sele- 
nide of Mercury, having the structure and 
colour of Clausthalite. S.G. 7-3. 
Analysis, by Rose : 

Selenium .... 27*98 

Lead 27-33 

Mercury .... 44-69 


BB gives off the odour of Selenium ; and 
with soda affords Mercury. 

Localities. Lehrbach, and Tilkerode, in 
the Harz. 

Lehuntite, Thomson. A compact variety 
of Natrolite with air-cavities, lined with 
minute crystals of Stilbite, which appear 
like minute scales. Colour flesh-red. Trans- 
parent at the edges. Lustre pearly. Frac- 
ture granular. H. 3-75. S.G. 1-953. 




NaSi + AlSi + 3H. 
(, by Thomson : 

. 47-33 

. 24-00 




BB fuses to a white enamel. 

Locality. Glen arm, Antrim, Ireland. 

Name. After Captain Lehunt. 

Leirochroite, or Kupferschaum. See 
Tyro LITE. 

Lemanite, Dufrenoy. See Saussurite. 

Lemnian Earth. A yellowish-grey or 
white earth, frequently speckled withochre- 
ous spots. Dull. Feels meagre. Adheres 
slightly to the tongue. When placed in 
water gives out numerous air-bubbles and 
falls to pieces. Fracture earthy. 

Comp. Hydrous silicate of alumina. 

Analysis, hj Klaproth: 

Silica 66-00 

Alumina .... 14-o0 
Oxide of iron . . . 6-00 

Soda 3-50 

Lime and magnesia . . traces 
Water 8-50 


Locality. Stalimene, the ancient Lemnos, 
in the Mediterranean, where it was formerly 
dug once a year, with great solemnity, on a 
certain holy day in Juiy, in the presence of 
the clergy and magistrates of the island, 
after reading prayers. The pits are described 
by Woodward as situated in a great plain, 
and the earth as forming a horizontal stra- 
tum about four inches thick, the common 
sort of a paler complexion lying imme- 
diately beneath it. Two earths of Lemnos 
were known to the ancients, viz. r-;^ A'^/awos, 
Terra Lemnia, or Lemnian Earth, and 
Mi>,TOf A'/if/,vioc,, Rubrica Lemnia, or Lemnian 

We learn from Dioscorides that the Lem- 
nian Earth was considered sacred, and that 
only the priests w^"e allowed to meddle witti 
it. They mixed it with goat's blood, and 
then made it into cakes, upon which the 
impression of a seal was added, with great 
ceremonies ; from which circumstance it 
was called a-<p^<x.yig by the Greeks, and Spragis 
by the Latins, that is, sealed earth. In con- 
sequence of its being prepared b}'' the priests 
it also got the name of r^ h^a,, or sacred 
earth, which was the sealed earth very highly 
esteemed in medicine, and called Lemnian 
Earth by the physicians. 

M.F.G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 1115. 

Lemnian Reddle. The Rubrica Lemnia, 


or Lemnian Reddle, was a kind of Ochre of 
a firm consistence and a deep red colour, 
used by painters as a pigment. It was dug 
in the same place as the Lemnian Earth, but 
was not made into cakes or marked with 
the impression of a seal, being sold in the 
rough, as it was taken out of the pits. 

Lenticular Arseniate of Copper, 
Allan ; Lenticular Ore, Jameson ; Len- 
til-orb, or Lentulite. See Liroconite. 

Lenzinite, Johni An aluminous sub- 
stance allied to Halloysite. It is divided by 
Phillips into two varieties, the opaline, S.G. 
2-1 ; and the argillaceous, S.G. 1-8 : both of 
a white colour, and occurring at Kail, in 
the Eifel. 

The Lenzinite of Salvetat, which occurs 
in pegmatite at La Vilate, near Chanteloube 
(Haute Vienne) in France, is of a clear 
brown colour. 

Comp. Al si + 3H. 

Analysis of Opaline Lenzinite, by John : 

Silica 37-5 

Alumina .... 37-5 

Lime trace 

Water .... 25-00 

Analysis, from Chanteloube, by Salvetat: 

Silica 36-36 

Alumina , . , . 36'-00 
Peroxide of iron . . 1-95 

Magnesia .... 0"18 
Potash, Soda . . .0-50 
Gelatinous silica . . . 2 00 
Quartz . . .1-64 

Water . . . . . 21-50 

Name. After Lenz, a German mineralo- 

Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Leonhardite, Blum. Cubical. Occurs 
in prismatic crystals, grouped together in 
bundles ; also columnar and granular. Cleav- 
age parallel with the lateral edges, very 
perfect; basal cleavage imperfect. Colour 
white or yellowish- white; rarely brownish. 
Lustre vitreous;, of cleavage-face pearly. 
Translucent at the edges. Very friable. 
Effloresces and whitens in the air. H. 3 to 
3-5. S.G. 2-25. 

Comp. 3Cab'i + 4Al si^ + 12H=silica 
56-2, alumina 22-7, lime 9-2, water 11-9 = 

Analysis, by Dellfs ; 

Silica 56-13 

Alumina .... 22-98 


Lime 925 

Water 11-64 


BB s-wells up and fuses vdth. intumescence 
to a white enamel. Forms a transparent 
glass with boras. 

Dissolves readily in muriatic acid. 

Localities. Schemnitz in Hungary, in a 
trach^'tic rock. Copper Falls, Lake Superior, 
U.S. : this variety does not become changed 
by exposure. 

Name. After Professor von Leonhard of 

Brit. Mus., Case 28. 

Leonine (from leoninus, from leo, a lio7i). 
A brown kind of Agate, with spots like those 
of a panther, or with waved markings of a 
deeper tint than the ground. 

Leopard Stone. A variety of compact 
Felspar, spotted Avith oxide of iron and man- 
ganese, from Charlotte, North Carolina, 

Lepidochlore. The name proposed by 
Prof. C. U. Shepard for an impure Chlorite 
from Mount Pisgah. 

Lepidokrokite, Ullman. A variety of 
Gothite occurring in minute radiating crys- 
tals, or granular scales and feathery ag- 
gregations, imbedded in fibrous Ked Oxide 
of Iron, in Quartz and in nodules of Chal- 

Analysis, from the Hollerterzug, by 
V. KubeU : 

Peroxide of iron . . . 85-65 
Peroxide of manganese . 2-50 

Silica 0-35 

Lime trace 

Water .... 11-38 

into pearl-grey and yellowish-grey. Lustre 
silvery or pearly. Easily split into thin 
lamina, which are flexible and highly 
elastic. Frequently silver-white by re- 
flected light, rose-red bv transmitted light. 
Biaxial. H. 2 to 3. S.G. 2-8 to 3. 

Comp. 2Li, Si + 3 Al Si + (KF, Si F^ ). 

Analysis, of grey variety, from Cornwall, 
by Turner : 

Silica 50-82 

Alumina .... 21*33 
Protoxide of iron . . . 9-08 
Protoxide of manganese . trace 

Potash 9 86 

Lithia 4-05 

Hydrofluoric acid . .4 81 



In a specimen from Hamm, Breithaupt 
found 14-32 per cent, of water, and in one 
from Baden 13-49 per cent. 

Localities. Oberkirchen ; Hollerterzug 
in the Westerwald. Spring Mills, Mont- 
gomery CO., Pennsylvania, U.S. 

Name. From Xt^U, a scale, and x^oxous, of 
a saffron or yellow colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 16. 

Lepidolite, Phillips. Lepidolith, Haus- 
mann, Werner. LiTHiA MiCA. Rhombic. 
Frequently occurs in oblique rhombic, and 
hexagonal prisms ; also in coarsely granular 
masses composed of an assemblage of small 
flexible scales, which are translucent and 
sometimes hexagonal. Colour peach-blos- 
som red, verging on lilac-blue, and passing 

BB when heated gives off water and 
hydrofluoric acid. Fuses very readily, 
swelling up and forming a glass which is, 
for the most part, transparent and colour- 
less, but brown or black if it contain a larger 
quantity of iron. Colours the flame red, 
especially on the addition of bisulphate of 
potash. Imperfectly decomposed by acids 
in its natural state ; but after ignition, com- 

Localities. — English. St. Michael's Mount, 
Cornwall, in silvery hexagonal plates. — 
Scotch. East side of Loch Leven, in lime- 
stone. — Irish. Termonmaquirk, Tyrone. — 
Foreign. Mount Hradisko, near Rozena in 
Moravia, in granite with Rubellite. Isle of 
Uton in Sweden, with Petalite. Altenberg 
in Saxony. Zinnwald in Bohemia. Inscha- 
kowa, Mursinsk, &c., in the Ural. Ches- 
terfield, Massachusetts ; Paris, Maine; near 
Middletown, Connecticut, U.S. 

Name. From Xssr/S/ov, a small scale, and 
>J6o;, stone. 

Brit. Mus., Cases 82 and 58a. 

3LP.G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1002, 

Lithia is used in pyrotechny to produce a 
beautiful carmine colour. 

Lepidomelane, Soltmann. A variety of 
Uniaxial Mica, occurring in small six-sided 
tables, or an aggregation of minute opaque, 
micaceous, crystalline scales, united in gra- 
nulo -laminar masses. Basal cleavage per- 
fect. Opaque and raven-black, or translu- 
cent and leek-green. Lustre adamantine, 
inclining to vitreous. Streak mountain- 
green. Rather brittle. H. 3. S.G. 3. 

Comp. 4K, si + 7Fe Si + 7Fe Si + 4Al Si. 



ndlysis, by Soltmann : 

Silica .... 

. 37-40 


. 11-60 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 27-66 

Protoxide of iron . 

. . 12-43 

Lime, Magnesia . 

. 0-26 

Potash . 

. 9-20 

Water . . . 

. 0-60 




BB acquires a pinchbeck-brown colour, 
and fuses to a black magnetic globule ; with 
borax forms a bottle-green glass. 

Eeadily soluble in muriatic acid, with 
separation of silica in the form of the crystal- 
line scales of the mineral. 

Localities. — Irish. Three Rock Moun- 
tains, CO. Dublin, in granite. — Foreign. 
Petersberg, Wermland, in Sweden. 

Name. From Ast/?, a scale, and ftsXa?, black. 

Lepolite. a variety of Amphodelite 
from Lojo and Orrijerfvi in Sweden. The 
crystals are sometimes two inches long. 

Analysis, from Lojo, by John Hermann: 

Silica . 

. 42-80 


. 35-12 

Peroxide of iron 

. 1-50 

Lime . 

. 14-94 


. 2-27 


. 1-50 

Loss by ignition 

. 1-56 

Lettsomite, J. Percy. Occurs in spheri- 
cal globules, or in druses composed of short 
delicate fibres of a smalt-blue colour, with a 
velvet-like appearance. Lustre pearly. 

Comp. (Cu6 S + 3H) + (Al S + 9 H) = 
sulphuric acid 16-78, oxide of copper 49-85, 
alumina 10-76, water 22-75 = 100. 
Analysis, by Dr. John Percy : 
Sulphuric acid 

Peroxide of iron 
Oxide of copper 
Water . 





Locality. Sparingly at Moldawa in the 
Bannat, coating cavities in earthy hydrous 
oxide of iron. 

Name. After W. G. Lettsom, Charge 
d'affaires and Consul-General to Uruguay, 
and one of the authors of " The Mineralogy 
of Great Britain and Ireland." 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

Leuoachates. The name given by 
the ancients to white varieties of Agate. 

From Xivzky white, and' Ax^rtis, Agate (which 


Leucanterite. The name proposed by 
Professor C. U. Shepard for an efflorescence 
on the Copperasine found at Ducktown Cop- 
per Mine in Eastern Tennessee. 

Leuchtenbergite, Komonen. A variety 
of Chlorite occuring crystallized in regular 
six-sided pyramids. Colour yellowish, 
internally greenish. Very translucent; 
transparent in thin laminae. Soft like Gyp- 
sum. S G. 2-71. 

nalysis, by Hermann : 


. 32-35 


. 18-00 

Peroxide of iron . 

. 4-37 


. 32-29 

Water . 

. 12-50 


Locality. Slatoust in the Ural. 

B«t. Mus., Case 32. 

Lbucite, Werner. Cubical : usual form 
the trapezohedron,/pr. 258 : often occurs dis- 
seminated in grains. Colour yellowish or 
greyish-white, passing into ash-grey, or 
smoke- grey ; rarely reddish-white. Lustre 
vitreous. Translucent: opaque when de- 
composed. Streak white. Brittle. Fracture 
imperfect-conchoidal. H. 5 '5 to 6. S.G. 
2-483 to 2-49. 

Fig. 258. 

Comp. Anhydrous Analcime. K^ bi^ + 

3A1 'Si3 (Dana), or K Si + Al Si^ =siiica 55-1, 

alumina 23-4, potash 21-5 = 100. 

Analysis, from eruption of Vesuvius of 

1845, by Rammelsberq : 

Silica . . . . . 56-05 
Alumina .... 23-16 

Soda 0-30 

Potash 20-04 

Loss by ignition . . . 0-52 


Small quantities of lime and iron are also 
frequently present. 

BB alone infusible : with borax or car- 
bonate of lime melts with difficulty to a 
clear glass. 

In a finely divided state, completely de- 
composed by muriatic acid, with separation 
of pulverulent silica. 



Localities. The finest and most beautiful 
crystals are found in the older lavas of 
Vesuvius and Rocca Monfina, and in those 
of Borghetto, Albano, and Frascati in the 
neighbourhood of Rome, parts of which are 
almost entirely composed of it. The Leu- 
citic lavas of these districts have been used 
for millstones for the last 2000 years. 
Between Lake Laach and Andernach on 
the Rhine, in trachyte. 

From the circumstance of its occurrence 
in trapezohedrons similar to those of com- 
mon Garnet, and from its white tint, 
Leucite was called "White Garnet" by 
Bergman, and -' White Garnet of Vesuvius" 
by Kirwan. It is also known by the name of 
"White Garnet of Frascati" to the Italians. 

Leucite is easily distinguished from Anal- 
cime by its infusibility, and by never show- 
ing faces of the cube. 

It is found altered by decomposition to 
Kaolin or China-clay. 

Name. From >^ivy,og^ white ; in aUusion to 
its colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 31. 

M. P. G. Table-case A in recess 4, Nos. 
79 to 83. Table-case B in recess 6, No. 83, 
&c. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1011, 1012, 

Leuco-Garnet. a white variety of Gar- 
net found at Tellemarken in Norwaj', and 
in Siberia. 

Leucocyclite, Dufrenoy. (From XivyJ;, 
white, xvxXog, a circle, and A./&?, stone.') See 


Leucolite, Dufrenoy. (From X'.vxls, white, 
and >-'Bo;, stone ) See Leucite. 

Leucolite d'Altenberg, See Pycnite. 

Leucolite de Mauleon, La Metherie. 
See DiPY'RE. 

Leucophake, Esmark. Rhombic. Rarely 
in crystals, usually massive and columnar. 
Cleavage in three directions. Colour wine- 
yellow to pale olive-green ; in thin splinters 
transparent and nearly colourless. Lustre 
vitreous. Streak white. Strongly phos- 
phorescent. Becomes electric when heated. 
H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 2-964. 

Fig. 259. 

Comp. Silicate of Glucina and Lime, 

with Fluoride of Sodium, or Ca^ Si^ + fie Si 
+ Na F = silica 45-3, lime 28-0, glucina 127, 
sodium 7-7, fluorine 6*3 = 100. 
Analysis, by Erdmann ; 

Silica 47-82 

Glucina . , , .11-51 

Protoxide of manganese . 1-01 
Lime . .... 25-00 
Sodium .... 7-59 

Potassium .... 0-26 
Fluorine .... 6-17 


BB fuses to a transparent, violet-coloured 
globule, which becomes opaque by flaming. 

Locality. A rocky islet near the mouth 
of the Langesundfiord in Norway, in syenite 
with Albite, &c. 

Name. From A.£y»o?, white, and i?a/vw, to 

Leucopy'rite, Shepard. Arsenical 
Pyrites in part. Rhombic : primary form 
a right rhombic prism. Cleavage perfect 
at right angles to the axis. Generally 
occurs in masses of a colour between silver- 
white and steel-grey, with a yellowish tar- 
nish. Lustre metallic. Streak greyish-black. 
Brittle, Fracture uneven. H. 5 to 5-5. S.G. 
7 to 7-4. 

Comp. Arsenide of iron, Fe As2r= arsenic 
72-8, iron 27-2, or (Fe, Ni, Co) As2. Some- 
times Fe2 As3. 

Analysis, from Reichenstein, by Karsten. 
S.G. 7-09. 

Arsenic .... 65-88 
Sulphur . . . .1-77 
Iron 32-35 


BB on charcoal fuses to a black magnetic 
mass, with the evolution of a strong odour 
of arsenic. 

Soluble in nitric acid with separation of 
arsenious acid. 

Localities. Cornwall and Devonshire. 
Schladming in Styria, with Copper Nickel. 
Reichenstein in Silesia Avith Serpentine. 
Lbling near Huttenberg in Carinthia, in 
Sparry Iron. Freiberg, and Ehrenfrieders- 
dorf in Saxony. 

Name. From >.ivyj? white, and Pyrites. 

This ore is employed for the production 
of Avhite arsenic, and also of artificial Orpi- 

Leutrite, Sartorius. An indurated 
sandy marl, appearing to the naked eye like 
a lump of sugar. Colour greyish or yellow- 
ish. Becomes phosphorescent by friction, 
even with paper. 

Locality. The Leutra, near Jena. 

Leuzite, Jameson. See Leucite. 

Levyne, Brewster. Hexagonal. Pri- 
mary form a rhombohedron. Occurs in 
twin crystals. Crystals often striated. Colom' 

white, yellowish, reddish. Lustre vitreous. 
Semi-transparent. Streak white. Brittle. 
Fracture imperfect-conchoidal. H. 4. S.G. 
2 to 2-16. 



Comp. C Si + ^1 Si + 4H = silica 44-36, 
alumina 24-68, lime 13-68, water 17-28 
= 100. 

Analysis, from Iceland, by Damour : 

Silica 44-48 

Alumina . . . .23-77 

Lime 10-71 

Soda 1-38 

Potash . . . .1-63 
Water 17-41 


BB on charcoal intumesces, and with 
microcosmic salt yields a transparent globule, 
which contains a skeleton of silica, and 
becomes opaque on cooling. 

Soluble in acids when reduced to powder. 

Localities. — Scotch. Storr in Skye: fig. 
260. Hartfield Moss near Glasgow, of a flesh- 
red colour. — Irish. In trap with Mesotype 
at Little Deer Park, Glenarm, co. Antrim : 
Jig. 261, — Foreign. Skagastrand in Iceland. 
Dalsnypen in Faroe. Godhaven, Disco 
Island, Greenland. The Vicentine. 

Name. After Levy, the mineralogist, by 
whom its crystallographic properties were 
originallv examined. 

Brit. Mus., Case 27. 

Lherzolite. An olive-green variety of 
Sahlite (Pyroxene), occurring both crys- 
tallized and lamellar at Lake Lherz in the 

LiBETHENiTE, Breithaupt. Rhombic : pri- 
mary form a right rhombic prism. Fre- 
quently crj'stallized in prisms, combined 
with the faces of the pyramid, and thus 
assuming an octahedral appearance. Clea- 
vage imperfect. Occurs also in radiated 
masses. Colour olive-green, inclining to 
blackish-green. Lustre resinous. Trans- 
lucent at the edges. Streak olive-green. 
Brittle. Fracture sub-conchoidal, uneven. 
H. 4. S.G. 3-6 to 3-8. 

Comp. Phosphate of copper, orCa4p + 

H = oxide of copper Q^'b, phosphoric acid 
29-7, water 3-8 = 100. 

Fig. 262. Fig. 263. 

Analysis, from Libethen, by Hermann : 

Phosphoric acid . . .28-61 

Oxide of copper . . . 65-89 

Water ..... 5-50 


BB on charcoal fuses to a brownish glo- 
bule, which, by further action of the blow- 
pipe, acquires a reddish-grey metallic lustre ; 
in the centre is a small globule of metallic 

Soluble in nitric acid and ammonia, form- 
ing a sky-blue solution. 

Localities. Cornwall ; near Redruth, and 
at Gunnis Lake, near Callington, in gossan. 
— Foreign. Libethen, near iSleusohl in Hun- 
gary, in cavities in Quartz, associated with 
Copper Pyrites, Rheinbreitenbach on the 
Rhine. Bolivia with Malachite. Mercedes 
Mine, about 20 miles E. of Coquimbo in 
Cliili, Olive-green, sometimes approaching 
to black. Nischne-Taguilsk in the Ural. 
Congo, in Portuguese Africa. 

Brit. Mus,, Case 57. 

M.P.G. Principal Floor, Wall- case 16 


Brooke §■ Miller. An altered form of lolite. 
Occurs in greenish-grey six-sided prisms, 
which have no distinct cleavage. Lustre 
greasy. Fracture splintery. H. 3-5. S.G. 2-8. 
Analysis, by Marignac ; 

Silica 44-66 

Alumina .... 36-51 
Peroxide of iron . . .1-75 

Potash 9-90 

Magnesia . . . .1-40 

Soda 0-92 

Water, carbonic acid . . 4-49 


BB intumesces and turns white, but does 
not fuse. 

Locality. Mt. Viesena, Fleimser Valley, 
in the Tyrol ; in porphyry. 

Brit. Mus., Case 31. 

LiEBENEKiTE. A pseudomorphous form 
of Elseolite. 


LiEBlGiTE, J. L. Smith, Dufrenoy. In 
mammillary concretions or thin crusts, 
having a distinct cleavage in one direction. 
Colour beautiful apple-green. Transparent. 
Lustre and fracture vitreous. H. 2 to 2-5. 

Comp. Carbonate of Uranium and Lime. 

# C + Ca C + 20H = oxide of uranium 36-3, 
carbonic acid 11-1, lime 7-1, water 45-6 = 100. 
Analysis, by J. L. Smith : 
Peroxide of uranium . . 38*0 

Lime 8-0 

Carbonic acid . . .10-2 
Water 45-2 


BB gently heated becomes greenish - 
grey. At a red heat, does not fuse but 
turns black, and acquires an orange-red 
colour on cooling. With borax forms a 
yellowish glass in the outer, and a green 
glass in the inner flame. 

Dissolves readily in dilute muriatic acid, 
with violent eflfervescence, forming a yellow 

Locality. The neighbourhood of Adriano- 
ple in Turkey, with Medjidite, on Pitch- 
blende. Johanngeorgenstadt, in Saxony, 
and Joachimstahl in Bohemia. 

Name. After the Baron Liebig, Professor 
of Chemistry in the University of Giessen. 



LiEVRiTE, Werner. Rhombic: primary 
form a right rhombic prism, in which it 
occurs with the lateral faces striated longi- 
tudinally. Also compact, massive, and radi- 
ated. Cleavage indistinct, parallel to a 
plane passing through its longer diagonal. 
Colour brown or dark greyish-black. Lustre 
submetallic. Opaque. Streak black, in- 
clining to green or brown. Brittle. Frac- 
ture uneven. H. 5-5 to 6. S.G. 3-8 to 4-2. 


Fig. 264. 

Fig. 265. 

Fig. 266. 

Comp. 3(Fe,Ca)3 Si + 3?e2 «i = silica 28-2, 
peroxide of iron 25-0, protoxide of iron 
33-7, lime 13-1-100. 

Analysis, from Elba, by Rammelsherg : 

Silica 27-83 

Peroxide of iron . . . 24-58 
Protoxide of iron . . .30-73 


Lime 12-44 

Protoxide of manganese . 1-51 


BB on charcoal fuses to a black globule, 
which attracts the magnet if it has not been 
heated to redness. With borax fuses readily 
to a dark green and almost opaque glass. 

Soluble in muriatic acid, forming a jelly. 

Localities. Cape Calamita and la Marina 
de Rio, Elba; in crystals and radiated 
masses in a dj'ke of Hornblende. Possum 
and Skeen in Norway. Siberia. Near An- 
dreasberg in the Harz. Schneeberg in 
Saxony. Near Predazzo in the Tyrol, in 
granite. Cumberland, Rhode Island, in the 
United States, in slender crystals traversing 

Name. After its discoverer, Le Lievre, 
mineralogist and engineer. 

Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

3LF.G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 19. 

Light Pyrakgyrite, or Light Red 
Silver Ore. See Proustite, and Pyrar- 


LiGNiFORM Asbestos, Kirwan. See 
Mountain Wood. 

Lignite, (from lignum, wood.) Brown 
Coal, in which the form and woody structure 
of the original tree is preserved. 

According to the recently published re- 
searches of Mons. M. E. Fremy, Lignite may 
be divided into two classes; 1st. Lig- 
nite xylolde etfibreux, or bois fossile, Lignite 
still displaying woody structure ; and 2nd. 
Lignite compacte et parfait, or Lignite exhi- 
biting the aspect and compactness of Coal. 

The compact Lignites with the black and 
shining appearance of Coal are entirely 
soluble in alkaline hypochlorites, and are 
attacked by nitric acid with the greatest 
rapidity, producing a yellow resin. Lignite 
xyloi'de and compact Lignite generally 
differ in the more combustible variety not 
being acted on by concentrated potash ; and 
M. Fremy has invariably observed that 
those Lignites which resist the action of 
potash are those which are derived from 
beds whose stratigraphical position most 
nearly approaches the true Coal Measures. 

Lignites may, therefore, be distinguished, 
on the one hand, from mere wood by their 
complete solubility in nitric acid and in 
hypochlorites, and by the above-mentioned 
characters from Coals, which last are inso- 
luble in hypochlorites, and are only slowly 
attacked b}^ nitric acid. 

The following are, according to M. Fre- 
my, the degrees of alteration of woody 
tissue : — 


1. Turf and Feat. Characterised by the pre- 
sence of Ulmic Acid, and also by the woody 
fibres or the cellules of the medullary rays, 
which may be purified and extracted in 
notable quantity by means of nitric acid or 
hypochlorites, in which they are insoluble. 

"2. Fossil Wood, or Woody Lignite. This, 
like the preceding, is partially soluble in 
alkalies, but its alteration is more advanced, 
for it is nearly wholly dissolved by nitric 
acid and hypochlorites. 

3. Compact, or Ferfect Lignite. This sub- 
stance is characterised by its complete solu- 
bility in hypochlorites and in nitric acid. 
Alkaline sorutions do not in general act on 
perfect Lignite. Reagents in this variety 
show a passage of the oreranic matter into 

4. Coal. Insoluble in alkaline solutions 
and hypochlorites. 

6.' Anthracite. An approximation to Gra- 
phite, resists the reagents which act on the 
above-mentioned combustibles, and is only 
acted on by ^nitric acid with extreme slow- 

Analysis of Lignite, from Tasmania, by 

7. Tookey : 

Carbon .... 

. 69-90 

Hydrogen . 

. 4-66 


. 15-99 


. 1-08 


. 0-30 

Ash ... . 

. 4-64 

Water (hygroscopic) . 

. 13-43 


Rolled masses of Lignite were formerly 
found on the shore at Brighton, in such 
abundance as to be used for fuel by the 
poorer classes, but its use was prohibited 
on account of the very ofifensive odour it 
gave out during combustion. 

It was employed by Dr. Russell as a fu- 
migation in certain glandular complaints, 
and it is said with decided benefit. 

The provincial name (^Strombolo') by 
which it was known is a corruption of 
Strom-bollen, stream or tide -balls, as they 
were called by the Flemings, who formerly 
settled in Brighton. (Mantell.) 

Lignite J a yet. French for Jet. 

LiGURB. The stone mentioned under 
this name in Exodus xxviii. 19 was pro- 
bably the Jacinth or Hyacinth. It occupied 
the seventh place among the stones ordered 
to be set in the breast- plate of the Jewish 
high-priest, and was engraved with the 
name of the tribe of Gad. See Hya- 


LiGURiTE, Fhillips. A variety of Sphene 
(Dufrenoy), occurring in oblique rhombic 
prisms, which are sometimes modified and 
speckled externally. Colour apple-green. 
Lustre vitreous. Transparent or translucent. 
Streak greyish-white. Fracture uneven. 
H. 5 to 5-5. S.G. 3-49. 

Analysis, by Viviani : 
Silica . 
Lime . 
Oxide of iron 
Oxide of manganese 

. 57-45 
. 7-36 
. 25-30 
. 2-56 
. 3-00 
. 0-50 


Locality. The banks of the Stara in the 
Apennines, in a talcose rock. 

Name. After Liguria, the country where 
it is found. 

Ligurite is considered superior, as a gem, 
to Chrysolite, in colour, hardness and trans- 

uiZ!r^-} See I.»™o.xx.. 
LiLLiTE, Feuss. A mineral resembling 
Glauconite in physical characters, and pro- 
bably a product of the decomposition of 
Pyrites. Amorphous, earthy. Colour black- 
ish-green. Lustreless. H' 2. S.G. 3-043. 
Analysis, by Fayr : 

Silica 32-48 

Peroxide of iron . . . 54-95 
Carbonate of lime . .1-96 

Sulphide of iron (insol.) . 0-63 
Water .... 10-20 


Locality. Przibram in Bohemia. 

LiMBELiTE, Saussure. An altered form 
of Chrysolite, occurring in small, wax- or 
honey -yellow masses, in the basalt of Lim- 

BB fuses with difiiculty. 

The name is derived from the locality, 

Lime and Soda Mesotype. See Meso- 


Lime Chabazite. See Chabazite. 
Lime Harmotome, Connel. See Phil- 


Lime Malachite. A hydrous carbonate 
of copper, with some carbonate and sulphate 
of lime and iron ; from Lauterberg in the 
Harz. Massive, reniform, with a fibrous 
and foliated structure. Colour verdigris- 
green. Lustre silky. H. 2-5. 


LniE Mesotype. See Scot.ezite. 

Lenie Saltpetre. See Nitrocalcite, 

Lime Uraxite. Naumann. See Uranite. 

Lncs'lT, Glocker. LcvrsiTE, Brooke §■ 
3rdler, Greg §- Lettsom. See LIMO^^TE, 
From 'Ai/^v'/i, a salt-water marsh. 

'LuioyiTE, Beiidant. Usually occurs in 
mammillated, botrj'oidal, and stalactitic 
aggregations, with a radiating fibrous struc- 
ture ; also compact and earthy, and pseudo- 
morphous after Calcite and Pyrites. Colour 
various shades of brown, from yellowish- 
brown to clove- and blackish-brown. Lustre 
silky, sometimes dull and earthy. Opaque. 
Streak vellowish-brown. Brittle. H. 5 to 
0-5. S.G. 34 to 3-95. 

Comp. Hydrated peroxide of iron, or 

Fe2H3= peroxide of iron 85-6, water 14-4 
= 100. 

Analysis, from Perm, by v. Kdbell ; 
Peroxide of iron . . . 83-38 

Silica 1-61 

Water 15-1 


BB blackens and becomes magnetic : in 
thin splinters fuses to a black magnetic 

Soluble in warm nitro-muriatic acid. 

Localities. — British. Cornwall; at Bo- 
tallack and other mines; Eestormel, near 
Lostwithiel. Somerset, at Wrington Hill ; 
near Clifton ; also at the Brendon Hills in 
Devonian rocks. Weardale, Durham. Alston 
Moor and Carrock Fell, Cumberland. Isle 
of Man. Sandlodge in Zetland. — Foreign. 
Siberia. Carinthia. Thuringia. Styria. 
Nassau. The Harz. Siegen near Bonn. 
Pj'renees. Spain. Villa Eica in Brazil. 
United States. 

Name. From Xnf^^v, a meadow. See Mea- 

Limonite constitutes a valuable ore of 
iron. It is met with in secondary and more 
recent deposits, and is often associated with 
Siderite, Barytes, Calc Spar, Quartz, and 
frequently with ores of manganese. For 
varieties of Limonite, see Brown Hema- 
tite. BoG-iROX Ore. Ochrey Browx 
Iron-ore. Scaly Brown Iron-ore. Yel- 
low Iron Ochre. Wood Hematite. 
Brow^n Ochre. 

31. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-cases 18 
and 19 (Foreign) ; 33 and 49 (British). 

"Lis kvair., Beudant, Brooke. Oblique: pri- 
mary form an oblique rhombic prism. Often 
in twins. Colour deep azure-blue. Lustre 
vitreous or adamantine. Translucent. Streak 


pale blue. Brittle. Fracture conchoidaL 
H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 5-3 to o-o. 

Fig. 267. 

Comp. Cupreous sulphate of lead, Pb 

S + CuH = sulphate of lead 75-7, oxide of 
copper 19-8, water 4-5 = 100. 

Analysis, from Wanlockhead, by Thom- 
son : 

Sulphate of lead . . . 74-8 
Oxide of copper . . . 19-7 
Water 5-5 


BB on charcoal, in the inner flame, yields 
a metallic globule, which, on continuing the 
heat, deposits a coat of oxide of lead. 

Localities. — British. Leadhills, Lanark- 
shire, Avith Cerusite. Mexico Mine, Eed 
Gill, and Eoughten Gill, Cumberland. — 
Foreign. Near Ems. 

Name. After Linares, a reputed Spanish 

Brit. Mus., Case 55. 

LiNCOLNiTE, Hitchcock. A variety of 
Heulandite, from Durfield, Massachusetts. 

LiNDACKERiTE, J. F. Vogl. Occurs in 
oblong rhombohedral tables, grouped in 
rosettes and reniform masses. Colour ver- 
digris- to apple-green. Lustre vitreous. 
Streak pale green to white. H. 2 to 2-5. 
S.G. 2 to 2-5. 

Comp. 2 Cu3 As + Xi S + 8H. 

Analysis, by Lindacker : 

Alumina .... 28-58 
Sulphuric acid . . . 6 44 
Oxide of copper . . . 36-34 
Protoxide of nickel . . 16-15 
Protoxide of iron . . , 2-90 
Water .... 9-32 


BB on charcoal gives off arsenical fumes, 
and fuses to a black mass. 

Soluble in muriatic acid after long heat- 

Locality. Joachimsthal in Bohemia. 

Name. After Lindaicker, Austrian chemist. 

LiNDSAYiTE, or LiNSEiTE, Komonen, Du- 
frenoy. A h3'drated form of Amphodelite, 
the result probably of partial alteration. Co- 
lour black. Fracture granular. 


Anahjsis, by Hermann : 

Silica . . . . . 42-22 
Alumina .... 2755 
Peroxide of iron . . . 6*98 
Protoxide of iron . . . 2-00 
Magnesia .... 8*85 

Potash 3-00 

Soda 2-53 

Water . . • • 7-00 

Locality. Orijerfvi, in Finland, associated 
with Copper Pyrites. 

LiNNiEiTE, Haidinger. Cubical : occurs 
in regular octahedrons and cubo-octahe- 
drons. Cleavage parallel to the faces of the 
cube, imperfect. Also massive and botryoidal. 
Colour steel -grey, tarnishing copper-red. 
Lustre metallic. Streak blackish-grey. 
Brittle. Fracture uneven, or sub-conchoi- 
dal. H. 5-5. S.G. 4-8to5. 

Comp. Co S + Co2 S5 = sulphur 42, cobalt 
58 = 100. Sometimes the cobalt is partly 
replaced by nickel or copper. 

Analysis, from Riddarhyttan, by Hisinger : 
Sulphur .... 38-50 

Cobalt 43-20 

Copper 14-40 

Iron 3-53 

Matrix . . . .0-33 


55 gives off sulphurous odours, and fuses 
in the inner flame to a grey magnetic bead, 
of a bronze-yellow colour inside ; after roast- 
ing, it imparts a blue colour to borax and 
microcosmic salt. 

Dissolves in nitric acid, with separation 
of sulphur. 

Localities. Bastnaes, near Riddarhyttan, 
in Sweden, in gneiss, with Copper Pyrites 
and Hornblende. Miisen, near Siegen, in 
Prussia, with Barytes and Spathic Iron. 
Mine la Motte, Missouri, U. S. 

For varieties see Carrollite and Siege- 


LiNSENERZ, Werner ; Linsbnkupfer, 
JIausmann. See Liroconite. 

LiPARiTE, Gloc.ker. See Fluor. 

Liroconite, Beudant. Rhombic. Occurs 
in obtuse rectangular pyramids. Cleavage 
imperfect, parallel to the planes of a flat octa- 
hedron. Colour sky-blue to verdigris-green. 
Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous. Trans- 
lucent. Streak paler than the colour. Sec- 
tile. Fracture imperfect-conchoidal, uneven, 
H. 2 to 2-5. S.G. 2-88 to 2-98. 


Comp. Hydrated arseniate of copper, 

5Cu5 AS + A1P + 24H. 

Fig. 268. Fig. 269. 

Analysis, from Cornwall, by Hermann : 
Oxide of copper . . . 36-38 
Alumina .... 10-85 
Peroxide of iron . . . 0-98 
Arsenic acid . . . 23-05 
Phosphoric acid . . . 3 73 
Water 25-01 


BB in the forceps colours the flame bluish - 
green. On charcoal fuses imperfectly, and 
with slight intumescence, forming a brownish 
slag, which contains white granules of me- 
tal. With carbonate of soda yields a semi- 
malleable globule of copper containing 

Soluble in nitric acid. 

Localities. — English. Huel Muttrell, Huel 
Gorland, and Huel Unity, in Cornwall, 
generally in attached crystals associated 
with other arseniates of copper. — Foreign. 
Herrengrund, in Hungary, in minute crys- 
tals. Voigtland. 

Name. From As/^s?, pale, and ««v/<!s, dust, 
in allusion to the paleness of the streak. 

Brit. Mus., Case 56. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 2 

LiTHEOSPORB. See Barytes. 

LiTHiA Mica ; Lithionglimmer, Nau- 
mann. Lithionit, v. Kobell. Lithion 
Mica. See Lepidolite. 


Jameson. A form of Kaolin or China-clay. 
Amorphous. Colour generally wliite, yel- 
lowish or reddish, also grey or bluish, fre- 
quently spotted internally. Opaque. Dull. 
Adheres strongly to the tongue. Feels 
greasy. Very soft, and yields to the nail. 
Streak shining. Texture earthy. Fracture 

large-conchoidal. H. 2 to 2 
Analysis, from Buchberge 

Peroxide of iron . 
Water . 

•0. S.G. 2-5. 
by Zellner : 
. 49-2 
. 36-2 
. 0-5 
. 14-0 

BB infusible; hardens on exposure to 
a high temperature. Sometimes becomes 
phosphorescent when heated. 


Localities. Cornwall, at Cook's Kitchen, 
and Tincroft, near Eedruth, in veins tra- 
versing granite, also in St. Just. — Foreign. 
Saxony, at Ehrenfriedersdorf, Altenberg, 
Marienberg, Buchberge, near Rochlitz ; the 
Harz. Planitz, near Zwickau ; in Bohemia, 
Bavaria, &c. 

Name. From A/So?, stone, and marga, 

For varieties of Lithomarge, see Carnat, 
Melopsite, Myclin, Friable Litho- 
:riarge, Wonder Earth, or Terra Mira- 


Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

LiTHOXYLON (from x/0fl?, stone, and Zf>^ov, 
wood}. See Wood Opal. 

Liver-coloured Copper Ore. See 

Liver Ore of Mercury, or Liver 
Stone. See Hepatic Cinnabar. 

LoBOiTE. A variety of Idocrase, from 
Gokum, in Finland. 

Brit. Mus., Case 35. 

LoDESTONE. The name given to Mag- 
netic Iron-ore {Magnetite^ when in a state 
of magnetic polarity. It is met with in 
masses in man}' beds of the ore in Siberia, 
Elba, the Harz", the United States, at Mar- 
shall's Island in Maine, and near Providence 
in Rhode Island. See Magnetite. 

LcE\viTE, Beudant. A reddish trans- 
parent mineral found associated with Bloe- 
dite, at Ischl, in Austria. See Loveite. 

Loganite, T. S. Hunt. A variety of 
Pyrosclerite, occurring in short and thick 
(usually small) crystals ; apparently oblique 
rhombic prisms, replaced on the acute and 
obtuse lateral edges, and on the acute solid 
angles. Colour clove-brown to chocolate- 
brown; sometimes pale. Lustre Aveak sub - 
resinous. Subtransparent. Streak grevish. 
Brittle. Fracture uneven. H. 3. S.G!" 2-6. 

Comp., Hydrated silicate of magnesia 

andlime,or 2(A1 F^e) Si + 4(Mg3 Si) + 12H. 
Analysis, by T. S. Hunt : 

Silica 32-84 

Alumina .... 13-37 
Peroxide of iron . . . 3-00 
Magnesia .... 35-12 

Lime 0-96 

Water and carbonic acid . 17-02 

BB loses colour and becomes greyish- 
white, but does not fuse. 

Locality. Calumet Island, on the Ottawa, 
Canada, associated with Serpentine, Phlo- 
gopite. Apatite, and Pyrites, in crystalline 


Name. After Sir William E. Logan, Di- 
rector of the Geological Survey of Canada, ^m 

LoLiNGiTE, Haidinger. See Leucopy-^B 
rite. ^T i 

The name Lolingite is derived from that 
of one of its localities, Loling, near Hiitten- 
berg, in Carinthia. \ 

LoMONiTE, Jameson. See.LAUMONTiTE. ■ { 

LoNCHiDiTE, Breiihaupt, A variety of " { 
Marcasite containing arsenic. Colour tin- 
white ; sometimes with a greenish or greyish 
tarnish. Streak black. H. 6-5. S.G.4-92to5. 

Comp. Fe S2 + (Fe S^ + Fe As)2, or mar- 
casite 88-79 + mispickel 9-57 = 100. {Ram- 

Analysis, from Cook's Kitchen, by Plattner ; 
Sulphur .... 49-61 

Iron 44-23 

Arsenic . . . . 4-40 

Cobalt 0-35 

Copper 0'75 

Lead 0-20 

Localities. Cook's Kitchen, Cornwall, in 
small thin crystals, fig. 270, upon old speci- 
mens of Blistered Copper Ore. Freiberg, and 
Schneeberg, Saxony. 
Name. From >-«Va:»j, a spear. 
Brit. Mus., Case 6. 

LoPHOiTE, Breithaupt. A variety of Ri- 
pidolite. S.G. 2-78 to 2-88. 

Analysis (mean of two), by v. Kobell ; 
Silica ..... 26-91 
Alumina .... 21*20 
Magnesia . . . . 23-86 
Protoxide of iron . . . 15-16 
Protoxide of manganese . 0-29 
Water 12-00 

Locality. Zillerthal, in the Tyrol. 
LoTALiTE. A greenish - grey mineral, 
with a lamellar structure, and with deep 
parallel striae, found at Peterlow, in Fin- 
land, associated with red Felspar. 

LovEiTE ; LowEiTE. A yellowish-white 
or reddish saline mineral, approaching As- 
trakanite. Lustre vitreous. Taste slightly 
H. 2-5 to 3. S.G. 2-376. 

Comp. MgS-fNaS + 2iH. 


nalysis, by v. Hauer : 

Sulphuric acid 

. 62-53 


. 14-31 

Soda . . . 

. 18-58 

Peroxide of iron . 

. trace 

Chloride of sodium 

. trace 

Water . 

. 14-80 




Locality. Ischl, in Austria. 

Lowland Iron Ore, Kirwan. Comprises 
Morasterz or Morass Ore, Sumpferz or 
Swamp Ore, and Wiesenerz or Meadow Oi*e. 
See Bog-iron Ore. 

LoxocLASE, Breithaupt. A variety of 
Orthoclase, containing a large proportion 
of soda. Colour vellowish-grey, sometimes 
bluish. Translucent. H. 7-5 to 7-75. S.G. 
2-6 to 2-8. 

Comp. RSi+ftSi2. 
Aiialysis, by Plattner : 

Silica . 


Peroxide of iron . 

Lime . 

Potash . 

Soda . 


Hydrofluoric acid 



Lawrence co., 

From ^»|af, oblique, and x>Miris, 

Locality. Hammond 
New York, U. S, 


LucHs-sAPPHiRE. See Lynx Sapphire. 

LucuLLiTE. A black marble, first brought 
to Rome by Lucullus ; it is said from an is- 
land in the Nile. 

LuDUs Helmontii. From the account 
of Dr. Woodward, to whom the younger 
Van Helmont gave an authentic specimen, 
-which had formerly belonged to his father, 
the Ludus would appear to be merely a 
kind of septaria. Prof. Ferber, writing 
from Bologna in 1771, also describes the 
Ludus Helmontii as "cubical marl-stone, 
ferruminated by calcareous spar-veins, from 
rio delle maraviglie presso al Martignone sul 

The Ludus of Paracelsus and Dr. Plot 
■was tesselated Pyrites. " 'Twas not a very 
wild name, Ludus, to be given to a Dye or 
Talus lusorius, considering how humorous 
a writer Paracelsus was." (^Dr. J. Wood- 
ward, 1728.) See Waxen- vein. 

LuMACHELLA, Ckaveland, Mohs. Luma- 
CHELLI, Phillips ; LUMACHELLO, Nicol. A 

compact limestone, -with a dark grey or' 

brownish ground, in -which are numerous 
fragments of Ammonites and other fossil 
shells. These last are sometimes iridescent 
and reflect green, blue, deep red, and orange 
tints, in which case it is called Fire 
Marble. A variety from Astrachan exhibits 
a beautiful golden yellow light in a reddish- 
brown base. The most common kind is 
found at Bleiberg, in Carinthia, -where it 
forms the roof of the lead mines. 
LuNAiRE. See Pierre de Lune. 
LuNNiTB, Bernhardt Hydrous phosphate 
of copper (Phosphochalite), usually in radi- 
ating fibrous masses, of a beautiful emerald- 
green colour. 

Lydian Stone, Jameson ; Lydienne, La 
Metherie; Lydite. A compact variety of 
flinty slate of a velvet-black colour, and 
with a flat-conchoidal fracture. 

Localities. — Scotch. Leadhills, in Lanark- 
shire; Pentland and Moorfoot Hills, near 
Edinburgh. — Lrish. Near Carlow. Glas- 
dumman in Downshire. — Foreign. The 
Harz. Saxony, at Hay nichen, near Freyberg. 
Near Prague and Carlsbad, in Bohemia. 

Name. After the province of Lydia, in 
Asia Minor, where it is said to have been 
first found, in the bed of the river Tmolus. 

This stone is used for testing the purity 
of gold and silver, which is effected by 
rubbing the metal to be tested upon a 
polished surface of the stone, the colour of 
the streak left upon which is sufficient to 
enable those experienced in its use to judge 
of the amount of alloy mixed -with the 
gold. The ancients, -who employed the 
stone for the same purpose, called it '-5 ^.udrj 
(Lapis Lydius), or Lapis Basanites. 
Brit. Mus., Case 21. 

Lyncurion (^Avyxt/^iov'), Theophrastus ; 
Lapis LyncURIUS, Pliny; KWos XayyoO^ios, 
Epiphanius. A stone used by the ancients 
for engraving seals on, and believed by 
them to be produced from the urine of 
the Lynx. By some authors, the Lyncurion 
is supposed to have been identical with the 
Amber of the moderns, but the description 
of the stone given by Theophrastus (1. li. 
lii.) does not at all favour this supposition. 
It is much more probable that the modern 
Hyacinth was the stone indicated (as was 
first suggested by Sir John Hill), the stone 
called va.xiveo;, or the Hyacinthus, by the 
ancients being probably the same as our 
Lyncurium, Valerius. See Schorl. 
Lynx Sapphike, or Luohs Sapphire. 
A name given to dark greyish- or greenish - 
blue varieties of Sapphire, as well as to va- 

224 MAGLE. 

rieties of loHte having the same colour, and 
also called when pale Water Sapphire, or 
Sapphire d'eau. • 


Macle, Haiiy, Brongniart, CleaveJand. 
See Chiastolite. The name, as that of a 
distinct species, is applied to the white 
prisms only. The black rhombs and lines 
are an argillaceous substance of the same 
nature as the gangue, vdth a few whitish 
particles of Made intermixed. 

31. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Xo. 1005. 

Maclukeite, Seyhert. A name given to 
Chondrodite, in honour of Mr, Maclure. 

Macrotypous Kouphoxe-spar, Mohs. 
See Levyxe. 

IMacrotypolts LniE-HALOiD, 3Iohs. See 

Macrotypous Paeachrose - baryte, 
Mohs. See Diallogite. 

Magnes. Pliny's name for the Lode- 
stone, after that of the country (Magnesia, 
a province of ancient Lydia,) where it was 

Magnesia- ALUM ; Magnesia - alaun, 
Rammehberg. Occurs in white fibrous masses, 
and efflorescences, which become opaque on 
exposure to the atmosphere. Lustre silky. 

Camp, ilg S + ^1 S3 + 24H = sulphate of 
magnesia 13-4, sulphate of alumina 38'3 
water 48-3 = 100. 

Analysis, hj A. A. Hayes ; 

Sulphuric acid . . . 36-322 
Alumina .... 12-130 
Magnesia .... 4-682 
Lime ..... 0-126 
Protoxides of iron and man- 
ganese .... 0-430 
Muriatic acid . . . 0-604 
Water .... 45 -450 


Locality. Near Iquique, in Peru. South 


J\Iagnesia-hydrat, See Brucite. 

Magnesia-mica, Nicol. See Biotite. 

Magnesian Carbonate of Leme. See 

Magnesian Phakmacolite. SeeKuiiN- 

Magnesie Borate e, Haiiy. See Bora- 

Magnesie Hydratee, Haiiy. See Bru- 



Magnesie Hydratee Siliceuse, L^y. 
See Maemolite. 

Magnesie Nitratee, Dufrenoy, See 

Magnesie Phosphatee, Dufrency. See 

Magnesie Sulfatee, Haiiy. See Epsom - 


Magnesite, Thomson. See Meerschaum. 

Magnesite, v. Leonhard. Hexagonal. 
Cleavage rhombohedral, perfect. Also amor- 
phous, massive, compact, and sometimes in 
radiating groups. Colour white, greyish- 
white, or j-ellowish, with blackish-brown 
markings. Lustre vitreous. Transparent to 
opaque. Somewhat meagre to the touch. 
Adheres to the tongue. Fracture flat-con- 
choidal. H. 3*5 to 4-5. S.G. 2-8 to 3-05G. 

Comp. Carbonate of magnesia, Mg = 
magnesia 47-62, carbonic acid 52-38 = 100. 
Analysis, by Stromeyer : 

Magnesia . . . . 47 64 
Carbonic acid . . . 50-75 
Water and impurities . . 1-61 


JBB infusible. 

Dissolves slowly, with slight effervescence, 
in nitric or dilute sulphuric acid. 

Localities. Gulsen Mountains in Upper 
Styria, in Serpentine, with Bronzite. Hrub- 
schitz in Moravia, Baumgai'ten in Silesia. 
Baldissero and Castellamonte in Piedmont. 
Vallecas, near Madrid. Madras. United 
States. Canada, forming an immense bed 
at Bolton. 

Brit. Mus., Case 47. 

]\IagnesiTic Ophiolite. The name pro- 
posed by T. Sterry Hant for those varieties 
of Serpentine which contain Magnesite in- 
timately mixed Avith the rock, 

Magneteisenstein, Werner. Magnetic- 
Iron, Allan. Magnetic Iron -ore ; Mag- 
netic Iron-stone, Jameson, Kirwan. See 

Magnetic Pyrites, Jameson, Kirwan, 
FhilUps. See Pyrrhotine. 

IMagnetite, Haidinger. Cubical. Occurs 
in regular octahedrons ; structure imperfectly 

Fig. 271. f i?. 272. Fig. 273. 

lamellar, parallel to the planes of the octahe- ? 
dron. Also eat thy, compact, granular and 

lamellar. Colour iron- black. Lustre metal- 
lic, or submetallic. Opaque. Streak black. 
Brittle. Fracture uneven or conchoidal, 
with a splendent lustre. Strongly magnetic, 
especially when massive, and sometimes ex- 
hibits polarity. H. b'5 to 6-5. S.G. 4-9 to 5-2. 

Comp. Fe #e= protoxide of iron 30-97, 
peroxide of iron 96"03, or iron 71*68, oxygen 
28-32 = 100. 

JBB turns brown and loses its influence 
on the magnet, but fuses with difficulty. 

Soluble in heated muriatic acid, but not 
in nitric acid. 

Localities, — English. Cornwall: Trelus- 
well, near Penryn ; Eoche and occasionally 
at St. Agnes, Huel Harmony and Fowey 
Consols. Haytor in Devonshire, with 
Felspar and Hornblende. — Scotch. Portsoy 
in Banffshire. Unst and other places in 
the Shetlands. East Kona, one of the He- 
brides, in granitCj^^f, 272. Near Loch Long, 
&c. — Irish. Ballypoog, co. Wicklow. In 
amygdaloid at Muck and Magee Islands, 
CO. Antrim, figs. 271, 273, containing 2-00 
per cent, of magnesia and 23 oxide of 
manganese. (Dr. Andrews). — Foreign. The 
ore of Arendal in JS'orwa}', and of nearly all 
the celebrated iron mines of Sweden, con- 
sists of massive Magnetite. Dannemora, 
and the hill of Taberg in Smaoland, are 
almost entirely composed of it; and it is 
stated by Jameson that the loose masses 
found at the base of the latter hill have fur- 
nished materials for extensive iron-works 
for upwards of 150 years. Kurunavara 
and Gellivara in Lapland. Normark in 
Wermland in splendid dodecahedral crystals. 
Neudeck in Bohemia. Hungary. The 
Tyrol. Saxony. Silesia. The Harz. 
Traversella in Piedmont. St. Gotthardt, 
Switzerland. Puy in France. Vesuvius, 
in ejected masses. Elba. Corsica. The 
East Indies. Puchamanche in Chili. United 
States. The Canadas, &c. New Zealand, 
in the form of sand, derived from the de- 
composition of trachytic rocks. 

The most powerful natural magnets are 
found in compact or earthy amorphous 
masses in Siberia, Sweden, Elba, and the 
Harz. See Lodes tone. 

Brit. Mus., Case 14. 

31. P. G. Principal floor. Wall-cases 47 
(British); 18 (Foreign); 39 (E. Indies). 

Magnetkies, Werner. See Pyrrhotine. 

Magnofekrite. The name given by 
Kammelsberg to the octahedral iron which 
occurs inteiiaminated with Hematite, in the 
fumaroles formed at Vesuvius after the 
eruption of 1855. S.G. 456 to 4-838. 


Comp. Mg3 F^e4, 

Analysis, by Rammelsherg : 

Peroxide of iron , . . 82-91 
Magnesia . . . .13-60 
Oxide of copper . . . 0-99 
Insoluble . . . .2-51 

Malachite, Jameson, Brochant, Kirwan, 
Beudant. Oblique. Primary form a right 
rhombic prism, in twins, fig. 274. Ear^ly 
occurs crystallized, but generally massive, 
with a globular, reniform, botryoidal or 
stalactitic surface; frequently fibrous and 
banded in colour ; often granular or earthy. 
Colour various shades of bright green, ex- 
hibiting all degrees of translucency down to 
complete opacity. Lustre of crystals ada- 
mantine, inclining to vitreous ;' of fibrous 
varieties, silky. Streak paler than the co- 
lour. Brittle. Fracture imperfect-conchoi- 
dal to uneven. H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 3-7 to 4. 

Fig. 274, 

Comp. Carbonate of copper, Cu^ C= prot- 
oxide of copper 71-9, carbonic acid 19-9, 
water 8-2 = 100. 

Analysis, by Phillips : 
Carbonic acid 
Protoxide of copper 
Water .... 




BB alone infusible ; decrepitates and turns 
black. With borax readily affords a glo- 
bule of copper, and colours the flux green. 

Soluble with effervescence in acids, and 
forms a blue solution with ammonia. 

Localities. — English. Common in Corn- 
wall, associated with Eed Oxide of Cop- 
per. Cumberland ; botryoidal at Huel Ed- 
ward ; crystallized (fg. ""274), acicular, and 
fibrous, at Eed Gill, Haygil], and Eoughten 
Gill, near Hesket Newmarket, and at Mex- 
ico Mine. — Scotch. The old copper mine, 
Sandlodge, in Mainland, one of the Shet- 
lands, in fine acicular crystals, &c. — Irish. 
Audley Mines, and Coosheen, near Skullj 
CO. Cork. Limerick, &c. — Foreign. Compact 
at Schwatz in the Tyrol. Fibrous abund- 
antly in Siberia. Chessy in France. Crys- 
tallized near Siegen in Prussia. Spain. 



United States. Cuba. Chili. S. Africa. 
Mines at Berabe in Western Africa. 

Name. From ^i«A«%',2, the marsh-mallow ; 
on account of its resemblance in colour to 
the leaves of that plant. 

Malachite is a copper -stalactite, or stalag- 
mite. Independently of its value as an ore 
of copper, Malachite is used as a green pig- 
ment under the name of emerald-green. It 
is also in great request for ornamental pur- 
poses, on account of the variety and beauty 
of its markings, and the high degree of 
polish of -which it is susceptible. Its soft- 
ness, however, renders it of less value than 
it otherwise would be in jewelry. The com- 
pact specimens are worked into snuff-boxes, 
vases, &?. ; and at St. Petersburg large 
tables are made by joining pieces of the 
stone so as to rencler the concentric lines 
continuous. Very fine specimens of Mala- 
chite ornaments were contained in the Kus- 
sian department of the Great Exhibition of 

The handsomest masses of Malachite are 
procured from Siberia, about 100 miles south 
of Bogoslofsk, and at Nijny-Taguilsk. At 
the latter locality an enormous mass of solid 
Malachite was met with, 18 feet long by 9 
in 'width, which was estimated to contain 
500,000 lbs. of pure and solid Malachite. 
Eine specimens are also found in Australia 
at Burra Burra ; and on the west coast of 

Sir Roderick Murchison, in his work on 
the Geology of Russia, in noticing the above- 
mentioned mass, states that it affords a 
strong indication that Malachite has been 
formed by a cupriferous solution, in the 
manner of ordinary stalagmites, and adds 
that " on the whole, we are disposed to view 
it as having resulted from copper solutions 
emanating from all the porous, loose, sur- 
rounding mass ; and which, trickling through 
it to the lowest cavity upon the subjacent 
rock, have, in a series of ages, produced 
this wonderful subterranean incrustation." — 
Geology of Russia, p. 374. 

Pliny, writing of the Malachite, or Molo- 
chites, says : — " Commended it is highly in 
signets for to scale faire : and besides it is 
supposed to be, by a naturall vertue that it 
hath, a countercharme to preserve little 
babes and infants from all witchcrafts and 
sorceries." — Pliny, book xxxviii. chap. 8. 

Brit. Mus., Case 51. 

M.P.G. Principal floor. Case 11 (Burra 
Burra); Wall-cases 2 (British); 15 and 16 
(Foreign); 37 and 38 (Burra Burra); 39 
(W. Africa). 


Malacolite. Malacolithe, JTaiiy, 
Hausmann. A variety of Augite (Sahlite). 

Analysis, from Orrijerfvi, by H. Rose : 

Silica 54-64: 

Lime 24*94 

Magnesia .... 18-00 
Protoxide of manganese . 2-00 
Protoxide of iron . . 1-08 

Name. From fA-ocXaxo;, soft, and XtQo;, stone. 
Brit. Mus., Case 34. 

Malacone, Scheerer. Malakox Pro- 
bably an altered Zircon, from which it 
differs only in somewhat less density and 
hardness, and in containing 3 per cent, of 
Avater. Colour brown. Lusti-e vitreous to 
subresinous. Streak w-^hite or reddish-brown. 
H. 6-5. S.G. 3-9 to 4. 

Comp. :Z^rSi + iH. 

Fig. 275. 

Analysis, from Plitteroe, by Scheerer j 

Silica 31-31 

Zirconia .... 63-40 
Peroxide of iron . . . 0-41 

Yttria 0-34 

Lime 0-39 

Magnesia .... 0-1], 
Water 3-03 


BB gives off" water and behaves like 

Localities. Ilmen Mountains, in Siberia. 
Hitteroe, in Norway. Chanteloube, Haute 
Vienne, France. 

Name. From (JMXa.7ca?, soft. 

Brit, Mus., Case 26. 

Maltha, Kirwan. Earthy mineral pitch. 
See Earthy Bitumen. 

Mai,thacite, Breithaupt. A clayey sub- 
stance occurring massive and in thin plates. 
Colour white or yellowish. Ti-anslucent. 
Soft, like wax ; or friable. S G. 1-99 to 2. 

Comp. Hydrated octosilicate of alumina, 

or Al bi8 + 20H. 

Analysis, by Meissner : 

Silica 50-2 

Alumina . . . .10-7 
Peroxide of iron . . .3-1 
Lime . . . . .0*2 
Water 35-8 




Localities. Stein dorfel, in basalt. Beraun 
in Bohemia, in greenstone. 
Brit. Mus., Case 26. 

Malthe, Beudant. See Eaethy Bi- 

Mancinite. a brown silicate of zinc 
from Mancino, near Leghorn. 

Mangan-amphibole. The name given 
by Hermann to Manganese-spar from Cum- 
mington, Massachusetts, U. S. S.G. 3-42. 
Analysis, by Hermann : 

Silica 48-91 

Protoxide of manganese . 46 '74 

Lime 2-35 

Magnesia .... 2-00 
Protoxide of iron . . trace 

Manganblendb, Breithaupt. Manga- 
nese Blende, Jameson. Cubical. Occurs 
in cubes and octahedrons. Cleavage perfect, 
parallel to the faces of a cube. Generally 
occurs massive, sometimes botryoidal. Co- 
lour iron-black, acquiring a brown tarnish 
by exposure. Lustre submetallic. Streak 
dark green. Opaque. Fracture fine-grained. 
H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 4. 

Comp. Sulphide of manganese, or Mn S = 
manganese 63-3, sulphur 367 = 100. 
Analysis, from Mexico, by Del Rio ; 
Manganese .... 54-5 

Sulphur 39 

Quartz 6-5 


BE fuses with difficulty at the thinnest 

Soluble in acids with the evolution of 
abundance of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

Localities. The gold mines of JSIagyag in 
Transylvania, with Tellurium, &c. Preciosa 
Mine, Puebla, in Mexico; with Tetrahe- 

Brit. Mus., Case 5. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 20. 

Manganese Arsenical, Dufrenoy. See 

Manganese Hydrate Cuprifkre. See 
Mel aconite, KupferschwXrze, and Pe- 


Manganese Noir, Brochant. See Haus- 


Manganese Oxide Carbonate, Haiiy. 


Manganese Oxide Hydrate, Haiiy. 
See Hausmannite. 

Manganese Oxide Hydrate Concre- 
TioNNE, Haiiy. See Psilomelane. 


Manganese Oxyde Metalloide, Haiiy. 
See Manganite. 

Manganese Phosphate. See Triplite. 

Manganese Silicate ") 
Rose, Dufrenoy. f See Rhodo- 

Manganese Silici- T nite. 
FiRE, Haiiy. J 

Manganese Spar, Jameson. See Rho- 

Manganese Sulfure,^ 
Haiiy. I See Mangan- 

Manganglanz, Leon- C blende. 
hard. j 

Manganite, Haidinger, v. Kohell, Nicol. 
Rhombic: primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Occasionally hemihedral. Occurs in 
columnar crystals striated vertically, and 
often grouped in bundles ; also fibrous and 
massive, or radiating; granular. Colour 
dark steel-grey, passing into iron-black. 
Opaque; sometimes brown by transmitted 
light, in very thin fragments. Lustre 
submetallic. Streak reddish-brown; black 
in massive varieties. Rather brittle. Frac- 
ture uneven. H. 3-5 to 4. S.G. 4-2 to 4-4. 

Fig. 276. 

Comp. Hydrated peroxide of manganese, 

Jsfn, H= peroxide of manganese 89-79 (man- 
ganese 62-78, oxygen 27-22), water 10-21 = 
Analysis, from Ihlefeld, by Turner ; 
Manganese .... 62*77 
Oxygen .... 27-13 
Water .... 10-10 

BB alone infusible : with borax affords a 
violet-blue globule. 

Completely soluble in muriatic acid, with 
evolution of chlorine. 

Localities. — English. Upton Pyne, Devon- 
shire : fig. 276. Mendip Hills (at Churchill, 
&c.) Somerset. Cornwall ; Botallack Mine, 
St. Just; Restorrael Iron-mines, acicular; 
massive at Trebartha ; Veryan and Indian 
Queen Mine. Hartshill, Warwickshire, la- 
mellar and compact. — • Scotch. Granam in 
Aberdeenshire, 3?5f. 276. — Irish. Near Howth, 
CO. Dublin. Cork; Ross, Leap, Noharval, 
Castleventry. Kilfaunabeg near Ross. — 
Foreign. Ihlefeld in the Harz, associated 
with Calc Spar and Barvtes, in veins tra- 
q2 " 


versing porphyry. Thuringia. Bohemia. 
Saxony. Undenaes in Sweden. Christian- 
sand in Xorway. 

Manganite is the purest and most beauti- 
fully crystallized ore of manganese. It is 
distinguished from Pyrolusite by its greater 
hardness and brown streak, which some- 
times appears black until a portion has been 

Brit. Mus., Case 13. 

Manga^'kiesel. See Khodonite. 

Mangankupfererz, Credner. SeeCKED- 

Mangaistkupferoxyd, Hausmann. See 

Manganocalcite, Breithaupt. A mineral 
bearing the same relation to Diallogite 
which Aragonite does to Gale Spar. Occurs 
in rhombic prisms, like Aragonite, with a 
lateral cleavage. Colour flesh-red to reddish- 
white. Lustre vitreous. Translucent. H. 
4 to 5. S.G. 3-037. 

Comp. Like Diallogite or (Mn, Fe, Ca, 

Mg) C. 
Analysis, by Rammelsherg : 

Carbonate of manganese. . 67*48 

Carbonate of iron . . 3-22 

Carbonate of lime . . 18-81 

Carbonate of magnesia . 9-97 


Locality. Schemuitz in Hungary. 

Mangaxschaum, Hausmann. See Wad. 

Manganspath, Werner. See Diallo- 

Mangan-vitriol, Glocker. See Sul- 
PHA.TE OF Manganese. 

Marasmolite, Shepard. A partially 
decomposed Marmatite, containing some 
free sulphur; from Middletown, Connecti- 
cut, U.S. 

Marcasite, Haidinger. Iron Pyrites. 
Rhombic : primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Occurs crystallized in modified 
rhombic prisms ; also stalactitic, reniform, 
and botryoidal. Colour pale bronze-yellow 
or nearly tin-white, with a tinge of yellow 
or grey. Lustre metallic. Streak dark 
greenish-grey. Brittle. Emits a smell of 
sulphur when triturated. Very liable to 
decompose. Fracture u.neven. H. 6 to 6-5. 
S.G. 4-65 to 4-88. 

Comp. Bisulphide of iron, or Fe S^^iron 
46-7, sulphur 63-3 = 100. 

BB behaves like Pyrites. 

Localities. Often in the joints or "backs" 


of coal. English. — Cornwall; Crowndale, 
Cook's Kitchen, Huel Unity, Fowey Consols, 

Fig 277. 

Fig. 278. 

Fig. 279. 

East Huel Rose, stalactitic and radiated. 
Devonshire: on crystalli;:ed Quartz at 
Virtuous Lady Mine, fi:/, 279 ; Tamar Sil- 
ver-lead Mines, near Tavistock ; Combmar- 
tin. Kent : in grey chalk marl near Folke- 
stone and Dover, fig. 278 ; Isle of Sheppey. 
Devizes, in Wiltshire. Near Castleton, 
Derbyshire, figs. 277 and 279. On crystals 
of Calc Spar at Garrigill in Cumberland, 
fig. 278. — Scotch. Alva mine, Stirlingshire. 
— Irish. Near Dublin : in lance-shaped crys- 
tals at Kilkee, co. Clare. — Foreign. In 
the plastic clay of the Brown Coal forma- 
tion at Littmitz and Alsatell, near Carlsbad 
in Bohemia (Spear and Radiated Pyrites'). 
Joachimsthal and various parts of Saxony. 

Name. The word Marcasite is stated by 
Koch to be derived from an Arabic word, 
mawr kjass idd, signifying " like a shining, 
fire*giving stone." 

Brit. Mus., Case 16. 

M.F. G. Horse-shoe Case, jSTo. 150. 

Under the term Marcasite are included 
several varieties, which have been named 
after the forms they present: viz. Cellular 
Pyrites, Cockscomb Pyrites, Hepatic Pyrites 
or Leberkies, Lonchidite, Radiated Pyrites, 
Spear Pyrites, &c. Marcasite is more' liable 
to decomposition than ordinary Pyrites, and 
is of a much paler colour. It is used in the 
manufacture of sulphur, sulphuric acid, and 
sulphate of iron, but not to so great an 
extent as ordinary Pyrites. It is also em- 
ployed for ornamental purposes. Formerly 
it was made into shoe- and knee-buckles, 
and set in pins, bracelets, watch-cases, &c. ; 
but the demand has very much diminished 
of late years, owing probably to the mineral 
being go common. The taste revived to 
some extent in 1846, when a great quantity 
of these stones, having reached Paris, 
were mounted after the manner of old- 
fashioned jewelry, and had a great run at 

the time. Although less in request than 
formerly, large quantities of this stone are 
cut and polished in Geneva and the French 
Jura, and exported thence all over the 
world. It takes a good polish, and is 
cut in facets like rose-diamonds. In this 
state it possesses all the brightness of the 
polished steel, which is now so fashionable, 
without its tendency to become oxidised by 
exposure to the atmosphere. The Marcasite 
of commerce (which includes Pyrites pro- 
per) is generally small, rarel}'- Attaining the 
size of a stone of two carats. The stone 
which the ancient Peruvians polished and 
used for mirrors was a variety of Marcasite 
which occurred in large plates, none of which 
are found now. See Pierre des Incas. 

Marceline, Beudant. An impure variety 
of Braunite. S.Gr. 4'75. 
Analysis, by Damour : 
Peroxide of manganese . 67*37 
Protoxide of manganese . 19-17 
Peroxide of iron . . . 1*45 

Silica 7-71 

Lime 1-22 

Gangue .... 2-72 


Locality. St. Marcel in Piedmont. 

Brit. Mus., Case 13. 

Marekanite. a variety of Pearlstone 
occurring in the form of pearly-white 
grains composed of thin concentric layers. 
• Locality. Marekan, in the Gulf of Kamts- 

Brit. Mus., Case 30. 

Margauite, Fuchs, Phillips. Rhombic ; 
hemihedral, with an oblique aspect. Basal 
cleavage perfect. Occurs in thin crystal- 
line laminjE, which intersect each other in 
all directions, and have the lateral planes 
striated horizontally. Colour pale pearl- 
grey, passing into reddish- and yello.wish- 
white. Translucent. Lustre pearly on the 
terminal planes, vitreous on the" others. 
Streak white. Laminas rather brittle. In 
thin leaves slightly elastic. H. 3-5 to 4-5. 
S.G. 2-99. 

Comp. R3 si + 3A12 Si + 3H = silica 30-1 , 
alumina 51-2, lime 11-6, soda 2-6, water 4-5 
= 100. 
Analysis, by Stnith §• Brush : 

Silica 28-47 

Alumina . . . . 50-24 
Peroxide of iron . . .1-65 

Lime 11-50 

Magnesia . . . .0-70 

Soda, with a trace of potash 1-87 


Water . . . .5-00 


BB intumesces and fuses. 

Is attacked by acids. 

Localities. — Sterzing in the Tyrol, in 
foliated Chlorite. Greinerberg, Zillerthal, 
with Chlorite. With Corundum at Kathe- 
rinenberg in the Ural. The emery localities 
in Asia Minor and the Grecian Archipelago. 
Pennsylvania, North Carolina, &c., U.S. 

Name. — From Margarita, a pearl; be- 
cause of its peculiar pearly lustre. 

Brit. Mus., Case 32. 

Margarodite, Dufrenoy, Schaffh'dutl. 
A hydrated Mica ; rarely occurring in fine- 
grained laminae, in which case it bears a 
great resemblance to Mica. Colour dull 
green, passing into bright green. Lnstre 
sometimes opalescent, sometimes like mo- 
ther-of-pearl. Slightly translucent at the 
edges. Easily pulverised. H. 2-5. S.G. 2-87. 

Comp. R Si + 2it Si + 2H, or 12(A15 Si2) 

+ 3(Mg, Si2) + f e sis + 6>ia Si + 9K Si. 
Analysis, from Pfitsch, by Hlasiwitz ; 

Silica 45-50 

Alumina . . . .33-80 
Peroxide of iron . . . 6-25 

Potash 7-31 

Soda 6-22 

Lime . ... . . 0-48 

Loss by ignition . . .0-36 


BB in fine laminae fuses, emitting a vivid 
light and jdelding a white enamel. With 
borax yields a colourless glass. 

Not affected by acids. 

Localities. The S.E. of Ireland, in gra- 
nite. The Zillerthal, forming the matrix of 
black Tourmaline. St. Etienne in'France, 
in graphic granite. Poorhouse Quarry, 
Chester co., Pennsylvania, U.S. ; Munroe, 
associated with Topaz and Fluor. 

Margode. a bluish-grey stone resem- 
bling clay. in external appearance, but so hard 
as to cut spars and zeolites. (Nicholson). 

Marialite, Ryllo. See HaItyne. 

Mariatitb. a variety of Blende, in 
which part of the zinc is "replaced by iron 
and sometimes by cadmium. Occurs in 
tetrahedrons and massive. 

Comp. 3Zn, S + Fe, S. 

Analysis, by Boussingault ; 

Sulphide of zinc . . . 76*8 
Sulphide of iron . . . 23-2 

100-0 ' 


Localities. Marmato in Popayan. Bottino 
near Serravezza in Tuscany. 

MAPaoNiTE, Elderhorst. The variety of 
Zinc-bloom from Marion co., Arkansas. 

MaKjMOLITE, Nuttall, Beudant, Dufre- 
noy, Allan. A thin foliated variety of Ser- 
pentine, occurring in translucent or opaque 
masses of a pale green colour : sometimes 
nearly white. Lustre pearly. Folia brittle 
and separable. S.G. 2-41. 

Comp. MgS, Si2, H4. 

Analysis, by Lychnell: 

Silica . . . . 

. 41-67 


. 41-25 

Protoxide of iron 

. 1-64 

Carbonic acid 

. 1-37 

Water . . . . 

. 13-80 

Localities. Hoboken in New Jersey, 
associated with Brucite, Magnesite, &c. 
Blandford, Massachusetts, U.S., with Schil- 
ler Spar, 

Name. From f/.cc^!UMtioo, to shine. 
When the laminae are not separable it is 
sometimes miscalled Kerolite. 

Martial AKSE^^IATE of Copper. Al- 
lan, Jameson. See Scorodite. 
Martial Pyrites. See Pyrites. 
Martinsite, Karsten. A variety of Com- 
mon Salt, from Stassfurth, containing 9-02 
per cent, of sulphate of magnesia. It gives 
out a bituminous odour when rubbed, and 
dissolves in water with a very slight effer- 
Analysis ; 

Chloride of sodium 
Sulphate of magnesia 
Sulphate of lime . 
Alumina and 
Peroxide of iron . 

Name. After Captain Martin of Halle, 
Martite, Breithaupt. Cubical. Occurs 
in regular octahedrons, which are often 
flattened, and have their faces striated 
parallel to the edges. Cleavage indistinct. 
Colour iron-black, sometimes with a bronze 
tarnish. Lustre submetallic. Streak red- 
dish brown. Fracture conchoidal. H, 6, 
S.G. 4-6 to 5-B3, 

Comp. #-e = iron 70, oxygen 30 = 100, 
Localities. Framont. Auvergne. Vesu- 
vius. Peru. Brazil. Munroe, Xew York, 


Mascagnin, Karsten, Reuss. Mascag- 
NiNE, Dana. Ehombic. Generally occurs 

. 90-30 

. 9-02 

. 0-50 

; I 0-20 

stalactitic, pulverulent, or in mealy crusts. 
Colour gre3dsh or yellow. Lustre of crystals 
vitreous. Translucent or opaque. Taste pun- 
gent and bitter. H. 2 to 2-5. S.G. l' 1-73. 

Fig. 280. 

Comp. Snjphate of ammonia, NH'*, S + 

2H=sulphuric acid 52-33, ammonia 34*67, 
water 12-00 = 100, 

Readily soluble in water. Attracts mois- 
ture from the atmosphere, and is entirely 
volatile at a high temperature. 

Localities. In fissu.res in the lavas of 
Etna and Vesuvius, and the Lipari Isles. 
The lagunes near Sienna in Tuscany. 

Name. After Professor Mascagui, by 
whom it was discovered. 

Masculine. See Gem. 

Masonite, C. T. Jackson. A variety of 
Chloritoid. Colour black. Lustre pearly. 
H. 6. S.G, 3-52, 

Analysis, by Whitney ; 

ilica , 

. 28-27 


. 32-16 

'rotoxide of iron . 

. 33-72 


. 0-13 

7ater . 

. 5-00 

Locality. Near Natic Village, Ehode Is- 
land ; in compact argillaceous states. 
Brit, Mus., Case 33, 

Matlockite, R. p. Greg. Pyramidal: 
primary form a right square prism. Occurs 
in tabular crystals with an imperfect basal 
cleavage. Colour yellowish, sometimes 
slightly greenish. Lustre adamantine, occa- 
sionally pearly on planes of cleavage. 
Transparent to translucent. Fracture UU" 

Fig. 283. 

even and slightlv conchoidal. H. 2'5 to 
S.G, 7-21. 


Comp. Pb CI + Pb, = chloride of lead 55*5, 
oxide of lead 44-5 = 100. 

Analysis, from Cromford, by Dr. R. A. 
Smith : 

Chloride of lead . . . 55-177 

Oxide of lead . . . 44-300 

Water .... 0-072 

BB decrepitates, and on charcoal fuses 
easily to a greyish-yellow globule. 
Readily soluble in nitric acid. 
Locality. Near Cromford in Derbyshire, 
in one of the air-shafts of an old level. 
Brit. Mus., Case 57b. 
Mauilite. a variety of Labradorite 
occurring in glassy colourless crystals, in 
Maui, one of the Sandwich Islands. 
Analysis, by Schlieper ; 

Silica 53-98 

Alumina .... 27-56 
Peroxide of iron . . . 1'14 

Lime 8-65 

Soda 6-06 

Potash 0-47 

Magnesia .... 1-35 


Meadow Oee, Jameson. Meadow Ikon- 
gee, Kirwan. See Bog Iron-ore. 

Mealy Zeolite. The name sometimes 
given to the delicate interlacing crystals of 
Mesolite, when crushed. 

Medjidite, J. L. Smith. Massive, with 
an imperfectly crystalline texture. Colour 
dark copper-yellow. Lustre vitreous. Trans- 
parent. Often dull externally, owing to 
the loss of water. Fracture horny. H. 

Comp. Sulphate of uranium and lime, or 

#S + CaS+15H. 
Analysis ; 

Sulphate of uranium . . 87-21 
Sulphuric acid . . . 20-67 

Lime 7-24 

Water 34-88 

BB with borax behaves like Liebigite. 
At a gentle heat it loses water and assumes 
a lemon-yellow colour ; blackens at a red 
heat, being converted into oxide of uranium 
and sulphate of lime. 

Dissolves sparingly in dilute muriatic 

Localities. Near Adrianople In Turkey, 
accompanying an impure variety of Pitch- 
blende, and associated with Liebigite. 


Joachimsthal in Bohemia, on Uranium Ore, 
with Liebigite. 

Name. In honour of Abdul Medjid, 
Sultan of Turkey. 

MEERSCHAu:\r, Werner. Compact. Colour 
white or yellowish. Dull and opaque. 
Adheres to the tongue. Yields to the nail. 
Feels smooth. Sti-eak shining. Fracture 
earthy. H. 2 to 2-5. S.G. 1-3 to 1-6. 

Comp. Hydrated silicate of magnesia, 

or]\JgSi-i-2H = siLica 60*9, magnesia 26-1, 

water 12-0 = 100. 
Analysis, from Asia Minor, b v Lychnell : 
Silica . . . . \ 60-87 
Magnesia .... 27-80 
Peroxide of iron and alumina 0*09 
Water 11-29 

BB shrinks up,"becomes hard and fuses at 
the edges to a white enamel. 

Localities. In stratified earthy or allu- 
vial deposits, at the plains of Eski-shehr in 
Asia Minor, and at Kiltschik, near Konieh, 
inXatolia. Islands of Samos and Negro- 
pont. Greece. Hungary. Hrubschitz in 
Mora-\ia. Coulommiers, Dept. Seine-et- 
Marne, forming a bed in the upper green 
marls of the freshwater limestone of La 
Brie. Spain ; at Yalecas near Madrid, and 
near Toledo. Morocco, 

Name. It is named Meerschaum, or froth of 
the sea, from its lightness and white colour. 
Meerschaum when first dug up is soft and 
forms a lather like soap ; on which account, 
and from its absorbing grease, it is used by 
the Turks for fuller's earth, for cleansing 
purposes, and in washing their linen. The 
Turks are also said to eat it as a medicine, 
but its principal use is in the manufacture of 
tobacco-pipes, for which it is peculiarly 
adapted from its porosity, which causes it to 
absorb the oily matter given out in smok- 
ing, and in doing so to acquire a beautiful 
warm-brown colour. The bowls of the pipes, 
when imported into Germany, are prepared 
for sale by soaking them first in tallow, 
then in wax, and finally by polishing them 
with shave-grass. Sometimes they are arti- 
ficially stained by steeping them (before 
being soaxed in wax) in a solution of 
copperas, either alone or tinged with dra- 
gon's blood. 

Brit. Mus., Case 25. 

3L P. G. Horse-shoe Case, Nos. 1188 
to 1194. 

Megabromite, Breithaupt. A variety of 
Chloro-bromide of Silver, bearing a strong 
Q 4 


resemblance to Embolite in physical cha- 
racters. Crystalline form cubic. Colour 
siskin- to pistachio -green, changing on ex- 
posure to the light to blackish-grey. Lustre 
adamantine. Streak pale green. Slightly 
malleable and sectile. Fracture conchoidal 
and uneven. H. 2-75 to 3. S.G. 6-23 to 

Comp. 4Ag CI + 5Ag Br. 
Analysis, by T. Richter ; 

Silver 64-19 

Bromine .... 26-49 
Chlorine .... 9-32 
Iodine trace 

Locality. Copiapo in Chili ; in compact 

Me'ionite, Haily. Pyramidal; primary 
form a right square prism. Generally oc- 
<'.urs in small four- or eight-sided prisms 
terminated by tetrahedral pyramids, the 
edges or angles of which are sometimes re- 
placed. Colour whitish or greyish-white. 
Lustre vitreous. Translucent to transparent. 
Often traversed by fissures internally. 
Scratches glass. H. 5-5 to 6. S..G. 2-5 to 2-74. 

Comp. Ca3 Si + 2A1 Si = silica 42-1, alu- 
irdna 31-9, lime 26 = 100. 

Analysis, from Vesuvius, by Stromeyer: 
Silica 40-53 

Lime . 
Soda and potash 
Peroxide of iron 




^ BB swells up strongly, and fuses to a 
blistered colourless glass. 

Perfectly decomposed by muriatic acid, 
with the formation of a jelfy. 

Locality. jNIonte Somma, near Vesuvius, 
generally in geodes, or adhering to frag- 
ments of granular limestone. 

Name. From f^i^m, less, in consequence of 
the p3Tamid with which the crystals are 
usually terminated being less acute than in 

Brit. Mus. Case 31. 

M.P. G. Upper Gallers-, Table-case A in 
recess 4, Nos. 100 to 111. 

jMelaconise, Beudant. Melaconite, 
Dana. Melakonite, Dufrenoy. An earthy 
and impure black oxide of copper, resulting, 
probably, from the decomposition of Erubes- 
cite and other ores. Occurs in pseudo- 
morphous cubic forms; also pulverulent 
and earthy, and massive. Colour dark steel- 
grey to black. Lustre sub-metallic. Opaque, i 

Streak shining. Commonly friable and soil- 
ing the fingers. S.G. 5-2. 

Comp. -6-u = copper 79'85, oxygen 20-15 
= 100. Often contains a large percentage 
of oxide of manganese and of water. 

BB affords a globule of copper in the 
inner flame. 

Localities. English. — Cornwall ; at Hue! 
Buller, Huel Trefusis, and other mines, in 
gossan. Hay Gill and Roughten Gill, Cum- 
berland. Great Orme's Head, Caernarvon- 
shire, in limestone. Foreign. — Chessy near 
Lyons. Siberia. Peru. Copper Harbour, 
Keweenaw Point, Lake Superior, forming 
a vein in conglomerate. 

Name. From uixccg^ black, and xovn, powder. 

Brit. Mus., Case 17. 

M P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-eases 1 
(British); 15 and 17 (Foreign). 

Melanasphalt, Wetherill. The name 
given to the Albert Coal of iN'ova Scotia, 
which has the appearance, but not the fusi- 
bility, of Asphaltum. It contains 58-8 to 
61"67 per cent, of volatile matter, according 
to Dr. Jackson. Dr. Wetherill states that 4 
parts are soluble in ether and 30 in turpen- 

Analysis, by Dr. Wetherill : 

Carbon .... 82-670 
Hydrogen .... 9-141 
Oxygen, nitrogen . . 8*189 


See Albert Coal. 

Mela]s^chlor, Fuchs. A blackish-green 
variety of phosphate of iron, from Eaben- 
stein, stated by Scemann to be a result of 
the alteration of Triphyline. It contains, 
besides impurities, about 3-87 per cent, of 
protoxide of iron, 38-9 peroxide of iron, 25*5 
to 30-3 phosphoric acid, and 9 to 10 of water. 
S.G. 3-38. 

BB fuses readily into a black magnetic 

Peadily soluble in warm muriatic acid. 

Name. From f^ixag, black, and »x»jof, 
green, in allusion to its colour. 

Melanglanz. See Stephanite. 

IMelanite, Jameson, Phillips. A variety 
of Iron-lime Garnet, of a velvet-black co- 
lour. Opaque. Occurs in rhombic dodeca- 

Fig. 284. 

hedrons, whose edges are replaced. Streak 
grey. S.G. 3-7. 



Analysis, from Frascati, by Karsten : 

Silica 34-60 

Alumina .... 4-55 
Peroxide of iron . . . 28-15 
Magnesia .... 0*65 
Lime 31-80 


Comp. Ca2Si + FeSi. 

BB alone, fuses to a brilliant black glo- 
bule ; with borax, difficultly to an impure 
glass coloured green by iron. 

Localities. Norway.' The Pyrenees. The 
older lavas of Vesuvius, and the Papal 
States, chiefly at St. Albano and Frascati, 
near Rome. The latter are locally called 
Jalack Garnets of Frascati. 

Name. From f^i^ica, black, in allusion to 
its colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 36. 

M. P. G. Upper Gallery, Table-case B, 
in recess 6, No. 158. 

Mblanochroite, Hermann, Dufrenoy. 
In rhombic prisms, with two faces enlarged, 
so as to impart to the crystal a tabular 
form ; also massive. Colour between cochi- 
neal- and hyacinth-red. Lustre resinous. 
Translucent at the edges. Streak brick- 
red. H. 3 to 3-5. S.G. 5-75. " 

Comp. Chromate of lead, or Pb^ Cr2 = 
protoxide of lead 76*7, chromic acid 23-3 = 

Analysis, by Hermann : 
Protoxide of lead . . . 76-69 
Chromic acid . . . 23-31 

Carbonate of lime . .12-77 
Water 8'94 


BB decrepitates slightly when heated, 
becoming for the time of a darker colour. 
On charcoal fuses to a dark coloured mass, 
•U'hich becomes crystalline on cooling. In 
the inner flame yields fames of lead, lead 
globules, and oxide of chrome. 

Locality. BeresoAV, in the Ural, in limestone, 
with Galena, Vauquelinite, Crocoisite, &c. 
Name. From a^£X«?, black, and ;ts««', colour. 
Brit. Mus., Case 39. 

M. P. G. Principal Floor, Wall-case 21. 
Melanoltte, Wurtz. Resembles Chlo- 
rite in appearance. Colour black. Opaque. 
Streak dark olive-green. Structure colum- 
nar, with a striated surface. H, 2. S.G. 2-69. 
Analysis, by Wurtz : 

Silica 30-86 

Alumina .... 3-92 
Peroxide of iron . . .21-97 
Protoxide of iron . . . 21-97 
Soda 1-62 

Locality. Milk Row Quarry, near Charles- 
town, Massachusetts, U.S., coating the sides 
of a fissure. 

Name. From ,m.£>i«?, black, and A/fo?, stone. 
Melanterie, Leymerie. Melanterite, 
Haidinger, Greg 8f Leitsom. See Copperas. 
The name is derived from Melanteria (from 
^sA«?, black), the term used by Pliny for 
that mineral. 

Melinophane, T7i. Scheerer. Pyramidal 
or hexagonal. Occurs massive, with a 
scaly and sometimes foliated structure. 
Cleavage in one direction. Colour sulphur-, 
lemon-, or honev-yello-\v. Lustre vitreous. 
Brittle. H. 5. "S.G. 3-018. 
Analysis, by R. Richter ; 

Silica 44-8 

Glucina 2-2 

Alumina .... 12-4 
Peroxide of manganese . . 1-4 
Peroxide of iron . . .1-1 

Lime 31-5 

Magnesia , . , .0-2 

Soda 2-6 

Fluorine . . . .2-3 
Zirconia, oxide of chrome, 
yttria, peroxide of nickel . 0-3 

Locality. Near Fredericksvjirn, Norway, 
in zircon-syenite, with Elaeolite, Magnetic 
Iron, Mica, &c. , 

Melinose, Beudant, (from f^skms, pale 
yellow.) See Wulfenite. 

Mellate of Alumina. See Mellite. 

Mellateof Iron. See Humboldtine. 
This name was given by Breithaupt to 
oxalate of iron, from its supposed composi- 

Mbllilite, Kirwan. See Mellite. 

Mellilite, F. de Bellevue. Pyramidal : 
Occurs in small square prisms, the lateral 
edges of which are mostly replaced. Colour 
yellowish-white, honey -yellow, or orange, 
but generally covered externally with a 
coating of oxide of iron. Lustre vitreous 

Fig. 285. 

or resinous. Translucent to opaque. Trans- 
parent in thin laminae. Fracture uneven 
to conchoidal. H. 5. S.G. 2-9 to 3-1. 



Comp. ti Si + 2 K5 isi2, or (Al iFe) Si + 
2(Ca, Mg, Na, K) 812. 

Analysis, from Capo di Bove, by Damour : 
. 38-34 

Silica . 

Peroxide of iron . 
Lime . 
Soda . 
Potash . 



BB fuses without effervescence to a green- 
ish glass. 

When reduced to powder gelatinises with 
nitric acid. 

Localities. Capo di Bove, near Eome, in 
lava, with Nepheline, Pleonaste, &c. 

Name. From mel, honey, and ^'"^sf, stone, 
in allusion to its colour. 

Brit. Mus., Case 36. 

Mellite, Brochant, Haily. Pyramidal : 
primary form an octahedron with a square 
base, in which it also occurs with the ter- 
minal or lateral solid angles or edges re- 
placed. Cleavage octahedral, indistinct. 
Colour honey- or Avax - yellow, reddish, 
brownish. Lustre resinous, inclining to 
vitreous. Transparent to translucent. Sec- 
tile, Brittle. Fracture conchoidal. H. 2 to 
2-0. S.G. 1-55 to 1-65. 

Fig. 286. 

Comp. M M3 + 18H= alumina 14-32, mel- 
litic acid 40-53, water 45-15 = 100. 
Analysis, by Wohler : 

Alumina .... 14*5 
MeUitic acid . . . . 41-4 
Water 44-1 

BB becomes opaque-white, with black 
spots, emits no vapour, and a scarcely per- 
ceptible odour, and is reduced to ashes with- 
out showing any flame. 
Soluble in niti-ic acid. 
Localities. Arten, in Thuringia, and Lan- 
genbogen, in Prussian Saxony ; the mine of 
Dmitriz wsk, in the district of 2^ ertschinsk, in 
Russia, in bituminous coal; Luschitz, near 
Bilin, in Bohemia ; near Walchow, in Mo- 
ravia. It occurs on bituminous wood and 


earthy coal, and is generally accompanied 
by sulphur. 

Name. From mel, honey, because of its 
honey-yellow colour. 

Brit."'Mus., Case 60. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 109. 

Melopsite. a yellowish or greenish- 
white Lithomarge, from Neudeck, in Bo- 
hemia, H. 2 to 3. S./t. 2-5 to 2-6. 

Menac. See Sphene. 

Menacan, Werner ; Menaccanite. A 
variety of Titaniferous Iron, occurring mas- 
sive and in grains. Colour light iron-black 
to steel -grey. Streak black. Fracture un- 
even to flat -conchoidal. Magnetic. H. 5-5. 
S.G. 4-7 to 4-8. 

Analysis, by v. Kobell : 

Titanic acid .... 43-24 
Peroxide of iron . . .28-66 
Protoxide of iron . . .27-91 


Localities. Cornwall ; in the bed of a 
rivulet, at Tregonwell Mill, near Menaccan, 
in grains and small angular fragments of 
an iron -black colour; also in a stream at 
Lanarth, St. Keverne ; near Gwendra, on 
the south coast, in diallage rock. 

Name. After the locality, Menaccan, 
where it was flrst observed. 

Brit. Mus., Case 37. 

3L P. G. Wall-case 13, on Principal 

Menachanite, Kirwan, Jameson. Me- 
NAKANiTE, Brochant. See Menaccanite. 

Menachine Ore, Werner. \ See 

Menakerz, Werner. j Sphene. 

Mendipite, Breithaupt. Anorthic : pri- 
mary form a right rhombic prism. Occurs 
in crystalline masses, having a fibrous and 
radiated columnar structure. Colour Avhite, 
sometimes with a yellow or reddish tinge. 
Feebly translucent to opaque. Lustre pearly 
on cleavage faces. Streak white. H. 2*5 
to 3. S.G. 7-077. 

Comp. Pb, CI + 2Pb = chloride of lead S8-4, 
oxide of lead 61-6 = 100. 

Analysis, from Churchill, by Berzelius : 
Oxide of lead . . . 60-18 
Chloride of lead . . . 39-82 

BB decrepitates slightly when heated, 
and appears yellower after cooling. Fuses 
very readily. On charcoal is reduced with 
evolution of acid vapours. 
Easily soluble in nitric acid. 
Localities. This rare mineral was princi- 
pally found near Churchill, in the Mendip 


Hills of Somersetshire, on earthy black 
manganese. It occurs also in opaque pris- 
matic crystals at Tarnowitz, in Silesia, and 
at the Kunibert Mine, near Brilon, in 
Westphalia, with Calc Spar and Calamine. 
Brit. Mus., Case 57 b. 
Meneghinite, Bechi. A kind of Hete- 
romorphite or Feather - ore, occurring in 
compact fibrous forms. Very lustrous. 
H. 2 5. 

Comp. 4PbS + SbS3. 
A.nalysis, by Bechi : 

Sulphur .... 17-52 
Antimony . . . .19-28 

Lead 69-21 

Copper 3-54 

Iron . . . . . 0-34 

Locality. Bottino, near Serravezza, in 

Name. After Prof, Meneghini, of Pisa. 
Mengite, G., Nicol, Dufrenoy. 
Rhombic: occurs in small short prisms, 
which are often terminated by four- sided 
pyramids. Colour iron-black. Lustre sub- 
metallic ; of fractured surface, sub-vitreous. 
Opaque. Streak chestnut-brown. Fracture 
uneven. H. 5 to 5-5. S.G. 5-48. 

Fig. 287. 

Comp. Fe, :&r, Ti. 
BB infusible, but becomes magnetic. 
Almost wholly soluble in warm concen- 
trated sulphuric acid. 

Locality. Ilmen Mountains, in granite 
veins, imbedded in Albite. 
Name. After Mons. Menge. 
Menilitk, Werner. A brown and opaque 
Variety of Opal, found in irregular, com- 
pact, reniform nodules, which are sometimes 
slaty, in tertiary strata in many localities in 
the neighbourliood of Paris. Translucent, 
il^urface dull, and sometimes covered with a 
white crust. Brittle. 
Analysis, by Klaproth : 

Silica 85-50 

Alumina . . . .1-00 
Peroxide of iron . . .0-50 

Lime 0-50 

Water and carbonaceous 
matter .... H'OO 

Localities. Principally at Saint- Ouen and 

MESOLE. 235 

Menil-montant, near Paris, in beds of adhe- 
sive slate ; and in the environs of Le Mans. 

Name. After that of the locality. 

Brit. Mus., Case 24. 

M. P. G. Horse-shoe Case, No. 772. 

Mennige, Hausmann. See Minium. 

Mercueblende. See Cinnabar. 

Mercure Argental,"\ 
Haiiy. f See Native 

Mercure Argentif, T Amalgam. 
Haiiy. j 

Mercure Chlorure. See Calomel. 

Mercure Corne, Rome de Lisle. See 

Mercure Iodure, Dufrenoy. See Coc- 


Mercure Muriate, Brochant, Haiiy. 
See Calomel. 

Mercure Natif, Haiiy. See Quick- 

Mercure Sulfure, Haiiy. See Cinna- 

Mercurial Hepatic-ore, Jameson. See 
Hepatic Cinnabar. 

Mercurial Horn-ore, Jameson. See 

Mercurial Liver- ore, Jameson^ See 
Hepatic Cinnabar. 

Merda di Diavolo. Name for Dyso- 
dile, in Sicily. 

aiERKURGLANZ. See Onofrite. 

Meroxene, Breithaupt. The name given 
to the brilliant crystals of Biotite, from 
Vesuvius. Colour brownish-green. Unc- 
tuous to the touch. S.G. 2-8. 

Mesitine Spar, Dana, Nicol. Mesitin- 
SPATH, Dufrenoy. A variety of Breunnerite, 
occurring in lenticular forms at Traversella, 
in Piedmont. 

Analysis, by Gibhs : 

Carbonate of magnesia . 56-14 
Carbonate of iron . . 43-36 

Carbonate of lime . . 0-29 

Name. From f^ia-oTv,?, in allusion to its 
composition, which is intermediate between 
Spathose Iron and Carbonate of Magnesia. 
Brit. Mus., Case 47, 

Mesole, Haidinger, Rose. Occurs in im- 
planted globules, with a flat columnar or 
fibrous structure, radiating from the centre, 
or stalactitic. Colour greyish -white, yel- 
lowish, or reddish. Translucent. Lustre silky 
or pearlv. Lamines slightlv elastic. Streak 
white. "H. 3-5. S.G. 2-35"'to 2-4. 

Comp. (Ca3, Na) 2Si + 3 Al Si + 8H. 


Analysis, from Skye, by Thomson : 

SiUca 40-33 

Alumina .... 29-00 
Lime ..... 12-12 

Soda 5-33 

Water 13-22 


BB fuses with effervescence to a frotby 

Forms a jelly with muriatic acid. 

Localities. — Scotch.- Tsle of Skye, near 
Talisker, in white globules, Avith a radi- 
ated structure; at Storr, in bluish-white 
implanted spheres; Portree; Uig, lining 
cavities, in trap. — Irish. Antrim : Port- 
rush, in greenstone ; Black Cave, near Lame. 
Slieve Gallion Cairn, and Milligan, in Lon- 
dondeny. — Foreign. Faroe Islands, some- 
times in stalactites three inches long. Disco 
Island, Greenland, resembling crystallized 
spermaceti. Skagastrand, in the north of 
Iceland. Rostanga, in Scania, Sweden. Near 
the village of Fort George, in the Bay of 

Mesole is distinguished from Mesotype 
by its perfect single cleavage and pearly 
lustre; from Stilbite or Heulandite by its 
higher specific gravity ; and from Apophyl- 
lite by its crest or fan-like aggregations, 
which never occur in that mineral. (^Allan's 

In composition Mesole contains one equi- 
valent less of soda than Mesolite, and stands 
intermediate between that mineral and 

Brit. Mus., Case 27. 

Mesolin, Berzelius. See LE\T]srE. 

Mesolite, Heddle. A lime and soda Me- 
sotype ; occurs in long slender crystals, and 
massive. Colour dead-white or greyish. 
Lustre vitreous, never pearl v as in Mesole. 
Pyroelectric. H. 5 to 5-5. S.G. 2-25. 

Comp. (Na, Ca2) 3Si + 3A1, Si + 8H. 

Analysis, from Storr in Skye, by Heddle : 

Silica 46-72 

Alumina .... 26-70 

Lime 8-90 

Soda 5-40 

Water 12-93 

BB becomes opaque and curls up, and 
finally fuses to a porous and almost opaque 

Localities. — Scotch. Near Edinburgh. 
Near Kinross. Isle of Skye, at Talisker, 
Storr, Quirang andKilmore. — Irish. Giant's 
Causeway, in fine acicular crystals. Down 


Hill, Londonderry. — Foreign. Berufiord, 
Iceland, in diverging or interlacing cry'stals,